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University Degree: Ancient History
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They began to ease there way through the ME by setting up navy at all ports which meant that not only did it make things easier but also more secure. The Empire's activities were done under the eyes of the ME who had an unperturbed outlook on life and saw the British as merely businessmen and therefore were not concerned with their movements (Khan, 2007). The British Empire took advantage of this by setting up more companies across the sub continent, agreeing with ME that they would pay taxes on profits.
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Although paganism was widely spread during the ancient times, its practice and beliefs was not uniform throughout ancient history. Of course there were changes in paganism similar to Christianity when it was starting. However, the rise of Christianity brought about a big change in paganism. The paganism known and practiced before Christianity can be compared to the paganism that Emperor Julian tried to revive during his rule. Those differences and similarities will be discussed further in the subsequent pages. Pagan Practice before Constantine Since the start of history, paganism was the leading religion practiced by the majority of the ancient world.
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'The Persians in the East were overthrown by Odaenathus, who, having defended Syria and recovered Mesopotamia, penetrated into (enemy) territory as far as Ctesiphon.'4 He was rewarded for his success and was given 'the title of commander-in-chief (strategos) of the East by Gallienus.'5 Due to his success Odaenathus was able to extend his position and moulded himself in the style of the Persian rulers with the title of king of kings, 'He assumed, therefore, as the first of his line, the title of King.'6 Despite the battles Odaenathus won and the glories he obtained Odaenathus and his first born son were assassinated, 'about this time (i.e.
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HOW FAR DO THESE ROMAN WRITERS THINK THE JEWS WERE PROSELYTISING? WHY? HOW DO YOU JUDGE THEIR TESTIMONY?
An example of treatment that the Jews faced was documented in a fourth-century epitome by an early first century CE writer Valerius Maximus. It was Cn. Cornelius who ordered some astrologers to leave Rome and Italy, it was also this same praetor who 'compelled the Jews, who attempted to infect the Roman customs with the cult of Jupiter Sabazius to return to their homes,'2 this expulsion took place in 139BCE. This writer implies that the Jews were actively trying to convert Romans to Judaism and that is why they were expelled from the city.
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This helped to keep morale up on the frontline as they knew a strong and dedicated army was coming to reinforce them. Despite the success of this strategy and use of military manpower, civil war and internal rebellion soon caused the diversions of legions from the front lines to internal skirmishes; the perimeter defence was no longer effective. Roman emperors had to change the way in which they defended the Eastern Frontier if they were going to stop the Sasanian Persians and Parthians from taking their Provinces away one battle at a time.
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Economically, Marks defines the "Biological Old Regime" in two ways; as an agricultural world and as a trading world (Marks 2002: 21). He also draws attention to the feudal system of governing used during the Middle Ages by the elitist upper class. This system of governing consisted of lower class serfs working for and providing the upper class rulers and lords with a surplus of food in return for the protection provided by the lords and hierarchy. This system of governing was extremely class sensitive, and was reinforced by the agricultural revolution in which individuals, mostly the peasantry, learned how to grow their own food, and raise animals for food, creating an agricultural surplus.
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It is well known that the Japanese have been extraordinary for their promptness in learning from others. The arrival of Buddhism in Japan is ultimately a consequence of the first contacts between China and Central Asia which occurred with the opening of the Silk Road in the 2nd century. In the sixth century, the king of Packche, anxious to establish peaceful relations with Japan, sent gifts of images of the Buddha and copies of Buddhist texts to the Japanese imperial court.
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The Persian wars were a series of Persian attempts to expand westwards into Europe i.e. across the Aegean and into Greece. Having been refused vassalage by Athens and Sparta, the Persian King Darius launched an invasion in 490BC which was subsequently destroyed by the Athenian hoptilite victory at the battle of Marathon. Feeling vengeful, 10 years later, the new King of Persia, Xeres, launched a second invasion of mainland Greece which was finally defeated at the battle of Plataea (479BC)
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By these views it is fair to argue that Alexander's objectives were clearly intent on Hellenising the East. However, while there is no doubt that to some extent Asia was Hellenised, historians such as J.R Hamilton dismiss that Alexander "consciously aimed at promoting this"2. This is supported by Hammond who declares that "He (Alexander) saw the destiny of Macedonia as victory in war, and he made military glory the object of his ambitions"3. Therefore it is also fair to assess the view that the hellenisation process was an indirect result of Alexander's initial intention; glory. For the "personal glory" theory to be considered as Alexander's true aim there must firstly be plausible reasoning behind such analysis.
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A251 In no more than 500 words, write a short review of one of the websites that are listed on the course website for use in this TMA
There is also an e-mail address for Rennee Friedman at [email protected] although my e-mails are getting returned undelivered. We can assume that the text is reliable as it has been written by these recognised archaeologists however there is no citing in the text. There is a bibliography linked from the resources page and each page of information on the various excavations contains a couple of further readings although their relationship to the information on some of the pages is unclear.
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as well as 1000 craftsmen and metal workers this included all the best warriors" Set in the Babylonian and Persian Diasporas, the biblical books of Daniel, Esther and Nehemiah are exemplary tales of Jews rising to positions of power and influence at the Babylonian and Persian courts. The books present historical material which has been an active topic for debate amongst scholars; the historicity of these books being often assessed and reassessed by bible enthusiasts and historians alike. In this paper I would like move the focus away from historicity and instead look at what these books reveal about their target audience.
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May Ashur, who gave you [the scepter, lengthen your days and years! Spread the land wide at your feet2" In Assyrian stela the king often appears with symbols of the gods above him. Figures A and B are a typical depiction of the king that exists for many Assyrian kinds including Shalamenser and Ashurbanipal. The stelas depict the king facing the symbols of four gods3. In figure C , the Israelite King Jeho prostrates himself before the king Shalemenser III and delivers tribute, the symbols of the gods again appear at the top of the picture.
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Written in Babylonian, Elamite and Old Persian, the inscription at Behistun was meant to be widely seen and understood. Furthermore, it is unique in containing oldest example of Old Persian to be found and it has even been argued2 that this is the first official Old Persian document to be created. Whilst Old Persian was the oral language of choice for Persians, there was no written form of it, necessitating the use of Elamite for all official written documents. As no way of writing old Persian existed at the time it is now well established that the first inscription was in Elamite (Trumplemann1967).
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Any subject for every potential university student has its own history. Therein lies the proof of its importance to all for each university genre has a study of its own history. History is important for all university students, no matter what subject they are taking Or what their opinion about the study of it may be. We are living in a world where students too happily subscribe to the theory that the past has no relevance in the modern world of the IT age. Others are encouraged, however assiduously, by teachers who want them to enter the so called "hard" sciences .
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Herodotus' work is characterized by "ring composition," a return at the end of a section to a subject announced at the beginning. This was a common feature of epics at the time, and digressions were also not uncommon in epic narrative. There is also a sense of rhetorical development at many levels of the narrative. Herodotus' in his book The Histories presents "more than one story... about an event" with these stories "often differing because [they are] told by different groups in a conflict".
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Michael who wrote Dimensions of military History wrote "If there is a real Lycurgus, we know nothing of him". 2 The ancient historians such as Herodotus, Xenophon and Plutarch all talk about Lycurgus as if he were a real man and explore his existence using historiography and only stop short of stating that he was real yet Plutarch admits in his book Lives that "absolutely nothing can be said about him(Lycurgus) that is not controversial."3 Clearly there is great doubt and skepticism surrounding Lycurgus' existence. Herodotus was a classical historian and the first to write about Lycurgus in his book Histories.
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Homer was a prominent poet in ancient Greece in 5th century B.C. who not only wrote The Odyssey, but also The Iliad, the story of Troy; but not much else is known about him. In both his works The Iliad and The Odyssey the protagonists were men, but at the core of each poem were extraordinary women. Central to this essay is the role of Odysseus' wife, Penelope, who is important in reaffirming the differences in the role of women during the period in which this book was written.
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There are problems due to this such as Arrian's "whitewashing" of Alexander and the fact that their personal opinions very much shape their work. We must also consider the fact that these historians may have filled in the gaps were evidence has been lost. Both sources are however vital in the understanding of Alexander and his achievements. In 334 B.C., after securing his base in Greece Alexander began his conquest starting with the Persian Empire, which "was divided administratively in to twenty provinces known as satrapies, each governed by a satrap."
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Everything which I attempted I succeeded..." (Tyldesley 71) This is a prime example of how the rulers of the ancient world correlated their wars with their religion. These same ideas can also be seen throughout the bible as well. Psalm 20: 8-10 states "Some rely on chariots, others on horses, but we on the name of the Lord our God. They collapse and fall, But we stand strong and firm. Lord, grant victory to the king; Answer when we call upon you."
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Assess Agrippina the Youngers role as the mother of Nero referring to at least one modern and one ancient source.
Tacitus, author of the famous 'Annals' conversely reports Agrippina to be "...immoral, disreputable and violent". In examining the two disparate arguments presented by these and other historians we can refine our understanding of Agrippina and assess her duties as a parent. As Agrippina so flagrantly contravened the many paradigms which contained women to a select few stereotypes, it follows that she was widely criticised by the ancient sources. Tacitus declares she possessed "...a rigorous, almost masculine despotism". Such a slur was common- as Agrippina could not be quantified as a Roman female figure; parallels were instead drawn to a male one.
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The Sun Also Rises was published in 1926 and established Hemingway as one of the preeminent writers of his day. In this novel he writes about the lives of the members of the so-called Lost Generation, the group of men and women whose early adulthood was consumed by World War I. He also talks about these characters search for meaning in the wake of World War I and how it shattered many people's beliefs in the traditional values of love, faith, and manhood.
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What attitude towards the Roman games did the ancient writers express? How would you account for the differences and similarities between these attitudes?
order which was the sturdiest , next was the Ionic order which was slender and above that was the Corinthian , which was the most noticeably slender of all. The Articulation of the Colosseum added to its delight as hugely decorated walls seemed inviting, making it seem welcome and not so imposing but also added to the beauty of the building. The symmetry of the exterior with the use of columns and entablatures added to its appeal. The symbolic meaning of the Colosseum as a statement of imperial splendour was further enhanced by its size and it's location in the centre of the city, placing it literally and symbolically in the centre of Rome.
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The arrangement of the seating also played a major part in the symbolic aspect of the design by allocating seats to the spectators according to their social rank within the Roman society. To support the massive weight of the building and large crowds, different building materials were used. Deep foundations, thick walls and piers were arranged in a pattern which radiated out from the centre of the arena to add strength. Canopies which could be pulled out of each tier and water fountains, were also incorporated within the design. These were to provide the mass crowds with shade and refreshment.
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What are the reasons that provoked Chechnya to seek secession, while other areas remain relatively stable and within the existing constitutional order? What factors have prompted Chechnya to embark on a tragic and self-destructive path? The Chechens people are not the original people of the Caucasus region. Ethnic Chechens believe themselves to be an ancient tribal people of Turkic origin who have lived in the Caucasus Mountains of southern Russia for many centuries. The Turks first came from the wide plains of Central Asia. These nomadic horsemen migrated westwards, converting to Islam along the way, until they finally reached Anatolia.
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'SAUL'S ENTHRONEMENT: A POPULAR CHOICE, A PROPHETIC COUP, OR A PERSONALITY CULT?' Evaluate the evidence in 1 Samuel 8-12 in the light of current theories of state formation in Ancient Israel.
the Prophet Samuel reflect their negative opinion of the monarchy.4 Saul's enthronement according to the biblical texts could be interpreted in many differing ways. It was a popular choice in that the elders request Samuel for a king in both chapter 8 and 10.17-27, although this request in chapter 8 was not for any specific person. According to D. V. Edelman the peoples' request for a king was based on the realisation that Israel needed to move away from the insecure judgeship to a more permanent leadership represented by the dynastic monarchy.5 Certain physical chracteristic were often a requisite for
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