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University Degree: 1700-1799

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 3
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    What were the consequences of the agricultural revolution for the rural poor? And how did they respond?

    4 star(s)

    the parish, and the rights of use of those lands by private acts of Parliament was a serious blow to the rural poor who relied on the commons for a major part of their livelihood. The gathering of wood and kindling for fuel, the cutting of turfs and peat for the same purpose, along with the natural resources of vegetation and game, plus the grazing rights for what, if any, cattle they may have had were all taken away. It is important to point out that whatever the impact that enclosure had, it was mainly regional in effect, only around

    • Word count: 2175
  2. Marked by a teacher

    The Industrial Revolution.

    3 star(s)

    Consequently, our desires and necessities become increasingly cosmopolitan, so much so, that local industries are incapable of producing commodities at such high demand and are forced to stop trading and move to the more populous cities to find alternative work3. Even this early on in the revolution, the working class are forced by the emergence of industrial capitalism to relocate to the cities if they want to survive in this new world. That is not an act of democracy and freedom.

    • Word count: 1481
  3. British Economic History. Undoubtedly, taxes increased in Britain during the 18th century. The Restoration achieved after the Glorious Revolution, contributed to the change from tax farming to direct collection of taxes by government departments.

    In this context of increasing taxes for wars and for paying back loans, we must consider the source of these taxes in order to conclude if they affected industrialization. Sources of taxes First, it is significant to mention that in general, changes in taxation system that occurred between Restoration and French Revolution did not provoke major political reactions, apart from some, among privileged colonials of North America.2 This is quite a paradox but maybe derives from the fact that British people recognized that they should make some sacrifices in order to protect the empire from the French Revolution and limit the Dutch expansion policies.

    • Word count: 1432
  4. The Diary of Joseph Plumb Martin. Many historians regard the diary of Joseph Plumb Martin as one of the greatest primary sources of the American Revolutionary War.

    Change resulting from war can have a long and lasting impact on the world. In fact, the world we know today was shaped by the effects and changes resulting from a long history of wars. By analyzing and examining this history, man can truly appreciate the circumstances surrounding those important events that led to change while also learning lessons from the past experiences and mistakes of others. When studying such historical events, it is important to examine the individual accounts and experiences of those directly affected by the event.

    • Word count: 1285
  5. Honor determined ones place in society for 18th century Spaniards of New Mexico, and it had two parts to it, honor-status and honor-virtue. Slavery defined boundaries and gave meaning to this honor society;

    As Ramon Gutierrez describes it, slaves were seen as irrational people, or "People lacking reason," with satanic darkness in them, versus Spaniards were rational beings who were honorable, civilized, white, and mainly because they were Christians, or "people of reason."2 As conquerors, Spanish conquistadores were awarded title of nobility, special privileges, and most important of all, social-status which was defined by the concepts honor; once more, it meant that the person is privileged, comes from white legitimate and honorable background and that he is not a slave.3 Furthermore, honor was something only man can earn, win, or enhance; and it was only first generation of conquistadors that won their honor and privileges through their achievement.

    • Word count: 1037
  6. The role of religion in France in the years before the Terror

    The essay will then discuss the motives of the revolutionary government behind De-Christianization, with a focus on the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, using the Letter in order to display the show the reactions and consequences of the Civil Constitution. Finally, the essay will focus upon how religion in France changed into a militaristic and counterrevolutionary force. In order to do this the essay will consider all the aforementioned evidence, before summarising and concluding as to how the role of religion changed before Terror.

    • Word count: 2215
  7. Depictions of the Boston Massacre 1770. Though the newspaper article and the engraving had similar overall intentions in their construction, these two images of the Massacre differ in their relation of the actual course of events and in their visual impre

    The Boston Massacre was utilized by colonial Patriots and other radicals to fuel the flames of sedition in America against Great Britain and King George III. Several modes of communication, including both textual and visual representations, depicted the event under the influence of Patriotic biases. An article printed in the Boston Gazette, and Country Journal on March 12, 1770, relates a highly subjective version of the confrontation on March 5th, condemning the British soldiers involved. A subsequent engraving of the incident by Paul Revere, called "a Representation of the late horrid Massacre in King St.," was also used to paint the British soldiers in a negative light and encourage colonial dissention against Great Britain.

    • Word count: 2468
  8. To what extent did diplomacy effect the rise of the modern state from 1648-1815?

    After the devastating Thirty Years War nations were pressed for peace and out of this destruction came the Westphalia Treaties that not only concluded the war but ushered in a new period of diplomacy. This period of diplomacy is what is now known as the "classic" period of international diplomacy, and lasted until the Congress of Vienna as a result of the defeat and exile of Napoleon Bonaparte. Diplomacy grew from infancy into a key support for the modern state as we know it today.

    • Word count: 2397
  9. What divided Whigs and Tories in the reigns of William III and Queen Anne (1688-1714)?

    The Whigs accepted William, despite being Dutch, as the rightful King entitled to all the powers of a monarch (Speck, 1970)1. The Tories, however, were adamantly against this - the Tory party had, and still has, a very English influenced jurisdiction aimed to uphold traditions and be conservative in ruling the country; hence the name 'Tory'. A vast majority simply could not accept this new ruler purely for not being native to Britain. This xenophobic attitude, which is a recurring theme throughout Tory policy, created a dislike of William and his Hanoverian successor George I - although George was in

    • Word count: 2161
  10. Political and Historic Background to Declaration of Independance

    This necessity is granted thru rights that are known as inalienable rights. As true with any government, when people lack a voice in its direction and destiny, the ruling political unit is almost certainly to be viewed as totalitarian in nature. There are those that would argue that the overall good and "happiness" of the people is the primary goal and function of the government. This ethical dilemma is widely supported by the great philosopher Jeremy Bentham. Bentham believed that all authority given to the people comes from the government and that "inalienable rights" is simply nonsensical.

    • Word count: 1913
  11. The Heads of a Plan document is a key primary source in determining why Britain founded the NSW colony. What does this document tell us about the rationale to establish a European settlement in Australia?

    Some believe the reason indeed was to solve the problem of the overcrowded prisons in Britain which had been growing due to the loss of the American colony after War of Independence. Others, on the contrary, do not support the traditional argument but believe that there was more behind the decision to colonize such a baron, remote and greatly unknown land. The possible motives are either of commercial, strategic or military nature. This essay will focus in particular on the two dominant theories concerning the establishment of the colony as well as on the arguments for both of them, delivered through an analysis of the crucial document 'Heads of a Plan'.

    • Word count: 1917
  12. French Revolution

    According to Bonjour La France (1998), the burden of a heavy and unfair taxation relied on the lower class. The citizens in charge of collecting the taxes tended to overload the figures to their own benefit. Furthermore, the higher class, nobles and the clergy, were exempt from taxation, giving even more reasons for the people to revolt. The American Revolution itself also played a major role. Nosotro (2010) explains that the French, who had been enduring years of amiss government, started to embrace the revolutionary ideas of Enlightenment and Rousseau; and the subversive scenery in America provided them with a clear example of what a real and fair nation should be: a republic.

    • Word count: 2055
  13. The Industrial Revolution

    The negative aspect of the cottage industry was that it was time-consuming and ineffective. Therefore, there was a need to boost the production, thus a series of devices was developed for large-scale manufacturing. Notwithstanding the fact that the early inventions were machines to be used in the cloth industry, it would not take long to spread to the rest of the industries, ergo marking the start of the factory system. Moreover, the aforesaid population growth was another major cause of the Industrial Revolution.

    • Word count: 2328
  14. Eighteenth-century uprisings were in some important ways different than those of today different in themselves, but even more in the political context in which they occurred. Discuss.

    Conversely, in Virginia uprisings were more commonly extra-legal in nature. Maier stresses that mobs became increasingly violent post-independence,5 suggesting that they were less violent before and throughout the revolution. There is substance to this view; the Knowles rioters of 1747 refrained from burning a boat for fear that the fire would spread. This characteristic was also featured across the Atlantic; revisionist George Rud� highlights the Gordon Riots (1780) where care was taken by the rebels to avoid unnecessary damage.6 However, as previously mentioned, there was no template for rebellion; some go so far as to suggest that riots were rarely without bloodshed.7 This is further backed by Arthur M.

    • Word count: 1967
  15. Free essay

    Discuss the role of silver in linking the economies of Asia, the America's and Europe during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

    Spain in the sixteenth and seventeenth century encountered what has been referred to by historians as a 'Golden Age'. Spain's success in this period saw it build the foundations for an empire that in the coming century would develop to be arguably one of the greatest powers not just in Europe but in the world, having built up its empire in 'the Mediterranean, central and north western Europe, The western Atlantic and southern pacific'2.The historians Barbara and Stanley Stein argue Spains greatness in this period was largely due to Spain's reliance on the silver and gold pines in Peru.

    • Word count: 1704
  16. Were the American Revolution and subsequent constitution influenced more by Lockes idea of the social contract or by Montesquieus concept of checks and balances?

    The question at hand is to what extent or greater amount did John Locke's earlier writings of Social Contract Theory play an influential role here? Or was his work succeeded by the rivalling theories of Montesquieu's Checks and Balances? Which of these two theorists can be accredited with giving the modern world its first step towards democratic government, and the demise of absolutist tyrannical rule of a Monarch? From the outset the first response to answering such an argument would be to think of the American Revolution and political outcomes in terms of stages, in the early stages in which

    • Word count: 4134
  17. American Identity

    America is a Melting Pot founded by different people, from different nations, and from different cultures. As written by Crevecoeur, the different people, cultures, and nations are all qualities that distinguish an American from a European. They come from different backgrounds and bloodlines, and within a mixture of these cultures, the American was born.

    • Word count: 478
  18. Was a guilty social conscience the most important factor in the demise of British Bull-baiting?

    An article published in the Bury Post on the seventh of November, 1845 entitled 'Bull-baiting at Lavenham' takes a very subjective approach to bull-baiting, labelling it a 'brutal sport'2 and claims that the spectators 'delighted in the agonies of the noble animal'3. The article expresses the authors guilty social conscience as well as the negative opinions of local policemen and magistrates. Perhaps then, from this source it could be interpreted that the guilty social consciences only existed amongst the professional and upper classes of society.

    • Word count: 1558
  19. European Colonization in the New World

    The end result left thousands of serfs and prior renters without a job or a roof over their head. With the establishment of chartered companies and a new concept of economic life, known as mercantilism, there was great interest in products from distant lands, which was complimented by the advance in naval technology. These new advances allowed for the newly founded chartered companies to establish colonies allowing them to export products found in the New World preventing them from having to procure them from other nations. The merchant capitalists and a growing interest in quicker trade routes to the east, prompted Europeans to head in the direction of the New World.

    • Word count: 1287
  20. Free essay

    How did European Powers in America employ concepts of natural law to justify their actions?

    'Only Christian Europeans could offer the Indians a rationalised existence, which the Indians by the Law of Nations were obliged to accept.'4 The desire to civilise those who are seen as barbarous and savage, however, caused debates in the ethics and meanings of natural law. Juan Gin�s de Sep�lveda and Bartolem� de le Casas represented the different sides of the debate: de Sep�lveda claims the natural order of things in the Aristotelian idea of the great chain of being: the coloniser above the uncivilised colonised: It will always be just and in conformity with natural law that such people [the Indians] submit to the rule of more cultured and humane princes and nations.

    • Word count: 2650
  21. Why was there a terror in France?

    In addition, the war against the majority of Europe was going badly at the time- reinforcing their thesis. On the other hand, Revisionists such as Fran�ois Furet4 argue that the Terror springs directly from the revolutionary ideology itself. Revisionists, such as Lynn Hunt, argue that the language used in 1789 indicated that the 'Terror mentality' was there5. In addition, Furet points out from Maximillien Robespierre's speech to the Convention on the 5th of February 1794, that he argues that "virtue without terror is fatal" 6- it was necessary. It must be said that to reach a real explanation both theses have to be combined. The ideology was there, but the circumstances were needed for it to become evident.

    • Word count: 3023
  22. THe industrial revolution case study

    This system allowed people to work from home, where the family spent time in the cottage producing and part of it's time in the open fields farming. The traditional system of arable farming that had existed for centuries and during 1750 was the Open Field or Three Field System. The aim of this farming system was to grow enough food for everyone in the village and was largely communal. It was done on three fields which produced wheat for bread and barley for ale and the crops were rotated and land was rested to increase productivity.

    • Word count: 3567
  23. What was the extent of political participation in eighteenth-century England?

    electorate in the eighteenth-century vary considerably, with John Phillips claiming that 180,000 in the counties and 100,000 in the boroughs were eligible to vote,3 while Dickinson alleges that the total electorate rose to up to 340,000 by the end of the century.4 Dickinson claims that in the historiography of the period it has been too readily assumed that this electorate was controlled by their social superiors who instructed them how to vote. This, while in some cases true, has been exaggerated.

  24. Although the American Civil War started after the Confederate States seceded from the Union and fired upon the American flag, was slavery the true cause of the War? If so, how?

    For this reason, many historians use this to argue that the Civil War was irrepressible. Such a view on the origins of the Civil War may have been accepted by Abraham Lincoln, who said weeks before his death, that he believed 'somehow' that slavery was responsible for the start of the war.3 There is no denying the fact that the issue of slavery played a crucial role in the build up to the Civil War, how much responsibility it held however is a recurring argument amongst historians. Some suggest that the issue of slavery is the principal one lead Southerners to secede from the Union, others suggest that the divisions that already existed between the two sectors were too strong and that Civil War was an inevitable consequence.

    • Word count: 3733
  25. 1. How does Rousseau argue that obedience to the general will increases our moral liberty? Briefly discuss one reasonable objection to the claim that obeying the general will would increase our freedom.

    The concept of general will is at the centre of Rousseau's philosophy. 'Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains' (Rousseau: Cress (ed.) 1987, bk1, ch.1, p.141). He explains that when an individual decides to follow the general will, to abide by the laws established by the state, he is agreeing to act in accordance with the social contract and remain free and self-governing. In a society governed by the general will, cooperation for the good of the populace goes hand in hand with the freedom of each citizen. Rousseau envisaged society being united by the use of the general will.

    • Word count: 1214

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • What was the extent of political participation in eighteenth-century England?

    "We have seen, then, that the range of ways in which the people of eighteenth-century England could take an active role in politics, whether formal or informal, direct or indirect, or local or national, was significantly varied. Despite the fact that the right to direct electoral participation was restricted to male freeholders of above 40 shillings, the door to political participation was closed to no man or woman. Virtually all social strata could participate informally, through publishing or reading political ideas in print, using social contacts to secure patronage or airing their grievances in crowds on the street; that is, voting with their feet."

  • To what extent did the aims and ideals of the French Revolution affect the following century?

    "In conclusion, I would say that the French Revolution did have an impact on the following century as it allowed the Italian Unification to take place as well as the forces for change (liberalism and nationalism) to spread. But should be taken into account that it did not bring about the German unification or most of the 1848 revolutions as it was not needed for what they were trying to achieve. But, on the whole it did have a huge impact on the following century."

  • With reference to The Social Contract, discuss the ways in which Rousseau explores the notion of duty to the state.

    "He disliked conflicting views because of his conviction that there is only one general will, and that anyone who consults their reason in a clearheaded and rational manner will arrive at the same deduction of what is in the best interests of the state. Unfortunately, one of the flaws in Rousseau's argument is that it refutes the concept of people arriving at different conclusions because we are unique and complex individuals with diverse thought patterns and beliefs. Alice Buffini U738198X Page 1 of 2"

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