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University Degree: 1900-1919

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  1. The decade of the 1890s marked a distinct reorientation in the United States Government's outlook on the world. Discuss the major impulses and events that marked this turn toward 'American empire', and analyse the public debates that it engendered. Who we

    but events will annex them'1. So, in 1899, when the war in the Philippines was coming to a close, the Americans and the Filipinos had differing expectations. On one hand, the United States were eager to gain the territorial acquisition from Spain; this was due to the fact that European countries were striving for land in China and, thus, arose the need for an American gateway to the Far East. The Filipinos, on the other hand, hoped to use the Spanish-American War as a means of attaining independence, and felt betrayed when the Americans, contrary to their statements of having no interest in long-term territorial acquisitions, continued to occupy the islands.

    • Word count: 3376
  2. Germany has never been an immigration society. Discuss the history of foreign workers in modern Germany in light of this statement.

    However, from this theory evolved 'Social Darwinism' in which historian Peter Dicken's interpretation is that the "fittest' in terms of physical and mental prowess are most likely to survive and reproduce",2 in short, a notion in favour of a 'hierarchy' between races. This is relevant when discussing the history of foreign workers in modern Germany as it was this 'twisted' and somewhat 'scientific' form of Darwinism which became the foundation for Hitler's Nazi Germany, and inspiration for the Republikaner's policies in modern Germany.

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  3. Why was Arab Unity so difficult to achieve? There has always existed and inherent ideological weakness in the case for Arab unity.

    There has always existed and inherent ideological weakness in the case for Arab unity. At its commencement it was the extremism of the ottomans that led to Arab Christians on a search for alternative political principles. Thus it was born out of a minority view, in that Arabism appealed to them as a way to an equal coexistence with the Arab world's Muslim majority2. Furthermore it was a principle based on language; this was flawed as language is only a component of identity of civilisation.

    • Word count: 3037
  4. What generates nationalism and how important a factor is it in modern history

    political, cultural, and then social elite.'3 At this stage nation as a concept can be said was to a large extent very institutionalized and political. Nation and national spirit can be inherently psychological as depicted by definitions given by scholars of nation and nationalism, the idea of "national identity or ethnic identity" and "the otherness" are conspicuous in the creation of a nation and invoking national spirit. Ernest Renan is of the opinion that the creation of nations was the result of the disintegration of Charlemagne's empire, some of which, in certain era sought to impose hegemony over the others.4

    • Word count: 5081
  5. Factors provoking mobilization in Germany and Italy 1914-1920

    Those political and cultural developments argues Biddis further are influenced by European intellectualism 'the intimations of Enlightenment, including that rationalization processes which was central to Weber's characterization of Western development'.3 This argument holds strongly as the discourse of mass society and collective action cannot be separated from their ideologue, Karl Marx. Apart from ideological influences, there were also circumstances that shape and even provoke the emergence of collective action as a result of mass mobilization. These circumstances as far as mass mobilization in Germany and Italy are concerned, revolve around labor movements that are provoked by exploitation and deprivation by the bourgeoisie.

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  6. Historical Investigation Woodrow WIlson

    * Britain and France preferred to regularize and organize the old Congress System, instead of creating the League of Nations2 * President Wilson incorporates his 'Fourteen Points' into the League of Nations in 19193 * Basis of the League of Nations was the Covenant, which was also included in the Treaty of Versailles and other peace treaties4 * Woodrow Wilson put pressure on the creation of an extensive global organization which was to include all states, where everyone would have a voice5 (How did he do that?

    • Word count: 3033
  7. Origins of the First World War

    Even Marxists have weighed in on the issue of war guilt and have categorised the outbreak of war and the subsequent terror it unleashed on the world as a direct result of the failure of capitalist society and not a particular state.7 Following the Second World War, the issue of war guilt reared itself once again. It had become essential to reincorporate West Germany back into the Western capitalist family of nations and to achieve such a feat it was obligatory to emphasise a marked discontinuity in 20th century German history, distinguishing the difference between Germany's roles in the First

    • Word count: 13784
  8. To what extent was Britain in splendid isolation under Lord Salisbury 1885-1902?

    many had not been acted upon and were lost. Thus Britain can be said to be isolated due to the fact that she remained out of the major political alliances her European neighbours were so keen on. Historians have contrasting views on whether staying out of the two alliance systems actually made Britain totally isolated. Some historians like Andrew Roberts, refers to Goschen's speech at Lewes February 26th 1896 (for the full quote see appendix), in which Goschen defends Britain's foreign policy.

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  9. History 325 - Second Term Essay

    British rivals at sea were not interested in or able to maintain a large enough navy that could compete with the Royal Navy. During the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries rival countries such as Germany, and France saw continental armies as more important.3 This allowed Great Britain to maintain a navy vastly superior to the largest of her rivals without incurring huge debt or high taxes, but due to the Industrial Revolution, these conditions changed. The beginnings of the Naval Revolution can be traced back to 1850.

    • Word count: 3877
  10. Was the First World War Planned or the result of accident and miscalculation?

    The key point when describing German Foreign Policy before 1914 is of their willingness to risk war for their own gains in order to achieve world domination and the status of a major power. Michael Gordon argues that this war Germany risked did not, in their minds, involve Britain - their greatest rival; As far as German policy is concerned, its readiness to risk war for its own ends - either a local Balkan war fought by its ally in Vienna or a larger, continental-sized war in which it, France and Russia participated - now seems unshakably established.1 therefore it seems that by 1914, the Germans had already decided that some form of war would occur.

    • Word count: 3212
  11. Drawing upon one or more case studies, examine the role played by women during a violent conflict, and compare this with their role during the post-settlement peace building process.

    I also will be looking at whether women's liberation was advanced in any way as a direct result of the struggle and the part that women played in it. The war in Eritrea lasted for thirty years and was a liberation struggle against Ethiopia, who were seen as an occupying force - set up by Ethiopia's own ex-colonialists, through Haile Selassie, with the Soviet Union supporting the Ethiopia Derg in its fight after the overthrow of Haile Selassie in 1974.

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  12. European Diplomacy Leading to The Great War.

    World War I occurred in an age of empire. It did so because many people in Europe believed in empire - empire overseas and empire on the continent. Tsar Nicholas II of Russia had an empire that extended to Germany's border and included Turkic peoples. The Hapsburg monarch, Franz Joseph I (Francis-Joseph I), ruled over an empire called Austria-Hungary that had included Italians and continued to include Germans, Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Slovenes, Croats, some Poles, Ukrainians and Serbs. And Turkey had an empire (the Ottoman Empire)

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  13. Impact of Suez On U.K. Foreign Policy.

    For an Egyptian ex-colonel to twist the lion's tail, and get away with it, was a blatant and lasting blow to national self-esteem and international prestige. Nasser4's successful defiance made him into Third World hero, encouraging anti-colonial nationalists elsewhere. American and Russian influence increased in the Middle East and no British leader ever made the mistake of trying to defy the USA on a major issue. Quite obviously, the aftermath of the war saw a developing rift in Anglo-American relations, partly due to America's un-involvement in the war and for Eisenhower's lack of support for Eden to restore his power

    • Word count: 3023
  14. The Indians of Southern California in 1852; The B.D. Wilson report.A Critical Commentary:

    He quickly made a name for himself among Californians, and soon became known as "Don Benito." He was appointed mayor of Los Angeles in 1851 and shortly after was made sub-agent of Indian affairs for Southern California. After marrying Dona Ramona Yorba he became a rancher, enjoyed great fame as a bear hunter and "showed a special flair for dealing with the Indians"2 according to John Walton Caughey. Many around him admired Wilson and Judge Benjamin Hayes, a close acquaintance of his, describes his understanding of Wilson's demeanour in this extract: "Mr Wilson is a gentleman in every sense of the word....

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  15. To what extent did Wilson's achievements as PM outweigh his failures between 1963 and 1976?

    On the other hand, the following source implies the 1970 defeat was the product of the public's expectations being too high, "never able to repeat the success of its 1945 victory"4 due to the huge social and political achievements of Atlee's administration. Even Wilson's major achievement of four election victories is unfavourably compared to Tony Blair's current government, "the victories in 1964 and 1966 do not bear comparison"5. Furthermore, the following source suggests his election victories in the 1974 were not due to his political abilities, "1974 Labour gained power due to Liberal party drawing support from the Conservatives in the election"6.

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  16. Why was there a 'scramble for Africa' in the late 19th century?

    It can be seen therefore, that the 'scramble for Africa' came as a result of European countries competing for 'potentially rich markets'4 in an attempt to restore their economies. Another economic explanation for the 'scramble' is that Africa had the potential to provide Europe with cheap raw materials that could be used in production, such as palm oil or cotton. Pressure came from businesses such as the German Colonial Association for colonisation in Africa. They believed it would provide a source of cheap labour, which combined with cheaper raw materials and an increased market would generate better profits and help the economy.

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  17. WW1 Research Paper - The Actual Impact of Chemical Warfare in World War I

    Finally, the paper will discuss the overall impact chemical warfare actually had on World War I and show that although it led to some success for both sides, it did not dictate who won the war. World War I featured trench warfare, where soldiers lived in deep trenches and underground bunkers. Both sides would occupy these trenches for the purpose of holding a defensive position. These battles often ended in stalemates, which encouraged the introduction of a new style of fighting to counter it that included the use of chemical weapons.

    • Word count: 3493
  18. Sir Arthur William Currie - this paper will attempt to prove that Sir Arthur Currie's successful involvement in the battle of Vimy Ridge served as a lynchpin to advancing his career to its highest point, and providing Canada a symbol that represents it on the international scene.

    He was a Lieutenant-General of the Canadian army, the first Canadian to have become a general. Currie was chosen because of his influential presence and insight in the Great War. Considering the research conducted in order to find suitable candidates for discussion, he was the one individual who stood out from the rest of the available persons. Sir Arthur Currie's story inspires individuals to achieve great things and surpass one's self at all times. Hence, through his story, Canada's story has also written itself for the better, despite his ups and downs. But this will be discussed below.

    • Word count: 3786

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • 'The drive for overseas empire by the European Great Powers between 1890 and 1914 was a means of consolidating conservative rule at home.' Discuss with reference to one or more powers.

    "In conclusion it can be seen that there is both a case for and against the argument that Germany's drive for an overseas empire was merely a means to consolidate conservatism domestically. It is true war was the only way to preserve the status quo at home with hope that glory would sway people's opinion back to conservatism. But Germany's armaments policy inclines towards the fact that Germany were always edging towards war from the period of 1890 to 1914. Therefore it can be concluded that Germany did not set about its foreign policy due to issues at home but merely that domestic tensions set the time at which war was to take place. By 1914 pressure in Germany was to such an extent a victorious war was the only outlet. Therefore the drive for overseas empire was just a result of domestic strain but more importantly set up the time frame for it to be carried out."

  • To what extent can Kaiser Wilhelm's reign 1880-1914 be characterised as 'personal rule'?

    "In conclusion, Wilhelm may have appeared and behaved as an omnipotent autocrat, but his claim that "there is only one ruler in the Reich and I am he" was seriously weakened by many factors; the support of his chancellors and advisors appeared to be predominantly superficial and only for personal gain, the Kaiser's limited knowledge of German politics was an obvious weakness along with his general attitude of detachment when it came to domestic and foreign policy; he was more interested in pleasure-seeking then strengthening his position as Kaiser, and as a result it is not possible to characterise his reign as complete 'personal rule'."

  • Made in St Petersburg. Discuss this assessment of the outbreak of general European war in 1914.

    "In conclusion, the German responsibility for the general outbreak of war in 1914 is greater than that of the other European countries. The idea of a world dominated by Germany was deeply ingrained in the minds of the German Government and population and it was this that set Germany on the war path. Despite the fact that Russia and Austria-Hungary performed the initial steps that led to the direct outbreak of war, there is no question that Germany was behind them and had been preparing for war prior to 1914. 'Made in St Petersburg' is therefore a statement that is too focused in laying the blame on an individual country. Although Germany's responsibility was greater than those of the other European powers, without their interference, the different foreign policies and their political and domestic disputes the war could not have occurred in 1914. Collectively, all the European powers hold partial responsibility for the events surrounding 1914. Without the involvement of all the European powers, the war in question may not have occurred."

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