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University Degree: 1900-1919

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    Account for the attractiveness of eugenics amongst left-wing social reformers

    4 star(s)

    One can see how these views could be shared by sections of both the left and the right. Spektorowski and Mizrachi point out that "observers seldom note the potential alliance between the revolutionary, moralist and technocratic currents of socialism, and conservative nationalism"4 Both of these opposing political positions could include the belief in the strong state and government intervention necessary for the advocacy of eugenic social policy which would concern itself with the most intimate aspect of people's lives - reproduction. In fact, it was because of these ideas that certain sections of the conservative right, who were also sceptical of science, opposed eugenics as much as the 'old-style' non-interventionist Liberals on the left.

    • Word count: 2910

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • 'The drive for overseas empire by the European Great Powers between 1890 and 1914 was a means of consolidating conservative rule at home.' Discuss with reference to one or more powers.

    "In conclusion it can be seen that there is both a case for and against the argument that Germany's drive for an overseas empire was merely a means to consolidate conservatism domestically. It is true war was the only way to preserve the status quo at home with hope that glory would sway people's opinion back to conservatism. But Germany's armaments policy inclines towards the fact that Germany were always edging towards war from the period of 1890 to 1914. Therefore it can be concluded that Germany did not set about its foreign policy due to issues at home but merely that domestic tensions set the time at which war was to take place. By 1914 pressure in Germany was to such an extent a victorious war was the only outlet. Therefore the drive for overseas empire was just a result of domestic strain but more importantly set up the time frame for it to be carried out."

  • To what extent can Kaiser Wilhelm's reign 1880-1914 be characterised as 'personal rule'?

    "In conclusion, Wilhelm may have appeared and behaved as an omnipotent autocrat, but his claim that "there is only one ruler in the Reich and I am he" was seriously weakened by many factors; the support of his chancellors and advisors appeared to be predominantly superficial and only for personal gain, the Kaiser's limited knowledge of German politics was an obvious weakness along with his general attitude of detachment when it came to domestic and foreign policy; he was more interested in pleasure-seeking then strengthening his position as Kaiser, and as a result it is not possible to characterise his reign as complete 'personal rule'."

  • Made in St Petersburg. Discuss this assessment of the outbreak of general European war in 1914.

    "In conclusion, the German responsibility for the general outbreak of war in 1914 is greater than that of the other European countries. The idea of a world dominated by Germany was deeply ingrained in the minds of the German Government and population and it was this that set Germany on the war path. Despite the fact that Russia and Austria-Hungary performed the initial steps that led to the direct outbreak of war, there is no question that Germany was behind them and had been preparing for war prior to 1914. 'Made in St Petersburg' is therefore a statement that is too focused in laying the blame on an individual country. Although Germany's responsibility was greater than those of the other European powers, without their interference, the different foreign policies and their political and domestic disputes the war could not have occurred in 1914. Collectively, all the European powers hold partial responsibility for the events surrounding 1914. Without the involvement of all the European powers, the war in question may not have occurred."

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