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University Degree: 1900-1919
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The Importance of a Role Model - In The Radetzky March, Joseph Roth addresses the faults of the Austrian military society.
Roth shows this blindness through Trotta's perception of a "new fatherly solitude and benevolence" (192) in the Kaiser's gaze. In selecting his grandfather, Carl Joseph fails to realize that his grandfather is merely a memory of heroic, yet exaggerated stories. His grandfather's "unfathomable physiognomy" and "remote look" in the portrait leaves him no wisdom for they are merely "dabs and brushstrokes" (33). With only an increasingly "otherworldly" (33) portrait, Carl Joseph lacks vivid, concrete examples of his grandfather's heroic deeds to imitate and learn from.
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However, as the world plunged toward another Dark Age, Britain was also faced with many challenges and rivals. All of a sudden other empires and alliances challenged Great Britain's industrial and naval supremacy. The alliance of Germany, Austria, Hungary and Italy was balanced by the understanding that existed between the might of France and Russia. All of a sudden the British Empire faced with a growth of colonial and imperial disputes. Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany and his Weltpolitik was also another major concern. Suddenly it was clear that while Britain stood alone in that which was called isolation, other great powers were exchanging favour for favour and promise for promise, resulting in heavy alliances between dominant European empires.
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The need for colonies is reiterated by Friedrich Fabri in his writing "Bedarf Deutschland der Kolonien?1" "We are convinced beyond doubt that the colonial question has become a matter of life-or death for the development of Germany. Colonies will have a salutary effect on our economic situation as well as our entire national progress." The German's began to take control of numerous areas in Africa and the Far East. These areas consisted of German East Africa (Tanganyika), the Kameroons (Cameroon)
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This meant that Kaiser asserted himself in three ways the navy, empire and economy. He believed that the only way to achieve "a place in the sun" was to build a navy and establish colonies like Britain. With the interest of other nations to hold overseas colonies, Britain's empire was under attack. This German commercial rivalry with Britain greatened German desire to take control over the rule of the waves. Desperate to become leading power, German businessmen ventured into the construction of a railway running from Berlin to Baghdad.
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Wilhelm's desire to establish this policy of 'personal rule' was made possible by his monopolistic control over appointments to the Imperial government, Chancellors for example. The initial years of Wilhelm's rule did not display factors supporting the Kaiser's policy of 'personal rule'. The chancellor, General Leo von Caprivi proved to be more astute and independent-minded than the Kaiser had bargained for; he was able to introduce a line of 'social measures' in 1891, this undermined Wilhelm's idea of 'personal rule' due to the certain degree of lost control over domestic policies the Kaiser experienced.
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* Hitler reduced women's social activity to a purely reproductive purpose. It was their duty to assure the future of the German race. * Their lives were controlled as housewives and mothers. Women were told how to act, who to web, what to do and how their physical appearance should be. * In Nazi Germany, it was not considered a social problem if an unmarried woman had a child. In fact, it was encouraged. The Nazis established Lebensborns, which were buildings where selected unmarried women could go to get pregnant by a "racially pure" SS man.
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The “Big Three” Did Not Get the Treaty They Wanted Because, “the Leaders Were Too Different- They Couldn’T Have Got All They Wanted and Someone Was Bound To Be Disappointed.
He believed that nations should co-operate to achieve world peace. He also proposed the setting up of the "League Of Nations." Other evidence is that Clemenceau partially clashed with Lloyd George over Lloyd George's desire not to treat Germany to harshly. For example: Clemenceau said, "if the British are so anxious to appease Germany they should look overseas and make colonial, naval or commercial concessions." Wilson and Lloyd George did not agree because Lloyd George was partially unhappy about point number two of the fourteen points.
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In November of 1918 an armistice was declared in Europe. Wilson was more of an idealist than a war villain, and viewed this event as an opportunity for international peace. He did not believe that the war should end in a new balance of power, but rather in an organized common peace. In other words, he wanted "peace without victory"(Knock, 2000). His biggest step towards this ultimate goal was the Treaty of Versailles containing fourteen points, of which the fourteenth consisted of a League of Nations to settle international disputes.
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Indeed, Briggs makes reference to Bagehot's view that "modern society had moved...into the 'age of discussion'" (p.273, History of England) It is reasonable to take World War I to mean the period August 1914 - November 1918 for the purposes of the essay, in my opinion. Therefore, what needs to be defined, before an effective answer can be constructed, is what is the phrase "social classes" and what it encompasses. Any answer must also involve comparison between pre and post war society in order to demonstrate what changes were brought about, if any.
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Finally, the paper will discuss the overall impact chemical warfare actually had on World War I and show that although it led to some success for both sides, it did not dictate who won the war. World War I featured trench warfare, where soldiers lived in deep trenches and underground bunkers. Both sides would occupy these trenches for the purpose of holding a defensive position. These battles often ended in stalemates, which encouraged the introduction of a new style of fighting to counter it that included the use of chemical weapons.
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Sir Arthur William Currie - this paper will attempt to prove that Sir Arthur Currie's successful involvement in the battle of Vimy Ridge served as a lynchpin to advancing his career to its highest point, and providing Canada a symbol that represents it on the international scene.
He was a Lieutenant-General of the Canadian army, the first Canadian to have become a general. Currie was chosen because of his influential presence and insight in the Great War. Considering the research conducted in order to find suitable candidates for discussion, he was the one individual who stood out from the rest of the available persons. Sir Arthur Currie's story inspires individuals to achieve great things and surpass one's self at all times. Hence, through his story, Canada's story has also written itself for the better, despite his ups and downs. But this will be discussed below.
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The purpose of this essay is to analyze the causes of the Bolshevik Revolution in October 1917 using academic sources
Vladimir Lenin, the leader of the Bolshevik party during the revolution and possibly the most prominent communist visionaries of the 20th century, had gained support for his ideology through World War I. In 1916, Lenin wrote Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism, which was a theoretical work outlining capitalism as a world system. Lenin suggested that in order to pursue a greater profit than what domestic resources permit, a global financial system would be created by capitalist nations. This would cause the division of labour to spread internationally through imperialism and colonialism, as Lenin wrote, ?Imperialism emerged as the development and direct continuation of the fundamental characteristics of capitalism in general?.
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Pierre Abelard identified this with his Sic et Non. Richard Evans also provides an insight into this approach, stating ?Documents are written from somebody?s point of view, with a specific purpose and audience in mind, and unless we can find all that out, we may be misled?. The lack of this skill can have a profound impact on society, drawing upon examples of government propaganda; not least in Nazi Germany inciting racial hatred for the Jews. If the German population were to have reviewed more critically the information they were furnished with, and encouraged to question everything being proposed to them, would Hitler have gained such an avid following?
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She was a mother, a wife, and a source of morality uncorrupted by the urban city and limited to the private sphere of the home. Nead describes female respectability as ?exclusively defined in terms of its identification with the private domestic sphere.? This woman does not have a very developed sense of her own self identity outside of these roles. I could compare it to some people today who spent most their lives identifying themselves by the same sort of roles as wife, mother, caretaker, etc.
- Word count: 895