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University Degree: 1920-1949

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  1. The Vision of Franklin Roosevelt

    President Roosevelt, with the help of government aid, bailed out the majority of American banks using government funds. He also placed new policies for banks in the way which they could be operated. Many banks adopted the policy of FDIC, which insured bank investments up to a certain amount of money. Because of this, investors became more confident in putting their savings in the hands of federally assisted banks. Also, as people began to invest in banks, banks were able to give out loans. These consisted of loans for farm mortgages, home mortgages, railroad and home insurance and loans for home owners as a whole.

    • Word count: 957
  2. Why did it Take so Much Longer for Women to Get The Vote

    Then an organisation of women formed to protest for woman to have the right to vote in the parliament elections, along with men. However, this group of women were unlike all the other women, this group were prepared to use violence. They named them selves the suffragettes, from the word suffrage, which means that all adults were able to vote in the parliament elections. Numerous members of The Suffragettes got themselves arrested on purpose. The Suffragettes were treated badly in prison therefore one prisoner called Marjorie Wallace Dunlop protested by going on a hunger strike.

    • Word count: 707
  3. How successful was n**i Policy towards Children and Youth

    There was less academic study and more vigorous exercise. Obviously, this appealed to almost every child in n**i Germany. Smart uniforms were issued to the Hitler Youth and the BDM. This gave the children a sense of responsibility and gave them a role within the Volksgemeinschaft. The establishment of the Volksgemeinschaft taught children that the welfare and society of the state was more important than social well - being and family. This n**i policy successfully indoctrinated the youth into that Hitler and Germany was the most important thing in Germany. This made them more committed to the Hitler associated organisations.

    • Word count: 792
  4. How important were party leaders, Clement Attlee and Winston Churchill in determining the result of the 1945 General Election?

    It was not the new left-ward inclination that sent the ballots innately towards Labour, but instead Labour s ability to represent this radical shift in public opinion and its demands for domestic reform better than the Conservatives. Therefore, the assertion of this essay is that the electoral campaigns of Churchill and Attlee, disastrous and fruitful respectfully, were of secondary importance in determining the result of the 1945 election. Churchill s campaign tactics were poor. He was seen by contemporaries as having descended to the bottom of the political barrel through his use of slander, while at the same time he

  5. Why did the Western Allies fail in the Gallipoli campaign?

    However, no matter how well this campaign was arranged, this attempt became known as one of the greatest failures in history and affected an estimate of 767,000 soldiers. In this essay, the topics I will consider are the aspects of the Gallipoli battle which went wrong, and show the conditions of the armies. I will also show the failure of this campaign was beneficial to the Turks, concluding with the reflection of the reason the Gallipoli campaign failed. One of the factors that can be considered as a lack of preparation could be how the British and French forces did not regard precautions.

    • Word count: 817
  6. Gustav Stresseman

    The short period of 103 days that Stresseman had incharge of his native Germany were memorable ones for his citizens, as he achieved some great things for them. He successfully managed to do what many other German chancellor's had done such as stopping hyperinflation and stabilising the German currency. The rentenmark was the new currency introduced by Stresseman, in order to help stop inflation (in the short run.) The Dawes Plan, along with the Young Plan were examples of this great statesman's work, as he battled hard to reduce the reparation repayments to slightly more realistic amounts for Germany.

    • Word count: 643
  7. Which of the following did most to undermine peace in the 1930s?

    The Abyssinian crisis was a blow to the good work of the League of Nations. Abyssinia, an Independent member of the League was taken over by Italy (a council member), and although the League tried to take action against Italy, the economic sanctions that were imposed on it were ineffective. Britain and France were also unable to prevent the conflict and it was clear (through the h***e-Laval Pact) that they were more interested in having Mussolini as an ally against Hitler. This damaged the reputation of the League and led to its rapid demise. However, Mussolini was annoyed by the sanctions and increasingly looked at Hitler for support.

    • Word count: 664
  8. Assessing the German Threat - First Hand Accounts.

    The Soviet expansion of Communism seemed of higher significance to Churchill The German Economy The State of a nation's economy, can often be a fundamental factor in the route to aggressive military action. A strong economy, providing the country with a prosperous industry, would be a strong foundation, for the construction of a vast military force. Yet economic stability usually co-insides with political stability, thus having a non-threatening society, where most of the population are happy to wallow in wealth that their nation provides, rather than looking to go to war, in order to improve a nations standard of living.

    • Word count: 908
  9. Struggles Between Elite Powers and Those Countries Without Below Them.

    The Soviets also felt that the countries from the West wanted to destroy their state that they had created. 1 It was said that the US only followed the advice from Ambassador Harriman who said the administration should only supply help to the Soviets only if they "played the international gave with us in accordance with our standards." 2 Another struggle between the Elite powers and the non-elites was between the US and Japan. The decrees that were placed on Japan from the US resulted in five major changes for the country.

    • Word count: 918
  10. Great Apes on the brink of extinction.

    "$25 million is the bare minimum we need," stressed Klaus Toepfer, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Executive Director. "The clock is standing at one minute to midnight for the great apes. They share more than 96 percent of their DNA with humans; if we lose any of the great ape species, we would be destroying a bridge to our own origins and with it a part of our humanity." The UN first became concerned about the diminishing number of apes in 2001 and founded GRASP to raise awareness and attempt to impede the growing problem.

    • Word count: 519
  11. History of Canada.

    Not surprisingly, Britain and France soon became rivals, especially over the control of the fur trade with the Indians. After years of fighting, France was forced to cede all its territory to Britain in 1763 as a result of the English victory over Napoleon. Infact the treaty of Paris of that year, issued by the Pope and signed between France, Britain and Spain, established that all the territories west of Mississippi should have gone to Spain and all the territories east to Great Britain. French settlers remained only in the area of Quebec.

    • Word count: 568
  12. Why, how & with what results did USA establish a "sphere of influence" in Europe after 1945?

    Moreover, the defeat of Germany and the exhaustion of France and Great Britain in World War II created a power vacuum that was filled by the Red Army. America's response was the 'Declaration on Liberated Europe' which did not promise a buffer zone because it allowed liberated countries to have free elections. If people elected parties which were unfriendly to the Soviet Union and its interests, it would be a hazard to Soviet Union's main security goals. Thus, the United States used verbal refusal to the Sovietization of Eastern Europe without having the means to actually oppose it and the Soviet Union according to the orthodox aview, began their three stage pattern of conquest (coalition, persecution/elimination, single party state).

    • Word count: 900
  13. The Levels of Individual Guilt.

    The opinions of getting labeled a 'good' German were thus based in which sector you lived. Jake Geismar, the narrator and protagonist of the novel, has a clear definition of what a 'good' German is, "Not a n**i", however he does not realize that many Germans and non-Germans alike were forced to join the n**i party to continue their jobs and live as they once used to do. Emil Brandt, a mathematician, worked for the SS in Nordhausen and informs Jake he and his group have "survived them". Jake however forces Emil to decide for himself to take the blame not only for the events in Nordhausen but also for participating in such horrific activities as making destructive weapons and conducting inhumane activities.

    • Word count: 926
  14. Historical Background of the Holocaust

    This is held by destroying the basis of their lives (Fein 1993). United Nations Global Compact (UNGC) definition of genocide is, the "mass killings of political groups, which have their causes, organizations and motives in common. Sometimes this type of genocide is also regarded as 'genocidal massacres', 'ideological massacres' or 'politicides'" (Fein 1993: 12). There is another kind of mass killing without the means of physical annihilation, but through the destruction of national institutions of the aimed nation, says, their culture and group organizations.

    • Word count: 983
  15. Explain the status and position of the European Jews at the end of the19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Refer to Russia, Germany and France.

    The Tsars made life extremely difficult and restrictive for the Jews. Laws were passed restricting them of their freedom, for instance, the use of their own tradition was not allowed. Because the Jews were blamed for the crucifixion of Christ, during the Easter of 1881 when Passover was also celebrated, mass organise attacks called pogroms occurred throughout Russia and the authorities took no action. These pogroms were often encouraged by the Tsars. The May Laws of 1882 meant that only a certain number of Jews could have education in schools, only certain jobs would be available to Jews and they had to move into the towns.

    • Word count: 873
  16. The Holocaust

    Unlike the Nazis though, the Egyptians didn't single out the Jews from all other groups but treated them all as defeated enemies. In the 8th Century BCE, Babylonian Jews were exiled from Babylon when their land was taken over. Again they were treated as a defeated enemy and not targeted because of their ethnic group. In the 2nd Century BCE, Jews were made to conform to Grecian ideals as the Greeks forced their culture and practises on the Jews. They even had the temple in Jerusalem dedicated to Zeus.

    • Word count: 557
  17. Kilroy Was Here

    For quite some time Hitler kept testing European countries to see how much and how far he could go before starting a war. At this time America stood by silent because we had vowed not to join in on another European war. On December 7th, 1941 everything changed because Peal harbor was attacked by the forces of the Empire of Japan. Now at this time America became part of the War in Europe. Now any one can imagine how uptight Americans became all of a sudden because we had just been attacked on our own territory.

    • Word count: 884
  18. Why was it important that the Gallipoli campaign should succeed?

    Without the Russians fighting in the east the allies would face a greater chance of lose in the west as all of the central powers forces could be directed in the west, which would put even more pressure on the slowly diminishing allied forces. The allies hoped that with success in Gallipoli would open up an all year round much need shipping route to Russia as the only other route was in the north and would freeze for much of the winter and cut off Russia from supplies.

    • Word count: 737
  19. Explain the status and position of European Jews at the end of the Nineteenth and beginning of the Twentieth Centuries.

    A Rabbi at the time was pleased to state, "Fortunately in France today everyone is considered French". Although Jews were assimilated and emancipated in France by the late 19th century the Alfred Dreyfus case proved that the French assimilation of Jews was only skin deep. People still had underlying suspicions about the Jews. The Dreyfus case increased tension in France because of people's suspicious attitudes. French attitudes towards Jews soon became divided; the government, army and conservative anti- semites opposed those believing in liberty, equality and fraternity.

    • Word count: 995
  20. How did Hitler rise to power?

    Again, Hitler was able to exploit weaknesses of the Weimar republic and use to his own benefit. For examples when the stock market crashed in 1929 many German people were desperate for a way out, although extreme, the Nazis offered this. Between 1928 and 1932 the n**i party saw a significant rise in support and their seat in the Reichstag rose from a mere 12 to 230 during this time. It now looked promising for the Nazis. Hitler was also supported by a number of wealthy businessmen who were prepared to make donations to help fund the n**i cause, this helped Hitler with his election campaigns and also fund his propaganda.

    • Word count: 646
  21. "Ludendorff gambled on a quick victory but his offensive stood little chance of success" Do you agree or disagree?

    The allies were caught off guard by this attack and they were soon on the retreat. . This offensive became a massive problem for the allies, they were unable to hold the line and were being forced back great distances. The allies came to the conclusion that to be able to better resist the Germans better they would have to act as one unit rather than separate ones.

    • Word count: 524
  22. How Jews Commemorate the Holocaust.

    In the Knesset (like a Jewish parliament), the names of the victims of the Holocaust are read out and 6 torches are lit to remember the 6 million Jews who were killed. Also, the flags are mounted at half-cast to pay respect to the dead. During the day, many of the survivors of the Holocaust give speeches in schools, or on TV, etc. about what happened - this gives people a first-hand account of the horrors which must not be allowed to happen again.

    • Word count: 607
  23. Jonnie Said That the Holocaust Did Not Happen. I an going to prove him wrong.

    With the evidence that has been presented to me, I truly disagree with those deniers. There are many facts supporting the truth that the Holocaust happened, and a result of it caused pain and suffering to the Jews. But with all the evidence given to me, I didn't find any information to make me think otherwise. Films, photographs, and diaries, all gave the proof of the Holocaust. One film, made by Sydney Bernstein and Alfred Hitchcock, delivered the agonizing aftermath of the Holocaust; he named it 'The Painful Reminder'.

    • Word count: 854
  24. Explain the ways in which the British forces prepared for D-Day.

    This plan was agreed in August 1943 in a conference at Quebec. Cossac was lieutenant General Sir Frederick Morgan and his team, the nuts and bolts behind the D-Day operation. They appointed SHAEF which stood for the Supreme H.Q. Allied Expeditionary Force which was headed by Eisenhower. One main operation which would prepare the allies for D-Day was that of Dieppe which caused many problems. It was the first time an attempt was made to land tanks to support an infantry assault during the war.

    • Word count: 808

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • By the end of the Potsdam Conference any hopes of a post-war alliance between the allies had disappeared. To what extent do you agree with this statement?

    "So in conclusion I wouldn't completely agree with the statement above because if they were able to form an alliance before the conference and were able to defeat Germany as I team, I think that if they had time to sort out their differences then they would have been able to form a strong post-war alliance. But I also believe that if they didn't trust each other from the beginning then they would have to work at it, because without trust they wouldn't be able to help one anther, and even when they were allies before the Potsdam conference they still didn't trust each other 100% that is why Britain was willing to go behind each others back and was willing to form an alliance with Russia if they had the chance. So I agree to a certain extent that after the conference hopes of a post-war alliance had disappeared, but I think if they started from scratch and gave each other a chance then they would have been able to form a good alliance, that could have taken control over countries in the East like the Russians did."

  • To what extent was Stalin's foreign policy after 1945 aimed at the expansion of the communist system.

    "In conclusion there is much disagreement and contradiction in relation to Stalin's Soviet foreign policy after 1945 particularly between traditionalist and revisionist theorists. Traditionalists argued that Stalin's policies were predominantly motivated by communist expansionism and although particular documents tended to prove this, there is also great evidence that much of his foreign policy was actually grounded on security interests and fears. When discussing particular events in history it is difficult to obtain a completely unbiased view and although some arguments may offer more substantial evidence it is difficult to disregard all other factors which may have also been present. 1"

  • The Soviet Union claimed to have made women equal to men. To what extent did it really succeed in doing so?

    "In conclusion, I believe the Soviet Union did not make women equal to men to a great extent, and that women had an unsteady role within society, sometimes being workers, sometimes mothers and sometimes even fighters, whilst men merely provided practical labour. Women still had to deal with family and domestic duties whilst working, and often large families which would have been hard to look after were promoted. The Soviet Union portrayed itself as a gender-equal, but I feel that for the reasons outlined above, it still had an awful lot to do before this ideal would actually have been realised."

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