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University Degree: 1920-1949

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  1. What was the Appeal of the Nazis?

    He promised to leave the Catholic church in Germany unharmed if the Catholics abstained from political activity outside the NSDAP. The Vatican agreed, and Hitler's guarantee (which, of course, was merely tactical) reconciled many German Catholics with the regime. The fact that Hitler was willing to negotiate with Vatican is evidence that he tried to maintain order in Germany. By offering something to everyone and by appealing to everyone with something of interest, Hitler could win people over in support of his party.

    • Word count: 1042
  2. Account for the failure of appeasement to prevent the outbreak of a second European war in 1939

    With the Treaty of Versailles leaving a massive scar on Germany it is possible that Hitler wanted to get revenge, if not a little more than payback. Hitler envisioned a union of all German-speaking peoples across Europe; he aimed to create a "Greater Germany" made up of 100 million Germans. "We National Socialists must hold unflinchingly to our aim in foreign policy, namely, to secure for the German people the land and soil to which they are entitled on this earth"1 his foreign policy was very aggressive, especially with the treaty of Versailles' restrictions on German land and army.

    • Word count: 1531
  3. The r**e of Nanking and its effects on Sino-Japanese relations.

    By November, the majority of people, Chinese as well as foreigners, had already left the city. The Fear of the Chinese people increased due to various things: the government was moved to Chongqing2, the rumours about the Japanese cruelty the people heard of, the intimidating propaganda from the Japanese military and the large number of fleeing foreigners. Due to the dramatically decreasing population, there were only a few people seen on the streets and many houses were empty. Resulting out of that was that the many landlords stopped collecting rents from the tenants. Also, the goods exceeded demand, which means that the prices dropped which resulted in the closing down of many shops.

    • Word count: 1764
  4. What factors make the 20th century the Age of Extremes? What lasting impact do they have on international politics in the 21st century?

    Deeper systemic causes lay in European regional and international events, including a shifting balance of power among the European Great Powers and a race for influence abroad in the form of Imperialism and colonisation. The war ended in armistice in June 1918, but its impact lasted for decades to come. Many states experienced a revolution in government with a shift towards democracy. Prior to World War I, Europe had nineteen monarchies and three republic governments; afterwards, there were thirteen monarchies, fourteen republics and two regency governments.

    • Word count: 1733
  5. Free essay

    Causes of WWII

    to a limited defenseless state; territories which had to be separated from Germany, such as the Sudetenland or demands relating to Poland, was unacceptable; most importantly the article 231, which was accepting the war guilt. Any treaty which implied defeat would have been hard to accept (Lamb and Tarling 2001, p. 28) According to Hobsbawm, every party in Germany from the communists on the extreme left to Hitler's national socialists on the extreme right concurred in condemning the Versailles treaty as unjust and unacceptable (1994, p.36).

    • Word count: 1667
  6. Ireland Nationalists

    The construction of 'invented tradition' involves the use of ancient materials, such as symbolism. New tradition could be based on existing ones, which could be devised by borrowing from official rituals, religion or folklore. Laurence (2008, p. 157) states that 'what we see of the historic past around us is the product of both conscious and unconscious ideas about the past.' The decisions about what to preserve, reconstruct and adapt, are made on deeply felt ideas about which aspects of the past should be represented.

    • Word count: 1510
  7. Free essay

    The Stolen Generation The land mark event I have chosen to focus on for this section of the Assessment Event is the removal of Aboriginal children, 'The Stolen Generation/s', from their traditional homes and their parents.

    They surely would have felt and indeed would still be feeling, confused, angry, bewildered and resentful. The European societies, and particularly the 'zealous missionaries whose initial goal was to Christianise the heathen savages' children' (Sociology of Education: p198) viewed the Aboriginal societies as savage. However, when one considers what the Aboriginal people were actually suffering as a result of these policies and actions, one must wonder who really were the savages. The forced removal of children from their families took place under the regulations and guidelines of this Policy, 'The `protectionist' legislation was generally used in preference to the general child welfare legislation to remove Aboriginal children.

    • Word count: 1419
  8. Book Review - Fascism and the Right in Europe

    Blinkhorn's historical judgement is conveyed in a well-structured manner because the chapters are divided into sub-sections. This is useful because it allows the reader to understand this very complex subject. The introductions that are included for each chapter also help to set its background. In his Introduction, Blinkhorn propounds the book's central argument that "Fascism needs to be understood in terms of its metamorphosis as it moves (sometimes) from theory to movement and then (more rarely) from movement to regime".7 However, before Blinkhorn explores the movement of fascism within inter-war Europe, he sets within his first two chapters "Foretastes of fascism"8 and "Inter-war Europe in Crisis"9, the historical context that 'fascism' emerged within.

    • Word count: 1404
  9. The Soviet Union claimed to have made women equal to men. To what extent did it really succeed in doing so?

    Despite this, gender inequality was still evident, as women were assigned worse jobs than men, which was allowed to happen by law (Edmondson, 1992: 139). The iconic images of the Soviet woman on her tractor represent 'Mother Russia' and the success of technology in industry, as well as showing that women were working the land as well as men, making the two genders seem equal. A group of workers known as the Stakhanovites emerged, being the top workers who achieved much more than their targets (Hutton, 2001: 330).

    • Word count: 1397
  10. Erich Maria Remarque and Charles Chaplin: The Glorification of Nationalism and War in World War One

    Chaplin stars as an incompetent and clumsy soldier who was unable to march or salute in the approved military manner. Although Chaplin's character's tried to overcome his ineptness as a soldier as by practicing over and over again to get the routines right under the guidance of the Major, he realized at the front lines that no amount of military discipline, marches or salutes could save a soldier's life during attacks. The Commander of the army comforted an anxious and shaking Chaplin to "make yourself at home" 2 in the trenches while he ate a sandwich in company of bombs and bullets flying across the sky in the background.

    • Word count: 1481
  11. In essence, it is the control of the economy that lies at the heart of the concept of total war Is Beckett right?

    What is important to this essay, however, is not whether the two wars were or were not 'total'. But it is whether our idea and understanding of their 'relative' and assumed totality is based upon the reorganisation of the economy towards military efforts and aims, or by another defining feature. Certainly, an argument can be constructed by the romantic amongst us that the concept of total war is defined within the shared experience and comradery of the public, brought about by the interaction of men and women from all walks of life, acting in pursuit of one common goal.

    • Word count: 1647
  12. Was there any such thing as African nationalism before 1960?

    If one adhered to the 'traditional' definition of what nationalism is then clearly it could be stated that there was no such thing as African nationalism before 1960, however I propose that when applied to Africa 'nationalism' takes on a new meaning. In line with historian Thomas Hodgkin's views I would argue that African nationalism is an attempt to comprehend African responses (particularly organized responses) which sought, in a variety of ways, to modify or alter the colonial situation, or which sought to adjust and adapt African societies to the complex and profound changes stemming from the situation.

    • Word count: 1606
  13. What were the causes of the great depression of 1929-32

    From this it can be seen that the economical situation, as viewed by the American president, is one of prosperity, growth and development not only at home but abroad as well. The great depression therefore was an event which must have evolved from a perceived prosperous economy. After the Great War continental Europe was physically devastated. The allied countries were also suffering from debts they owed America; and in an even worse position Germany owed the allies vast sums of money in reparations for the war.

    • Word count: 1493
  14. Did post-1945 bringing about social equality and justice?

    This would be done be creating full employment through social security or welfare systems and by taxation. This meant that governments in welfare states would spend the majority of their budgets on public works such as education, health, housing, employment and benefits to the underprivileged (i.e. pensioners, the disabled, the sick and children). Government planning would also be essential for it provided control over variables in the macro economy. For employers, welfare meant less effort in planning and employees were presented with benefits such as pension schemes. So since the bulk of the population was employed, most citizens benefitted from the welfare systems.

    • Word count: 1416
  15. Coco Chanel-Biography

    She wanted to have a career as a singer. She worked at a caf´┐Ż and as a concert singer between 1905 and 1908. During her career as a singer, she adopted the name Coco.4 However, her singing career was not a huge success. Most of the time, she had to make dresses for the other singers rather than sing. After she met in 1908 the wealthy military officer, Etienne Balson, her life changed in terms of the environment she was in and the people around her. Her new environment introduced the habits and the tastes of wealthy people to Chanel.

    • Word count: 1872
  16. 1930s Soviet foreign policy

    fact be revealed to be intimately, AND persistently, abiding by the seminal foreign policy objectives of security for the Soviet Union that was not prepared for another war. In addition, as some historians argue, one also needs to heed the observation that ideological, and also strategic, dimensions of Soviet foreign policy were but a public mask, or rather a effective tool, to attain a more urgent and fundamental goal of achieving and maintaining security for the Soviet Union as sweeping as this may sound.

    • Word count: 1894
  17. Soueast Asian History

    So, the radical, anti-colonial forces in Philippines were fairly weak and do not stand much chance in achieving independence for Philippines. In countries such as Malaya, the ethnic dimension of nationalism is clearly prominent. Due to the belated nationalist movements in Malaya which only came in the 1930s, it can be deduced that the majority of the Malayans were not very interested in nationalism in the beginning and thus, not very enthusiastic in working to achieve independence. Moreover, because of its plural society which consists of the Malays, the Chinese and the Indians; it is hard for the nationalists to unite the three groups of people of different races to stand up against the British together.

    • Word count: 1816
  18. Free essay

    Essay on Spannish Civil War

    Therefore, the most logical place to find the sources of these different ideologies is to look at the social differences among Spaniards. R. Carr states that "the working classes chose the Republic and the upper classes were, with few exceptions, fanatic Nationalists", following this argument and as the greatest social division lay in the rural areas between the landlords and exploited and landless peasants, those landlords who joined the Nationalist side in fear of getting their land collectivised and those peasants which wanted the land and joined the Republicans did not do so because of pure ideology, but for simple convenience.

    • Word count: 1500
  19. Failure of the Munich Putsch

    I feel that source 2 is accurately written in context with all the other sources. In a sense, Source 2 agrees that the Munich putsch was a failure. However, it states that it gave the NSDAP party even more confidence into becoming the nations leading party. Source 4 is a comment made by Hitler in 1933 on the failed coup. This was about 8 years after the event occurred which may seem a bit unreliable towards the source due to the extended time periods allowed between the other sources.

    • Word count: 1035
  20. "Communist Rulers Were Effective Autocrats, Tsarist Rulers were not" How Far Do You Agree With This Statement?

    Despite the huge apparatus of repression the Tsars enforced, they never succeeded in eradicating opposition. There were continuous assassination attempts upon all the Romanov rulers from 1855 and most significantly, a successful assassination attempt on Alexander II whom was blown up by the People's Will in 1881. Meanwhile, there was not a single assassination attempt on Stalin throughout his rule (1928-1955) which suggests his ruthless methods of repressing opposition enabled him to rule as a far more effective autocrat than any rulers before 1917. It cannot be denied however, that the Tsarist rulers showed to a degree, some effective tools in suppressing opposition.

    • Word count: 1131
  21. The Cold War began in 1944. Do you agree?

    They argue that the origins of the Cold War can be traced to the USSR's refusal to disarm, the continual use of the veto in the UN, and that Stalin broke many agreements made earlier in the War.3 It was the West's perception of Stalin realising his eastern expansionist dreams that originally caused alarm. The USA and her allies reacted to Soviet aggression, rather than caused it.4 Even before the defeat of n**i Germany in May 1945, the Grand Alliance was weakening the United States and the USSR were becoming divided over the political future of Poland.

    • Word count: 1253
  22. The Holocaust

    Those who were lucky enough to escape the ordeals of being carted to labor and concentration camps were still unlucky for they had to find ways to hide so they were not killed by n**i soldiers. There were many struggles and difficult obstacles for those who went into hiding. They had to first find a place to hide. Many dug small caves under their house. One survivor, Bronia Beker, tells about the cave her family and she built under their house in Kozowa, Poland after the Germans invaded Poland in 1941.

    • Word count: 1192
  23. What determined the policy of Britain towards the Spanish Civil War?

    It is also clear that Britain was aware of her policy's negative effect on the war effort of the Spanish Republic. In January 1939 the Chief Diplomatic Adviser to the Foreign office, Sir Robert Vansittart, admitted: "the whole course of our policy of non-intervention - which has effectively, as we all know, worked in an entirely one-sided manner - has been putting a premium on Franco's victory."2 If, then, we agree that British non-interventionist policy was favourable to the rebels, the question remains as to the reasons for Britain adopting and sticking to this policy.

    • Word count: 1319
  24. germany, depression

    This made Germany be supportive of Hitler's cause because he wanted to get rid of it, so it was beneficial to join him. The Treaty of Versailles is linked to everything on the list and is at the start of Hitler's aim for power, it was Hitler's first step to power so everything else he did links back to the Treaty. The Treaty led on to the Munich putsch, because it gave Hitler a cause that people could identify with and it helped gain him followers to march on Munich, people felt so strongly about the treat, that they were willing to risk their own lives to see it end.

    • Word count: 1055
  25. account for Mao's rise to power

    100000 men set out on the Long March but only 20000 survived it. The significance of the Long March was that it secured relationships between the survivors and created comradeship. After Mao had rose to power in China and established the People's Republic of China, all the leaders which helped him to run the country from 1949 to the mid 1990s had been in the march. Therefore the Long March is seen as a defining moment/event for Mao, as he was leader of the march, therefore was able to show off his leadership skills, and emerge from it with a greater reputation that shows up Chiang, whose dealing with the Americans ("foreign devils")

    • Word count: 1424

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • By the end of the Potsdam Conference any hopes of a post-war alliance between the allies had disappeared. To what extent do you agree with this statement?

    "So in conclusion I wouldn't completely agree with the statement above because if they were able to form an alliance before the conference and were able to defeat Germany as I team, I think that if they had time to sort out their differences then they would have been able to form a strong post-war alliance. But I also believe that if they didn't trust each other from the beginning then they would have to work at it, because without trust they wouldn't be able to help one anther, and even when they were allies before the Potsdam conference they still didn't trust each other 100% that is why Britain was willing to go behind each others back and was willing to form an alliance with Russia if they had the chance. So I agree to a certain extent that after the conference hopes of a post-war alliance had disappeared, but I think if they started from scratch and gave each other a chance then they would have been able to form a good alliance, that could have taken control over countries in the East like the Russians did."

  • To what extent was Stalin's foreign policy after 1945 aimed at the expansion of the communist system.

    "In conclusion there is much disagreement and contradiction in relation to Stalin's Soviet foreign policy after 1945 particularly between traditionalist and revisionist theorists. Traditionalists argued that Stalin's policies were predominantly motivated by communist expansionism and although particular documents tended to prove this, there is also great evidence that much of his foreign policy was actually grounded on security interests and fears. When discussing particular events in history it is difficult to obtain a completely unbiased view and although some arguments may offer more substantial evidence it is difficult to disregard all other factors which may have also been present. 1"

  • The Soviet Union claimed to have made women equal to men. To what extent did it really succeed in doing so?

    "In conclusion, I believe the Soviet Union did not make women equal to men to a great extent, and that women had an unsteady role within society, sometimes being workers, sometimes mothers and sometimes even fighters, whilst men merely provided practical labour. Women still had to deal with family and domestic duties whilst working, and often large families which would have been hard to look after were promoted. The Soviet Union portrayed itself as a gender-equal, but I feel that for the reasons outlined above, it still had an awful lot to do before this ideal would actually have been realised."

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