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University Degree: 1920-1949

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  1. "Communist Rulers Were Effective Autocrats, Tsarist Rulers were not" How Far Do You Agree With This Statement?

    Despite the huge apparatus of repression the Tsars enforced, they never succeeded in eradicating opposition. There were continuous assassination attempts upon all the Romanov rulers from 1855 and most significantly, a successful assassination attempt on Alexander II whom was blown up by the People's Will in 1881. Meanwhile, there was not a single assassination attempt on Stalin throughout his rule (1928-1955) which suggests his ruthless methods of repressing opposition enabled him to rule as a far more effective autocrat than any rulers before 1917. It cannot be denied however, that the Tsarist rulers showed to a degree, some effective tools in suppressing opposition.

    • Word count: 1131
  2. How did the Irgun and Lehi differ from each other Ideologically?

    Short for 'Irgun Zvai Leumi' (National Military Organisation), The Irgun's members claimed it was an armed expression of Jabotinsky's revisionist Zionism, however it is seen by many historians that some members became out of control, and the Irgun ended up spawning terrorists as a result of these members misinterpreting Jabotinsky's ideas. As its full name suggests, the Irgun was a very militarist group, supposedly with its own training regime and even drills, just like an army. The members of the Irgun became determined to destroy the morale of the British army in Palestine (Cohen, 1987: 101), in an attempt to force them to leave by making it seem like they were fighting a losing battle.

    • Word count: 2176

    His father was William Ford who was born in County Cork, Ireland and his mother was Mary Litogot Ford. Ford's siblings are Margaret Ford (1867-1868), Jane Ford (1868-1945), William Ford (1871-1917) and Robert Ford (1873-1934).[1] At an early age, Henry Ford was already very curious with how things work. He continually pestered his mother for numerous curiosities such as the working of an old clock, and basically enjoyed tinkering with machines than doing the tasks of a farmer, which he abhorred. He grew up assembling and disassembling clocks and watches and was vehemently opposed to doing farm tasks. At fifteen years old, he became famous in his town for his skill as a watch repairman.

    • Word count: 3128
  4. The Cold War began in 1944. Do you agree?

    They argue that the origins of the Cold War can be traced to the USSR's refusal to disarm, the continual use of the veto in the UN, and that Stalin broke many agreements made earlier in the War.3 It was the West's perception of Stalin realising his eastern expansionist dreams that originally caused alarm. The USA and her allies reacted to Soviet aggression, rather than caused it.4 Even before the defeat of n**i Germany in May 1945, the Grand Alliance was weakening the United States and the USSR were becoming divided over the political future of Poland.

    • Word count: 1253
  5. The Holocaust

    Those who were lucky enough to escape the ordeals of being carted to labor and concentration camps were still unlucky for they had to find ways to hide so they were not killed by n**i soldiers. There were many struggles and difficult obstacles for those who went into hiding. They had to first find a place to hide. Many dug small caves under their house. One survivor, Bronia Beker, tells about the cave her family and she built under their house in Kozowa, Poland after the Germans invaded Poland in 1941.

    • Word count: 1192
  6. What determined the policy of Britain towards the Spanish Civil War?

    It is also clear that Britain was aware of her policy's negative effect on the war effort of the Spanish Republic. In January 1939 the Chief Diplomatic Adviser to the Foreign office, Sir Robert Vansittart, admitted: "the whole course of our policy of non-intervention - which has effectively, as we all know, worked in an entirely one-sided manner - has been putting a premium on Franco's victory."2 If, then, we agree that British non-interventionist policy was favourable to the rebels, the question remains as to the reasons for Britain adopting and sticking to this policy.

    • Word count: 1319
  7. How important were party leaders, Clement Attlee and Winston Churchill in determining the result of the 1945 General Election?

    It was not the new left-ward inclination that sent the ballots innately towards Labour, but instead Labour s ability to represent this radical shift in public opinion and its demands for domestic reform better than the Conservatives. Therefore, the assertion of this essay is that the electoral campaigns of Churchill and Attlee, disastrous and fruitful respectfully, were of secondary importance in determining the result of the 1945 election. Churchill s campaign tactics were poor. He was seen by contemporaries as having descended to the bottom of the political barrel through his use of slander, while at the same time he

  8. germany, depression

    This made Germany be supportive of Hitler's cause because he wanted to get rid of it, so it was beneficial to join him. The Treaty of Versailles is linked to everything on the list and is at the start of Hitler's aim for power, it was Hitler's first step to power so everything else he did links back to the Treaty. The Treaty led on to the Munich putsch, because it gave Hitler a cause that people could identify with and it helped gain him followers to march on Munich, people felt so strongly about the treat, that they were willing to risk their own lives to see it end.

    • Word count: 1055
  9. Book Review - The New Deal by Paul K. Conkin

    Such an ambitious and politicised attempt at revisionism could, quite easily have gone wrong, as politics can overtake the history, but, in Conkin's case, he has succeeded in, not only rectifying the balance of critical appraisals of the New Deal, but also in providing students new to the area with a balanced if occasionally obtuse introduction to the period. At 106 pages long, 'The New Deal' is a short book and as such, can neither hope, nor attempt to approach a full analysis of the economic and political intricacies of the period.

    • Word count: 2967
  10. Were the Roosevelt Years Inherently Conservative?

    It is primarily the period in between 1933 and 1940 that will form the focus here. During the war years the political dynamic between ideologies was dramatically altered, to the extent that is really requires their own analysis. First though, some definitions are called for. The concept of conservatism is a fluid one which does not lend itself to easy generalisation. Indeed when posed with the task of summing up in a sentence 'what is conservatism?' The conservative commentator William F.

    • Word count: 3014
  11. a***s the relative role of ideology and circumstances in the emergence and development of a resistance movement in France between 1940-1944

    Apart from expanding his fascist n**i ideology argues Mazower, Hitler's Greater German Empire agenda would also mean to dominate economic and human resources especially in Eastern Europe4 and later extended to the western block. This economic agenda can be said superseded his political agenda. Economic problems plaguing Europe in post 1918, especially Germany that was punished with war reparation had become the main motivation for Germany to recover her economy in the name of n**i World Order. History of western imperialism shows economic domination ultimately leads to political domination.

    • Word count: 5681
  12. account for Mao's rise to power

    100000 men set out on the Long March but only 20000 survived it. The significance of the Long March was that it secured relationships between the survivors and created comradeship. After Mao had rose to power in China and established the People's Republic of China, all the leaders which helped him to run the country from 1949 to the mid 1990s had been in the march. Therefore the Long March is seen as a defining moment/event for Mao, as he was leader of the march, therefore was able to show off his leadership skills, and emerge from it with a greater reputation that shows up Chiang, whose dealing with the Americans ("foreign devils")

    • Word count: 1424
  13. What effect did World War II have on life in Barking and Dagenham?

    However, it was only until September 1944 that V2 rockets were used and they caused a larger amount of damage to London and increasing the ever growing death toll. This did not augment British morale and family life in the community became harder. Civil defence was the collective name for all the measures taken by the government and boroughs to protect residents from the bombings and was very important everywhere in London. Civilians could not attack the German Aeroplanes nor could they stop the Air raid.

    • Word count: 7074
  14. Why did the Nationalists win the Spanish Civil War?

    Where the army and police collaborated, the military and civil arms of the Republican state collapsed, leaving the Madrid government with no means by which to restore control. By the end of the first week of the rebellion the Insurgents controlled about a third of Spain, including the most important wheat growing districts. The early triumphs of the Nationalists had therefore been due to careful organization, the ardour and skill of their middle ranking officers, the defection of the Civil and Assault guards and the refusal of the Madrid government to arm civilians.

    • Word count: 3494
  15. To what extent was the breakdown of the Soviet-American "Grand Alliance" 1946-1948 the inevitable result of a fundamental clash of interests over the future of Europe?

    In 1945 numerous states suffered defeat and there was an obvious shift in the balance of power in favour of the US and the Soviet Union. In understanding international relations it is important to understand the domestic situation of these two superpowers following the defeat of Fascism. The US emerged from the war economically and militarily superior to any other power and moreover held a monopoly over atomic weapons. The US wanted to retain the Grand Alliance and avoid spheres of influence in Europe but at the same time achieve a beneficial peace settlement which would in the long-term improve the US economy.

    • Word count: 2427
  16. Analysis of P.H.M Bell's book The Origins of the Second World War in Europe

    The war also shook the economies of the fighting countries. Many sectors began to fail, which led to huge financial problems. "It was the removal of the landmark of a stable currency which had the most lasting effects, psychological as much as material."1 After the war the currency of many countries began to diminish. The countries began to feel the effects of inflation and many had to sell what they could to get by. "Britain and France were forced to sell substantial quantities of their foreign investments to pay for the war..."

    • Word count: 1798
  17. The partition of India

    The reasoning behind this was due to Hindus saving Cows from Muslim slaughter houses. Another attributes of why India became separated in 1947 was due to the discontent in many states such as Punjab and Bengal. 'Another reason for the growth of swadeshi sentiment among Punjabis was the increasing tension between Muslims (who were half the population in that province) and both Hindus and Sikhs' (Stein 1998) 'Hindu artisans and low-caste workers turned against Muslims and untouchables, using religion in a militant form to mobilize and protect their economic interests' (Stein 1998) Constant conflicts were on going through the late 1800's early 1900's.

    • Word count: 1348
  18. Why did the Western Allies fail in the Gallipoli campaign?

    However, no matter how well this campaign was arranged, this attempt became known as one of the greatest failures in history and affected an estimate of 767,000 soldiers. In this essay, the topics I will consider are the aspects of the Gallipoli battle which went wrong, and show the conditions of the armies. I will also show the failure of this campaign was beneficial to the Turks, concluding with the reflection of the reason the Gallipoli campaign failed. One of the factors that can be considered as a lack of preparation could be how the British and French forces did not regard precautions.

    • Word count: 817
  19. To What Extent was Cavour dedicated to the unification of Italy

    Mack Smith states, "its programme was to champion liberal conservatism and moderate reforms1". "One of his main recommendations was for a constitution2"; he wanted to totally change how Piedmont was run. Cavour was dedicated to the bettering of Piedmont as a state and improving Italy as a country. He also wrote numerous articles full of "patriotic rhetoric3" speaking of 'his nation' (both Piedmont and Italy). He wanted the best for Italy and was therefore committed to the creation of an Italy free of foreign influence - Cavour wished to pronounce these ideas to his audience.

    • Word count: 3443
  20. D-Day Landings

    So Britain fought Germany and Italy in North Africa to stop them getting to the Suez Canal. Finally, they did succeed because they managed to defeat the German army (lead by Rommel) in October 1942 and then in 1943 they started to cross the Mediterranean to their next aim which was Italy. This step was taken by Britain because North Africa had boosted Britain's morale. As the Allies advanced towards Italy in July 1943 the Italian leader was sacked. A new leader decided to make peace with the Allies and quickly declared war on the Germans.

    • Word count: 1942
  21. Military Success of Germany

    Hitler's easy deal with Neville Chamberlain is a reflection of the stance of Germany at that point in time. The failure of the Munich Agreement showed that deals made with Hitler at the negotiating table could not be trusted1. The move into Poland was the first point of negligence of the Allied forces, as it was also the first victory for the German military. The dilemma that the Allies faced was what can be seen as the cause of the act of negligence. They were not fully prepared and were not fully committed to rescuing Poland. The Soviet Union on the other hand were quick to share the spoils with Germany, which can be seen as a completely independent and selfish act.

    • Word count: 1394
  22. Gustav Stresseman

    The short period of 103 days that Stresseman had incharge of his native Germany were memorable ones for his citizens, as he achieved some great things for them. He successfully managed to do what many other German chancellor's had done such as stopping hyperinflation and stabilising the German currency. The rentenmark was the new currency introduced by Stresseman, in order to help stop inflation (in the short run.) The Dawes Plan, along with the Young Plan were examples of this great statesman's work, as he battled hard to reduce the reparation repayments to slightly more realistic amounts for Germany.

    • Word count: 643
  23. Why was "Operation Overlord" such a success for the Allies?

    Secondly there was the careful analysis of the coastlines, which narrowed the choice down to one of two beaches; these were Normandy and the Pas de Calais. There were several advantages for using each of the beaches but finally the decision was made to do the D-Day landings on Normandy because although it was further from the English coast it was the same distance to Paris as Calais was. It also had flat and sheltered beaches, which was vital for a successful landing.

    • Word count: 1008
  24. The victorious Allies believed that Germany was responsible for the outbreak of WWI. How far did their victory and the resulting settlement solve the German Problem that they believed had caused the war?

    Germany had much will of its own to fulfill her goals, thus hindering the settlement process and the enforcement of the Allies. Due to the nature of the sudden end of the war, neither winner nor loser was prepared. Germany was still in the aggressive mindset from the war and the Allies were suddenly overwhelmed with the victory that they may not have taken the most effective actions in order to solve what they believed had caused the war. The Allies' victory had influenced their capacity for settlement, and heightened their will for revenge against the Germans.

    • Word count: 2557
  25. If you are setting this submission as "Premium", then please enter a short description of what the essay is trying to achieve. Word Count:

    By 1909 he was back in Italy with a determination to bring change to Italy's political structure. Mussolini's ideology can be seen as his driving force behind his political power. His father Alessandro was a socialist and a republican however had very strong nationalist views of Italy being governed by an Italian and not someone from the monarchy. Mussolini was still considered a socialist, but his view changed towards world war one. Mussolini was expelled from the party as he felt the war would lead to revolution. During his time as a socialist, Mussolini was able to extend his views through the newspaper which he became an editor of 'Avanti' Mussolini seemed to have natural leadership skills

    • Word count: 1957

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