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University Degree: 1950-1999

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 3
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    A look at the Origin, Stigma/Discrimination and Government Involvement with AIDS in the United States of America and African Countries

    4 star(s)

    were informed that cases with similar symptoms were being found in Africa. When CDC members went Africa they saw that not just homosexuals, heroin users, hemophiliacs, and Haitians but also heterosexuals, but women and children suffering from the same symptoms as Americans who the mysterious disease.4 This is when members of the CDC realized that that this disease could infect everyone and a sense of urgency took over. Before scientist could solve this horrible disease, they had to first figure out where the disease came from and how it is spread.

    • Word count: 2982
  2. Marked by a teacher

    Did Britain become a Classless Society after 1945?

    4 star(s)

    Arguably, class exists due to modern social inequalities such as power, authority, inheritance and income. Despite post war implications of Britain becoming a classless society, to this date, 90% of British citizens still associate themselves to a social class. This essay will investigate the extent of social change after the Second World War, debating whether or not the divisions of social class were reduced. Post War British society was broken down into the three social groups: The Upper, Middle and Working class; all three of which have specific characteristics, providing an identity for British citizens.

    • Word count: 2184
  3. Marked by a teacher

    AIDS Epidemic in Africa

    3 star(s)

    The HIV/AIDS crisis in Africa has become an enormous problem that cannot and should not be ignored by anyone. Out of all of the people in the world with AIDS, no less than one third reside in Africa, with nearly thirty-four million people living in sub-Sahara Africa infected with HIV. There is convincing evidence that one of the first cases of the human immunodeficiency virus was gathered in the capital of the Belgian Congo in 1959. There is also reliable evidence that the virus originated from SIV, simian immunodeficiency virus, which is an infection from African monkeys.

    • Word count: 1851
  4. To what extent was the United States responsible for the collapse of the Grand Alliance at the end of the Second World War?

    than a drive to revitalise west European economies, the better to use them as allies and buffers in a showdown with communism. The Marshall Plan refers to the economic initiative launched by the United States on June 5th, 1947, to assist European economies in recovering from the devastation of World War Two.3 Though the sums of money involved fell short of the $17bn4 which the Truman administration had initially requested, the amount of aid given between 1948-52 eventually amounted to over $13bn, around 1.3% of total US economic output during the same period.5 After some flirtations with accepting Marshall dollars

    • Word count: 3894
  5. To what Extent did the Marshall Plan consolidate the division of Europe after World War Two?

    Furthermore suggestions that the Marshall plan went a step further and in fact allowed US private investment to become acceptable and eventually lead to the acceptance of Multi-national corporations within free-market states. Noam Chomsky famously supported this view stating: "In Actual Fact the Marshall Plan set the stage for large amounts of Private U.S investment in Europe, establishing the basis for modern transnational corporations" The free movement through European states, trade of currency and and export and import would not only be key to the rejuvenation of many European economies post World War II but would also arguably lead to the formation of the modern day European Union (EU)

    • Word count: 2233
  6. Cold War Primary Source assignment: To what extent was dtente a result of the events leading up to the Cuban Missile Crisis, in October 1962?

    A movement that was widely backed apart from the upper classes who generally prospered under Batista's regime due to the economical relationship shared with major US corporations, mafias and the government itself. It was possibly the fact that Castro was now the stumbling block between these US corporations and the land they owned in Cuba, that fast tracked US intervention on a military level. The US corporations, whom under Batista's regime had free reign now faced, Castro's regime captured and nationalized former US owned utilities and land such as the oil refineries and sugar mills, which ultimately forced the hand of the United States into officially severing ties with Cuba.

    • Word count: 3182
  7. Free essay

    The Fall of Communism in Poland. The Catholic Church Solidarity and its supporters

    This would set the tone for the relationship between the Catholic Church and the Polish Government for the next thirty-years, as the Communist regime sought to limit the reach of the Church and prevent a platform for socio-cultural disruption. Often, new laws and legislation would be introduced on a completely ad-hoc and unplanned manner, Marian S. Mazgaj (2010) support the view that initially over-eager attempts to stunt the power of the Church lead to mass internal confusion for the regime:" Methods of Persecution and law issued at the headquarters of Communism were quite often changed on the Polish battlefield.

    • Word count: 2387
  8. Coming of Age in Mississippi. Anne Moodys memoir, Coming of Age in Mississippi, portrays her life experiences and the troubles she faced growing up in Mississippi before and during the African-American civil rights movement.

    Carter. Many other African-Americans also lived on this plantation and like Anne's mother and father, they too were sharecroppers. Sharecropping is defined as an agricultural system in which a land owner allows a tenant to use and live on their land in return for the tenant's labor. Following the Civil War and the emancipation of slaves, sharecropping became increasingly popular as a legal substitution for slavery. Sharecropping represented one of very few options for newly freed African-Americans to support themselves and their families in the Jim Crow South.

    • Word count: 1157
  9. Marred by violence, ravaged by terrorism: A brief history of (in)security in Lebanon

    To accomplish this the paper will, as briefly as possible, attempt to summarize the country's short but complicated history of civil strife and resulting terrorism, outlining the various actors in play. From there, it will present an overview of the state of modern historical research on the topic and explain whether or not their overall views align or seem agreeable with the arguments of the paper. Finally, the paper will, with the aid of a number of academic and web resources, attempt to piece together arguments supporting the paper's thesis statement.

    • Word count: 2938
  10. Assess the contribution of local grass root activists in the civil rights movement

    It can be said that the famous Rosa Parks story of not giving up her seat and getting arrested is the start of the movement; nevertheless the tactics used by local grass-root activists that followed had a peaceful yet strong message. Martin Luther King Junior was the president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLL) which planned some of the movements' biggest events which had great impact, the Montgomery Bus Boycott and the March on Washington. The main reason why the local grass-root activists were so effective and popular was because they were involved with the population of blacks which allowed them to spread the word whilst getting everyone involved.

    • Word count: 1979
  11. According to Kenneth McRoberts, Despite the best efforts of the Franco regime, Catalonia was still intact when Franco finally died on 20 November 1975. This essay will analyze the impact of Francoism on Catalonia in the light of this

    It was a white terror, official and relentless, without anyone to intervene for the victims or to try to save them. First of all, the use of Catalan was prohibited given its status as a second language (Segura 2006: 1-9). Even in the workplace Catalan was banned as a spoken language. In the University of Barcelona, all subjects dealing with Catalan culture were abolished, and The Institut d'Estudis Catalans was replaced with an Institutio Espa�ol de Estudios Mediterr�neos. Punishment for the offenders ranged from simple fines to dismissal from the workplace, exile and prison.

    • Word count: 1259
  12. To what extent did Great Britains administration of Sudan influence the start of the First Sudanese Civil War, 1955-1972?

    To narrow the scope, the paper will not focus on Egypt's effect on the colonial administration, the parallel economic development, or Britain's Sudanese army policy. Section B. Summary of Evidence Sudan has a long history of invaders from the decline of the B.C. Kush Kingdom to the Madhist state under Muhammad Ahmad (Metz 14). The country was exposed to Christianity under the Nubians, and latter Islam was introduced through traders and conquerors such as the Egypt and the Funji kingdom (Poggo 21; Metz 14).

    • Word count: 2285
  13. Changing racial attitudes in Colonial and Apartheid South Africa. This piece explores the changing racial attitudes of the white communities of South Africa towards the Coloureds and Blacks, between British take-over and independence.

    British male subjects residing in the colony, regardless of their colour, as well as liberating the natives and Khois4 from slavery through an outright ban a year on. The Boers5, who were aware of foreign criticisms of their race policies, and who believed in the Calvinist Church doctrines of white supremacy and their primordial claim to Cape Colony territory, "deplored the new laws which destroyed correct relationships, which gave Coloureds on 'ungodly equality'".6 The Boer Great Trek north from the Eastern Cape was in search of new lands to occupy and to escape their diminishing autonomy that they saw as harmful to the purity of their doctrines.

    • Word count: 2059
  14. Anti-colonialism and independence Discuss the proposition that independence movements represented the interests of their middle-class leaders and not of the rural poor

    Many peasants constitute part of the modern capitalist economy in addition to the traditional subsistence economy, as they sell their labour power for instance.2 Unlike India and Ethiopia3, but characteristic of most of Africa, was that communalism rather than fuedalism preceeded capitalism. In Egypt, for instance, it was only with the colonial government permitting Egyptians to own land, as well as expanding educational opportunities, and raising some to officer status in the army that a middle-class emerged. Non-marxists "seek other explanations of social interaction, and talk of 'elites' and 'groups' rather than 'classes'."4 The new elite of post-colonial states are

    • Word count: 2909
  15. The post 1978 wave of democratization in Latin America has been far from an unqualified success. Do you agree with the previous statement?

    Through analysing the situation it is clear that over the last 20 years Latin America, particularly in the 80s (and recently as well) lacked some of these musts, 'most of these regimes were not complete democracies' Skidmore (2005, p.59), Skidmore also argues the military still had 'considerable' power from background and was able to influence policy. Since the third wave of democratization military coups have not been uncommon, with attempts (albeit failed attempts) in Guatemala, Paraguay and Venezuela. Many countries have come under scrutiny for the quality of their democracy, Peru and Venezuela (under Fujimori and Hugo Chavez)

    • Word count: 1656
  16. Communism collapsed in Eastern Europe because of Gorbachev

    Based on the Bolshevik 'one-party system', there was no contest for power in Russia, and Stalin was easily able to consolidate power after Lenin placed him at the head of the Workers' and Peasants' Inspectorate - known as the Rabkrin - ousting and outmanoeuvring any threat from within the party. Gorbachev, although a dedicated Leninist, was the first leader fully who committed to establish a free and more liberal regime, untainted by greed. Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in mid-March, 1985 and is widely seen as Russia's most talented and dynamic leader for many years.

    • Word count: 1756
  17. Kennedy VS Malcom X

    Malcolm X had been a very influential speaker in his day and delivered speeches to numerous crowds Kennedy developed a fear of what Malcolm could do to the country and Malcolm developed a hatred for the whole Kennedy administration. He felt that the government consisted of racial liberals and Malcolm did not like the "liberal" side of the politicians. In fact he held them in great contempt. Malcolm realized that Kennedy would never give him an opportunity to take part in the talks with other Black leaders.

    • Word count: 2532
  18. Free essay

    In relation to Gorbachev and his program of perestroika (economic reform) and why it failed, one must firstly examine various other factors. Throughout this paper one shall be examining the USSR and her economy before Gorbachev came to power.

    Perhaps most importantly one shall reach the conclusion as to why economic perestroika ultimately failed. Before one goes into detail regarding the Soviet Union before Gorbachev's rise to power, one must explain the key features of a Communist regime. Before Gorbachev, the USSR had, like many communist systems four basic features that distinguished it from the capitalist West. The economy was almost entirely in public rather than private ownership. Power was highly centralized- the USSR was ruled by a single dominant Communist party.

    • Word count: 1853
  19. Why was "vice" and s****l scandal a public worry in 1950s London

    The Wolfenden committee is vital because it was the official political response to the perceived problem of "vice" in the capital. Its background and the evidence the committee considered before publication of the official report are significant because it detailed much of the growing public anxiety in 1950s London. "Vice" and public space The invasion of prostitution and male homosexuality into London's communal space was of great concern to the public in the 1950s. The 's****l geography' of London was mapped extensively in the post-war period; the spread of "vice" was perceived as an abhorrent disease, of which a cure was immediately necessary.

    • Word count: 3249
  20. AMS Response Paper 3

    Kerouac's book is very representative of the beat generation and its values of liberty and openness. The book which is narrated through the eyes of a young writer, Sal Paradise (Jack Kerouac), is an account of his travels cross country with a character named Dean Moriarty (Neal Cassady). By reading about Kerouac's journeys, one gets an accurate perception of the Beat Generation through his many personal experiences. The book is definitely representative of the Beat Generations individuality, because it was during this period, where people were looking to develop change. The change during this time, is that of expression and experimentation.

    • Word count: 1755
  21. The African Mind in the Twentieth Century

    It was believed that the culture clash of Africans and Europeans caused mental stress on the African people, and the only way for Africans to keep their sanity against the disruptive changes from colonialism was to obey " their traditional leaders and follow traditional norms"(Vaughn. 109). However, defining what was considered normal for Africans was not a simple task, "the African had no regard for the sanctity for life, no sense of decency, by European standards he was simply abnormal" (McCulloch, p.

    • Word count: 1796
  22. A critical examination of the failure of Joint Anglo American Covert Paramilitary Operations in Cold War Albania

    4 First, subverting a target regime; second bolstering a friendly government and lastly; as ancillary support for a larger war effort. In the case of OVF the operation was directed toward the first and last objectives. OVF was at its heart a paramilitary operation to destabilise the Soviet satellite state of Albania, rather than an intelligence operation designed to gain information about Albania. It is "the only occasion when direct paramilitary intervention was applied to overthrown a Soviet Satellite". 5 In the early stages of the Cold War the USSR was a battle space where the intelligence services could not secure sources or methods of orthodox intelligence gathering.

    • Word count: 4311
  23. The Evolution of Security Studies

    When Wyn Jones wrote that, some schools of thought share "broadly similar ontological and epistemological assumptions"3 he was referring to traditionalists, however the same can be said about those seeking a critical perspective. At the core of security studies is the examination of what causes conflict. In determining what drives conflict we see the first difference between the two perspectives. Born out a long history of state centred conflict, traditionalists have determined that a state of inevitable anarchy is the main driver of conflict in the world at large.

    • Word count: 2513
  24. Why did the USSR collapse?

    The prices on food started to go up and salaries went to down, the curfew was established. And government opened the State Committee on State of Emergency in the USSR. This committee declared their own problem to overcome economic and political crisis, international and civil confrontation and anarchy. But what the population of the USSR thought about government and their actions at that time? People were really shocked what was happening in the country, they did not know whom they could believe, what they could do and what to expect from government. They lost any hope for the future.

    • Word count: 848
  25. When Harold Macmillan said that most of our people have never had it so good what did he mean?

    The consumer society was now tremendously booming and everything was working towards better personal convenience, especially with banks now offering larger credit opportunities and businesses proposing suitable pay-back schemes for large purchases such as televisions, refrigerators and other electrical household appliances. 'You can do your week's shopping in a day... here is the refrigerator to give you a fresh interest in food, more fun and more leisure'1 claimed a British mother, pointing out some of the advantages of transforming Britain.

    • Word count: 1874

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Evaluate Ernesto "Ché" Guevara's impact on the success of the Cuban Revolution.

    "E Conclusion Ch� Guevara's importance and relevance in the Cuban Revolution was crucial. He provided a type of leadership which was lacking in Latin American movements of the sort. His style of leading by example and self-sacrifice was not even present in the likes of Fidel himself or his brother. This contribution undoubtedly makes him a unique addition to the forces and was important in controlling the revolution, making sure that it served its initial aims. His close relationship as friend and confidante of Castro was also important in the leanings of the tactics to guerrilla warfare and even more so after the war would end."

  • Do Great Men change the course of history? Discuss with reference to either Lenin or Stalin or Gorbachev

    "Conclusion How then are we to judge Stalin? Looking at him purely from a historical and a narcissistic point of view he was definitely one of if not the key person in 20th century history. . Born in obscurity, he rose to historic significance, a fallible human being of extraordinary qualities. He supervised the near-chaotic transformation of peasant Eurasia into an urban, industrialised superpower under unprecedented adversities. Though his achievements were at the cost of exorbitant sacrifice of human beings and natural resources, they were on a scale commensurate with the cruelty of two world wars. 1 Chris ward Stalins Russia pg23 2 www.janus.umd.edu/issues/sp07/Szpakowski_SocialisminOneCountry 3 Chris ward Stalins Russia pg35 4 Geoffrey Hosking A history of the soviet union pg150 5 L.Deutscher Stalin pg324 6 L.Deutscher Stalin pg466 7 L.Deutscher Stalin pg468 8 8 L.Deutscher Stalin pg468 9 L.Deutscher Stalin pg483"

  • "War in the trenches"? To what extent were Church and State opposed in the GDR?

    "In conclusion, I would agree with Althausen's depiction of the relationship between Church and State in the DDR as "war in the trenches". Neither side could reach an authentic compromise with the other on ideological grounds, but for political and pragmatic reasons neither could they maintain complete separation. The church could not go into "internal exile" without renouncing a key part of its mission to witness to society; neither could the SED eliminate a deeply-rooted institution so quickly, or do without the welfare services provided by the Church. Communism and Christianity made for uneasy bedfellows in the DDR, but the example is an instructive one for political theology, even if the SED state has now collapsed and the East German church is now decidedly a minority group. (1,635 words)"

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