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University Degree: 1950-1999

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  1. Banning public executions was hailed by the Daily Telegraph as an end to 'a fragment of medieval barbarism,' was this a reasonable assessment?

    However it has to be noted that although public executions were banned, condemned prisoners still suffered the same brutal death of hanging within prisons walls up until 1965.[2] This essay will assess the themes of how humane banning public executions was, the role of the crowd, the civility of public executions, individual cases such as the Edith Thompson case and miscarriages of justice. Firstly it is important to assess how humane the decision to ban public executions actually was. Various historians such as David Cooper and Leon Radzinowicz would agree with the Daily Telegraph's assessment that the abolishment of public

    • Word count: 2402
  2. What would you consider the most decisive or influential forces to bring down apartheid in South Africa?

    These groups were unable to join forces due to the lack of knowledge and understanding of the widespread nature of the regimes actions and the fading belief in their freedom, which thus dulled the effect of anti-apartheid movements. The bans issued upon the ANC and other large scale political parties along with their leaders further reinforced the isolation of groups and lack of coordinated ?struggle? (Callinicos, 1994). In an effort to overcome the limitations of this isolated resistance and boost black resistance actions, black consciousness became one of the defining movements.

    • Word count: 1894
  3. A study into how much John F. Kennedy was responsible for the failure of the Bay of Pigs and the influence it had on him in future crises.

    Along with pre-set expectations, the chapter also argues that Kennedy himself had done himself no favours by proclaiming action should be taken to remove Castro throughout his own election campaign. The second chapter analyses the incoherent decision making process Kennedy went through in how best to utilise the military for the planned invasion of Cuba. It also builds an argument that Kennedy lacked the necessary leadership skills and experience to carry out an operation of this scale as his first major foray into foreign policy.

    • Word count: 9286
  4. When and Why did British Decolonisation begin?

    This could explain how the pro-imperialist Conservative governments actually saw more colonies to independence than that of the anti-imperialist Labour counterparts, as they were meeting the requirements of other policies through decolonisation, as opposed to the policy of decolonisation itself.[2] Such policies which would stimulate decolonisation relates to Britain’s economic state following the Second World War. The expenditures of the war had claimed 25 per cent of Britain’s national wealth[3] and had run up debts amounting to £3 billion to ‘Allies, Dominions and Associates’.[4] One can see how Britain’s financial resources were devastated and in the light of this financial

    • Word count: 2879
  5. Wars of counter-insurgency cannot be won - discuss.

    The war ended in 1945 and is often viewed as the start of the contemporary world. The notion that war in the contemporary world is seemingly more justifiable and of lesser impact is greatly misleading and unfounded. In fact quite the contrary is the case. Nobel Laureate Richard E. Smalley, in 2003 determined war as the sixth, out of ten, biggest problems facing the society for the next fifty years. [2] This in no small part can be attributed to the type of war that is predominant in modern era and the normalisation of it.

    • Word count: 3758
  6. How doesWinthrop Sargeants newspaper review help us to understand the singing qualities of an operatic diva such as Callas?

    Callas? struggle with high notes is further mentioned by Robert Phillips in the AA100 Reputations book: ?Callas sometimes struggle?s to control a rather aggressive wobble in her top register, particularly when she is singing loudly? -Phillips, R; (2009), AA100 Reputations, Milton Keynes, The Open University An example of this is from the recording of the ?Ah! Fors?e lui? aria at 1.29 we hear Callas hit very high notes and an example of the wobble in her voice can be heard here. Winthrop Sargeant however was picking up on what was by now, a very common flaw in Maria Callas?s voice.

    • Word count: 823
  7. Discuss how and why British culture changed so dramatically during the 1960s. Evaluate its influence both within British society and globally.

    By the end 1979, almost all the colonies had been declared independent. The two World Wars also influenced on the change of culture that operated in the 60s. These changes did not operate directly at the end of World War 2; it takes time to rise and educate a whole new generation. This post-war generation was mostly responsible for most of the cultural changes that will be mentioned later. The end of the Second World War marks the beginning of a new generation, and therefore a change in the mentalities.

    • Word count: 1343
  8. Konrad Adeneur. Adenauer understood that rearmament was an essential step in his policy of pursuing West German sovereignty through integration into the West.

    Adenauer?s success in providing Germany with a strong military force was a large factor in providing sovereignty through integration. Rearmament also provided the Federal Republic with security. This security was desperately needed as a para-military ?peoples police? had been created in East Germany which was basically a regular army. There was also the constant fear of Russian threat to to the Western world. Rearmament gave Germany political equality, independence, and political advantages. Adenauer was a driving force in the rearmament of Germany.

    • Word count: 2756
  9. Analysis of Jean Hatzfeld's novel, The Antelope's Strategy: Living in Rwanda After the Genocide,

    On April 6th 1994, Habyarimana was assassinated and the Hutus, reacting out of fear, planned and conducted the mass murders of the Tutsis. This genocide was initially planned by the akazu which was a group of Hutu extremists that had been very close to Habyarimana. Hutu politicians formed two militia groups, the interahamwe and the impuzamugambi, to lead the genocide. However, once the genocide had begun, a vast number of the Hutu civilians participated in the murders. Many of these civilians had been friends, neighbors, schoolmates and coworkers of the Tutsis.

    • Word count: 2075
  10. Assess the success and failures of Thatcherism.

    The legacy of post-war Conservatism and Thatcher began when the Labour party?s time in office ended inevitably. This was highlighted under James Callaghan?s government. The Labour government faced immense difficulties such as inflation rise, British power cuts and especially in 1979, where the ?Winter of Discontent? was a key event. The Winter of Discontent subsequently led to a rash of strikes in crucial public services which deemed that the country was ungovernable. This led to the destruction of Labour?s party image and subsequently forced Callaghan to call an early general election, which paved way to Thatcher?s victory.

    • Word count: 1971
  11. Critically evaluate the revisionist position that it was the expansion of US power that led to the outbreak of the Cold War.

    Through intensive reading and research of the three different theses, a critical evaluation has been made and criticisms of the revisionist thesis have been drawn out. The criticisms that shall be addressed are, the lack of cohesion within the revisionist analysis, its over-simplified assumptions (especially in terms of the aims of American foreign policy), lack of use of balanced sources, influence of political preferences within the thesis in which effects the objectivity, and lastly the context in which the revisionist thesis arose in.

    • Word count: 3098
  12. Book Review of "Stonewall: the Riots that Sparked the Gay Revolution" by David Carter

    This book begins by describing the scene in Greenwich Village New York, where the Stonewall Riots took place. It then goes on to describe how homosexuals were treated in the early 1960s, even giving detailed anecdotes from the lives of those who were treated unfairly by the police at that time. Along with details about people?s firsthand experiences, it provides a history of the Stonewall Inn, describing how it was created from a restaurant that used to be separated into two different places; a stable and a bakery.

    • Word count: 1348
  13. Comment on the following extract: Extract from the Kennedy Tapes, Off-The-record Meeting on Cuba, October 16, 1962, 6:30 P.M. - 7:55 P.M.

    Apart from JFK, they were unaware that this conversation was being taped and therefore this document itself was not meant for public hearing. This gives to historians a rare insight to the personal conversations and decision making processes that occurred within the walls of the white house. It shows the wariness of the President himself to make a decision concerning the Cuban missile crisis, the changing responses and attitudes to attacking Cuba and the importance of the perception from the American people.

    • Word count: 683
  14. How Useful Is the Term Americanization When Discussing post 1945 Western European Popular Culture?

    An initial discrepancy with characterizing post 1945 European popular culture as ?Americanized? is that American influence had been happening long before the end of the war. As early as 1930 the influential British literary critic F.R Levis had bemoaned that ?it is common place that we are being Americanised, but again a common place that seems, as a rule, to carry little understanding with it.?[2] Here Levis expresses the typical problem of employment of the term. Indeed it is often hard to distinguish Americanisation from the international process of modernisation, which again was in place well before 1945.

    • Word count: 2062
  15. Examine the emergence of 'urban African Culture'

    Described by Bozzoli as a ?patchwork quilt of patriarchies,? gender relations in South Africa varied between different communities, with the extent of women?s oppression depending on the colour of their skin.[4] While white women were undoubtedly in an advantageous position, the benefit of white supremacy was unable to lift the hardship of living in a strongly sexist and male dominated society. Those who made the decision to venture beyond their prescribed role of domesticity were to find that the wider world was as closed to the white woman as it was to the black, with a long established tradition of male privilege dominating and protecting almost all avenues of labour.

    • Word count: 6518
  16. Change in an Indian Village. Analysis of Charlotte and William Wiser's "Behind Mud Walls".

    These changes were social, economic, educational, technological, political and cultural but most significant of these were social, and educational. The social changes with an emphasis on role of women, the slowing down of the Jajmani system and the rise in education will be the focus of this paper. What was Karimpur like in 1930? Women in Karimpur in late 1920s were very traditional. They had a purdah (covering of the face) on at all times and were dependent on males (husbands, father or brothers). They were uneducated and illiterate. They had limited movement outside the house and were usually tied to raising children and doing household work.

    • Word count: 2155
  17. Research Proposal When Mao died his only legacy was the political and economic devastation of China.

    While the Marxist theory of communism focused more on a working class party, Mao was able to take the men and women of China?s farming class and bring about a far-reaching revolutionary change. The beginnings of Mao?s leadership lent great promise but his actions after the revolution in regards to the ?Great Leap Forwards? resulted in seeing millions of his countrymen die, than a change for the better. During Chairman Mao?s Great Leap Forward campaign, it seemed to be his genuine intention to bring China into a new age and ?walk on two legs?, as he like to refer to it.

    • Word count: 696
  18. In what ways do the themes of consumption and the informal economy, living standards and social welfare shed light on the nature of the socialist regime in Poland and the extent of its impact on the lives of ordinary people?

    fact that most people could still access alcohol is important in shedding light on the regime?s progression, as it demonstrates that despite times of economic hardship, the country did not represent complete stagnation, as people could still at least access certain goods. However, despite these small hints of progression, consumption nevertheless reveals the regime was predominantly corrupt, unpopular and backward in nature. Consumption reveals the corrupt nature of the regime by the way that certain consumer goods were reserved only for communist party members, and not for the masses.[5] This was particularly illustrated by Krystyna Bialek, a 65 year old

    • Word count: 4451
  19. World War 2 - two book reviews

    In doing so, he combines data found in previous handbooks with important new information resulting from Japanese language sources. Throughout Sunburst, Peattie points out several strengths and weaknesses that he saw with the Japanese Naval Air Power, or the tactics that were used during the early 1900s. One thing that he went back and forth on before he eventually saw it to be more of a weakness for the Japanese was the development of the Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter plane.

    • Word count: 1789
  20. Outline the role that Australian forces played in the Vietnam War and discuss the impact and change it had on Australia.

    Lyndon B. Johnson appropriately explained why his country?s going to war in these words, ?We did not choose to be the guardians of the gate, but there is no one else.? The only country that could rise up and stop the rapid spread of communism was in fact the United States. With reference to the Australian government website Vietnam War Commemoration, it suggests that one role the Australian forces played in the war was that the ?United States was keen to avoid the appearance of replacing French colonialism with American imperialism?? The contribution of other countries such as Australia helped

    • Word count: 1712
  21. Who are the Chinese Diaspora? Explain this term and explore the contemporary relevance of the Chinese Diaspora to mainland China. Please cite specific examples in your response.

    No coherent definition or justification /10 Body: Argument/Analysis: 1. Logical and coherent development 2. Adequate, but with limitations 3. Lacks logical development /20 Quality of Content and Identification of Relevant Issues: 1. Displays high level of understanding of the issues involved 2. Shows moderate level of understanding of the issues involved 3. Has little or no content relevant to the issues involved /10 Conclusion: 1. Draws the essay together, linking the thesis, argument and evidence 2. Draws most strands together, but lacks consistency 1. Not present or not adequate /10 Scope & Depth of Treatment Quality and Breadth of Research: 1.

    • Word count: 2848
  22. Essay on Malcolm X for Modern American History Class

    Even from his early childhood, Malcolm X was saddled setbacks that could have easily defeated a lesser person. Malcolm came from a troubled background in which the violent murder of his father caused the economic collapse of his family, spawning the mental deterioration of his mother. After that, Malcolm was shuttled around several different foster homes, never feeling truly settled. In his young adult life he was transient, and had many life experiences that would ingratiate him to his future followers.

    • Word count: 1654

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