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University Degree: 1950-1999

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  1. Analysis of book "Eichman in Jeruselum" by Hannah Arendt

    In his entire life, Eichmann was a joiner, in that he joined organizations in order to define himself, and had difficulties thinking for himself without doing so. He belonged to the YMCA and he then moved to Wander Vogel. It's so amazing that he did all this when he was still a youth. he failed in his attempt to join the a branch of Freemasonry, at that point a family friend who was to become a future war criminal Ernst Kaltenbrunner, encouraged him to join the SS.

    • Word count: 2118
  2. Communism in China

    This initial success was short lived though. For the next few years the Communist Party struggled in China. A failed labor union movement and a weak relationship with their nationalist allies left the Communist party poor. For a time Mao was disheartened though his interests were rekindled after the 1925 uprising in Shanghai. With his political ambitions renewed Mao moved to Guangdong to prepare for the Communist National Congress (Ch'en, 51). During that congress and in a Communist Party meeting in early 1927 Mao convinced many with his theory of violent revolution.

    • Word count: 4161
  3. What are the major factors that led to the end of the cold war?

    and perestroika (restructuring) were arguably the most important reforms for ending the Cold War. Glasnost reduced censorship and allowed true popular opinion to emerge, enabling the citizens of the USSR to see how the West was living, making many in the Soviet Bloc unhappy with the comparable living standards and lifestyle (LaFeber 1991: 328). Perestroika was aimed at reforming the economy by allowing foreign investment, promoting private initiatives and decentralising industry, but also to revolutionise the political set up, by allowing two thirds of a new legislature to be elected by popular choice (Crockatt, 2006: 116).

    • Word count: 1423
  4. Cuban Missle Crisis

    The plan to thwart was simple enough and been done several times in the past with much success, including; Iranian Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh in 1953 and Guatemalan President Jacobo Arbenz Guzm´┐Żn in 1954. The United States government gave several million dollars of aid to anti-Castro Cubans, in hopes of a counter-attack consisting of guerilla warfare. This kept American hands clean of any blood at a relatively cheap price. However Castro and his followers proved to be much tougher than anticpated.

    • Word count: 2944
  5. "War in the trenches"? To what extent were Church and State opposed in the GDR?

    The relationship between the Church and State in East Germany has been variously characterised, from full-scale conflict4 to uneasy co-operation.5 Between these two extremes, the contemporary German theologian and church historian Johannes Althausen has argued that the situation was more akin to "war in the trenches"; a situation of stalemate, with each side ideologically hostile to the other but unable or unwilling to enter into open conflict.6 In this essay I will examine how far Althausen's description of the relationship between the Church and State in the GDR can be described in this way.

    • Word count: 1935
  6. New York Subway

    Using two of his inventions, a hydraulic tunneling machine and a pneumatic subway, Beach proposed a new type of subway that relied on pneumatics. In 1870, Beach had designed a pneumatic (air-driven) system, which he Sahiholamal 2 demonstrated at the American Institute Fair in 1867, and he thought it practical for transit operation in underground tunnels. He applied for a permit from the Tammany Hall city government, but because of the opposition of William Marcy Tweed, the political boss of New York City, Beach was denied and therefore, he found it necessary to construct the experimental subway in secret, in an attempt to show that subterranean transit was viable.

    • Word count: 2824
  7. Do Great Men change the course of history? Discuss with reference to either Lenin or Stalin or Gorbachev

    The other major area I am going to look at is his battle of ideals with Trotsky and what this meant for history. Socialism in one country/Permanent revolution The rise of Stalin to leadership, first within the party and then within the state must be seen in this perspective. His importance begins to emerge with the growing bureaucratisation of party and state. But the bureaucracy in its turn developed and expanded because of Russia's extreme backwardness and isolation; it was the product of a revolution in retreat, pinned down within the frontiers of a poverty stricken economy, dependent on a huge mass of primitive peasants.

    • Word count: 1824
  8. How can the Cuban Missile Crisis be seen as a defeat for the United States?

    Indeed, Kennedy did react well to the Crisis, turning to negotiations rather than war and his rational approach to the Crisis certainly deserves credit. US media presented the resolution to tCHNKWKS ���TEXTTEXT�wFDPPFDPPzFDPCFDPC|FDPCFDPC~FDPCFDPC�STSHSTSH�hSTSHSTSHh��SYIDSYID �SGP SGP "�INK INK &�BTEPPLC *�BTECPLC B�(FONTFONTj�pFTN FTN Ú>FTN FTN `�>TOKNPLC �4STRSPLC ��HPRNTWNPR�<FRAMFRAM"��the Crisis aHow can the Cuban Missile Crisis be seen as a defeat for the United States? This essay will seek to offer an explanation as to how the Cuban Missile Crisis can be seen as a defeat for the US.

  9. How Far Were The 60s Distintive In Their Own Rights

    (Block 6, p18) Within each period, points of change can be identified by attitudes and who or what began to dominate. For example, Lawrence Stone named a short period in the 1640s 'Affective Individualism'. Other 'phrases' are 'the Revolution' and 'Enlightenment France'. For a clearer example of how periodisation works we can look at the contents of a book that covers long periods of time, you will see that each period is divided and these periods indicate changes. This standard practice has been followed by many.

    • Word count: 2090
  10. Explain the success and failures of Mao in China

    and from this point onwards Liu Shaoqi ("a moderate") governed China, whilst Mao reminded in the background. Mao didn't like the "moderates" whom he thought were creating a "new middle class of party officials" and were taking a step back from traditional communists' views. However China under the "moderates", saw a steady economic recovery, however when Mao saw a weakening of power he started to plan his comeback. Therefore in 1963 Mao published the "Little Red Book" which was part of his cult of personality and became a bible to most people.

    • Word count: 1693
  11. Compare the Roles of Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X

    He was self-taught man who received little schooling and rose to greatness on his own intelligence. Malcolm X himself stated, "I am not educated nor am I an expert in any particular field but I am sincere and my sincerity is credential"3. King grew up in a household with parents who were supporters of Integration whereas Malcolm X was surrounded by the teachings of his Nationalist mother and father; who was a dedicated organiser for Marcus Gervey's UNIA.4 In 'Malcolm X: The man and his times' John Henrik states that King and X's childhoods are 'a study in polarity'.

    • Word count: 2263
  12. "Khrushchev's leadership was a failure," Do you agree?

    The Virgin Land scheme was a good idea for Khrushchev, but made a big mistake, after a good first season the failure to rotate crops and use fertilisers to feed the earth which caused soil erosion. Windstorms were partly to blame for this, but rightly Khrushchev was heavily blamed. Harvests in 1963 were so bad the USSR had to buy large amounts of grain from the US and Canada. Khrushchev made big steps into the unknown which was space. A race with the US to get into space first was won by the USSR.

    • Word count: 594
  13. How and why did America's role in the world change in the 20th century?

    At the beginning of the 20th century it can be seen that American foreign interests were concentrated on relations with Latin America. After the Treaty of Paris was signed in 1898 America dominated Cuba until US troops left in 1902. The Platt Amendment, authorised America to establish a government that's was to be run by the people of Cuba. The Roosevelt Corollary was the next step in changing America's role in the world. The amendment to the Monroe Doctrine allowed the United States to intervene in the internal affairs of a country should it need policing; justifying any American intervention in Latin American affairs.

    • Word count: 1676
  14. Why did George Bush lose the presidency in 1992, given that he was vastly experienced in foreign policy-making and had already "won" the Cold War and the Gulf War?

    President Bush stressed stability and prudence when it came to foreign policy throughout his campaign in 1988. It even could have applied to all of his decisions, not just on foreign policy. He was very cautious and maybe with a lack of imagination, when it came to change. He also had a team that consisted of people with the same kind of views. James Baker, the Secretary of State, Brent Scowcroft, the National Security Advisor, and Dick Cheney, the Secretary of Defence, were all representatives of views of suspicion of the Soviets and vigilance towards transformations.

    • Word count: 2224
  15. How far do you agree with the view that it was nuclear weapons that preserved peace between the superpowers in the period 1945-1991?

    Also, it must be noted that nuclear weapons did not inherently prevent conflicts from breaking out between the superpowers (here, we include the diplomatic and verbal antagonism, and globalised conflicts like Vietnam and the Middle East which can be seen to some extent as indirect expressions of aggression between the superpowers) - rather, what was needed was the widely held belief that the use of nuclear weapons would spell the end of the world, coupled with the notion that effective suicide was an undesirable means to eliminate the other ideological rival.

    • Word count: 2581
  16. To what extent did the world come close to nuclear war during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962?

    This was a stark contrast to the capitalist system in the USA, which was based on private ownership and individualism. These systems were based not only on ideology but also on pragmatism. This is because ideally, the USA wished to preserve the capitalist system to benefit the country whilst the USSR saw a socialist society as the ideal way forward. However, this was generally difficult to put into practice. For example, following his rise to power, Khrushchev realised that he had to break with Stalinism, but also had to maintain some of his policies- if Khrushchev had moved forcefully against

    • Word count: 1742
  17. Why Did Senator Joseph McCarthy Have Sucha Big Impact on American Politics and Society in the 1950's?

    Americans were already terrified of America being taken over by communists and there were quite a few reasons why. One of the biggest reasons was that, in 1949, Chinese communists took power in China. This frightened the Americans because it showed them that communism was spreading and it made them think that if communists could take over such a big, powerful country as China then they could easily take over a big, powerful country like America. Virtually the same thing happened in 1950 when communist North Korea invaded pro-American South Korea. This also meant that communism was spreading and becoming a much bigger threat to America.

    • Word count: 963
  18. What was 'containment', and to what extent did the US and UK work together to implement it?

    Containment was the doctrine which was to define and form the basis of American foreign policy. Harry Truman, president of the United States, could either try to 'rollback' Communism, which meant going onto the offensive to throw Stalin out of eastern Europe, or he could attempt to halt the flow of Communism into western Europe or into other areas of the world. As Truman possessed the atomic bomb and America was militarily superior to the USSR at the end of the war, the first option, 'rollback'. had supporters in some sections of Truman's administration; however, it would mean almost certain conflict and the possession of the A-bomb did not necessarily mean that its use would 'rollback' Communism - obliterating Eastern European cities, full of potential converts to American democracy, made no political sense.

    • Word count: 3242
  19. Sophia Marinho de Lemos

    The over-centralized, inefficient and restrictive communist government of Eastern Europe was failing economically and as the populations of these countries were gradually more exposed to the West through media during the 1980's it became apparent that communism could not survive within these republics for much longer. This essay seeks to examine Gorbachev's contribution to the disintegration of the Soviet bloc and evaluate the significance of his administration in relation to other factors that correspondingly contributed to the fall of the Soviet Union.

    • Word count: 2693
  20. Critical Review: A History of Postwar

    Pethybridge suggests that Khrushchev's rule was not as secure as Stalin's was and therefore could not afford to be a totalitarian ruler like Stalin. Other historians support Pethybridge's view that after Stalin's death the country's Style of leadership changed dramatically some even suggest, that the changes began Almost Immediately after Stalin's death, "there were cautious movements towards de- Sralinisation."4 They all agree these changes were necessary due to the state of the Country both economically and socially, Pethybridge suggests if Stalin had lived he would not have had to make these changes as his power was secure due to being

    • Word count: 1518
  21. Effect of Gorbachev's Glasnost and Perestroika reforms was to destroy rather than to rebuild Soviet society.' Discuss. Mikhail Gorbachev grew up with the new optimism

    Perestroika, which translates to English as restructuring, was Gorbachev's plan for all areas of Soviet society, namely the economy. The day before Gorbachev became General Secretary, he is quoted as saying, "We can't go on living like this any more." People had been saying the same for years, however Gorbachev really meant it and was not afraid to do something about it. This said however, during his first few days as General Secretary, not much seemed to change and Gorbachev appeared to be following in the footsteps of his predecessors. This changed on 15th March 1985. He began his perestroika with the instructions he gave he Party Committee.

    • Word count: 2194
  22. How Successful was Soviet Foreign Policy under Khrushchev and Brezhnev

    In this era Khrushchev also attempted to develop the soviet standing in the newly liberated third world, however I will focus on relations with the West, the US and China in answering this question. In order to contemplate the success of Khrushchev's foreign policy, it is first important to determine his personal views and his ideological outlook which coloured his policies. Khrushchev has been described in many ways, from a 'colourful, impulsive individualist... the bold iconoclastic reformer... the ambitious adventurer'3 to a 'hare-brained schemer'4.

    • Word count: 3832
  23. Presidential Deceit - The President of the United States is under constant scrutiny.

    According to Rose, if the presidential budget is not fully accepted it hinders presidential power. The truth is that most presidential budgets are passed give or take a small percent. The problem with viewing the presidency as inherently good is failure to realize the true nature of presidential actions. Having a pessimistic outlook on the presidency ignites further scrutiny into presidential decisions. If the presidency is looked at as inherently deceitful, unwholesome and unhealthy, people would be less likely deceived by taking everything the President says at face value.

    • Word count: 1128
  24. Origins and responsibilities for starting the Cold War.

    He predicted the bipolarity struggle but not necessarily the hostility one hundred years earlier. Lenin said that communist revolutions would happen spontaneously. One of Stalin's major flaws was that he discredited this and felt that communism must be a result of coercion. Even Nikita Khrushchev thought that after World War II that Europe would naturally "embrace socialism" while capitalism collapsed. This was never the case, which angered Stalin. The Anglo-American sphere of influence would increase largely by consent, but the Soviets could only maintain themselves by coercion and expansion.

    • Word count: 1281
  25. Was reform of the Soviet System possible or even advisable? Consider either the policies of Khrushchev or Gorbachev.

    Greater freedom of discussion, and scope for autonomous social groups would characterise a society in which party state institutions no longer owned and managed all spheres of activity and again this would benefit the Russian society and lead to democratisation, so again this would be advisable. Perestroika meant the reconstructuring of the economy and at that time this seemed possible. The aim was to set the economy on a path to catch up with Western economies and with Japan, and encourage the introduction of new technologies, all vital for the maintenance of the Soviet Union as a world power.

    • Word count: 1242

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