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University Degree: 1950-1999
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How and why did Castro in Cuba come to power? For what purpose and with what success did Castro use the power he had won?
When Castro attempted to run for Congress in 1952, Batista revolted and overthrew the government once again. From this year on, Castro was determined to make a change to Batista's regime and published 'The Accuser' in seek for support for his cause against the corrupt dictator. In 1953, Castro started his way to the top and had gained support from Universities and farmers with 200 followers. Furious with the actions of Batista, Castro attempted a coup at Moncada. With 144 men at hand, Castro hoped to even the odds by the elements of surprise and confusion to capture the 1,000-soldier garrison.
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At this time, Fidel was expecting to gain the presidency through an election, and planned to run for Congress. Unfortunately, on March 10, 1952, the constitutional government was overthrown by Fulgencio Batista, a strong military influence in Cuba since 1933. Because of this, Fidel Castro, and a group of followers organized a rebellion. He led a civilian armed attack against the Moncada military barracks on July 26, 1953. The attack failed and Castro was sentenced to prison. He was imprisoned from 1953 to 1955.
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'UN activity in the Korean War was nothing more than a cover for US anti-communism.' How far do you agree with this view?
could no longer remain neutral while communist powers trampled the free nations of the world. Therefore he ordered General Douglas MacArthur to provide whatever assistance necessary to repel this invasion. General MacArthur obliged and in no time the American was appointed head of UN forces. One might wonder how the UN came to pass such an act, especially when communist Russia, part of the UN, has the power of veto. Surely if they allowed the act to pass then it wasn't simply a matter of anti-communism? Well, the Russians naively decided to boycott the UN in protest of the UN not accepting the now Red Chinese Government as the 'official' Chinese government, and not allowing China into the UN.
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All throughout Haynes' book, Reagan is portrayed as being a sort of bumbling president just ambling along and not really being concerned with a whole lot of what was actually happening. Evidence suggests, however, that Reagan wasn't really disinterested in what was happening, just that he was more focused on the end results of political happenings than on the means of reaching those ends. Although Reagan did run in 1968, he lost the republican nomination. He ran again and failed to receive the republican nomination in 1976.
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Organized crime controlled tourism, gambling, drugs, and prostitution. --> Cubans humiliated d. Politicians anxious to receive the spoils of office fought gang wars against one another, turning the streets into a violent political forum. e. 1940s: The economy was strong during the 1940s, mainly due to an increase in trade during and directly after World War II (1939-1945). f. 1945-1948: sugar production rose 40%. (after world war 2) i. Sugar producers' profits increased by hundreds of millions of dollars. ii. The resulting increase in demand led to higher prices for many products, causing severe hardship for the poor. iii.
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They are on the state, leadership, ideology and economical aspects of the Khrushchev period. I left out the chapters on science and technology and foreign affairs in order to concentrate on the internal developments, which would turn to be more important in affecting the nature of future of the Soviet Union both in the Khrushchev and Gorbachev periods. All the chapters envisages that Khrushchev made a great deal to change the structure of the Soviet state as an ardent follower of Marxist-Leninist ideology. He was believed in communist ideals and pursued his policies accordingly.
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"The negative attitude of many former East Germans in the 1990's to the new unified Germany can be attributed solely to economic factors". For what reasons would you agree or disagree with this statement?
On the other hand, the East German Economy was in an extremely unstable position in 1989. The quality of produce had taken a sharp fall and there were many consumer shortages in cars, certain meats, fruits and vegetables. Also, goods such as personal computers became excessively expensive. As well as these problems, there were some positive features of the Communist economy for the East German people. One of the most positive was the fact that unemployment was not even officially recognised.
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The Americans tried to push Batista back into power but it didn't work, so the Americans stopped buying Cuba's sugar, this was bad news for Cuba because America was its main buyer. That is when Khrushchev came in with his "offer", Russia would buy Cuba's sugar, but Cuba's price to pay was working with Russia in political affairs and basing the missiles on Cuban mainland for the embarrassment of America. America found out about this, and quickly came back by making a "quarantine zone".
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By 1989, Hungary was a leading charge in the fundamental political, social and economic change that would sweep through Eastern Europe, ending the communist Warsaw Pact.
Gorbachev had led the effort for glasnost, but it took the Chernobyl disaster to see it forward. This new openness allowed Hungary and other Eastern European countries to reexamine its past, open its press, have publicly differing opinions. This new openness "pushed" Hungary to more open debates and eventually the formation of no less than a half dozen political parties challenging the old order by the end of 1990.3 While Gorbachev was pushing the communist nations with glasnost, the West was continuing to "pull" from Europe. The British Broadcasting Company (BBC), Radio Liberty (RL) and Radio Free Europe (RFE)
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In contrast to this, in January 1918, the US president Woodrow Wilson issued his Fourteen Points based on the ideals of democracy and capitalism. He promoted the principles of self-determination, open markets and collective security. The differing ideologies were already set in place. Wilson and Lenin highlighted their countries policies and how each country should maintain their superior set of principles. The importance of a country's ideology can be witnessed here as already, years before the outbreak of the Cold War, the policies of capitalism and the policies of communism stand in direct contrast to each other.
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She helped create the United Nations (UN), the International Monetary Fund (IMF) at Bretton Woods and other international organisations. America hoped that her wartime alliances would last and that loans to individual countries would be enough to restore prosperity. However America became concerned with Europe in 1947 when communist threats developed in Greece, Italy and France and post-war recovery faltered. Although most countries were making a recovery by 1946, it was not a balanced recovery and by late 1946 it was becoming clear that full employment and productivity was not achievable. By 1947 most European countries had developed serious payment deficits with the USA and were running short on credit.
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In what ways, and to what extent, did Eisenhower's foreign policy demonstrate the limits of American power in the 1950s?
Fear of the spread of communism had been worsened by the orations and accusations of McCarthy, (although these were being taken less and less seriously until he was eventually censored by Congress in 1954). Despite this, popular opinion in the USA was clearly against communism and the public which had agreed with Truman's policy of 'containment' now wanted to see communism slowly 'rolled back'. This was a policy which was never delivered by Eisenhower; the failure of the 'roll back' policy is illustrated by the USA's failure to aid Hungary after the revolt led by Imre Nagy in October 1956.
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dictator Fulgencio Batista. He had opened the way for large-scale gambling in Havana and reorganized the Cuban state so that he and his political appointees could make the best of the country's riches. Cuba was profitable for American business and organized crime with very little being said about democracy or the rights of the average Cuban (Sierra Internet Site). Socially, Cuba was in severe turmoil with widespread discontent dominating the scene. 2. Guevara's life and career before his involvement in the Cuban Revolution Ernesto Guevara was born in Rosario, Argentina on June 14, 1928 to a fairly privileged and politically active middle class family.
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With this the Americans hoped to take advantage of China's vast resources. However, the foreign spheres of influence, threatened this idea. The Americans attempted negotiations toward an "Open door" policy, where America would be guaranteed equal trading rights to all parts of China. The nations controlling the spheres replied to the Americans that although they liked the idea of an 'Open Door' policy, they could not support or enforce it. The Americans then decided that although the foreign nations would not support it, they accepted it in principal, and this ladies and gentlemen gave the US rights to an open door policy, which they declared as "Final and Definitive".
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Both Castro and Kennedy strove (or claimed to strive) for the same ultimate goal - peace and prosperity in Latin America, though through vastly different means. What were these means, and how were they different?
His bold claims included that much of the devastation and poverty in Latin America was a result of government-favored American monopolies on many of the most critical necessities, including electricity, telephone services, public services, mines, land ownership, and the notorious United Fruit Company. Also, Castro argued that his Revolutionary Government was facing the ire of the United States based on the fact that his regime had come into power by force. The United States opposed such insurgence despite the fact that Castro hailed it as necessary to improve living conditions in underdeveloped countries.
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US leaders repeatedly presented the rivalry with the Soviet Union as a moral struggle (Hess 1979: 171). On the eve of the Vietnam War, President Truman had refused to recognize Ho Chi Minh's Democratic Republic of Vietnam since he viewed it as a Soviet proxy (Herring 1979: 8). The Soviet Union provided enormous support to the North Vietnamese, although the Soviet troops did not involve. To prevent further aggression of Soviet Union, the American leaders assumed that if they had to involve in the war in Vietnam, otherwise the Soviet Union would expand its sphere of influence into South East Asia.
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Millions of people were released from prisons and camps and spread the word of the evil regime of Stalin. This later won the leadership for Khrushchev to lead in power. Khrushchev introduced many new different schemes for agriculture and industry. There were the Virgin Land Schemes, 13 million hectares in the West would be ploughed up and 20 million tonnes of grain would be produced. Collective farms were reduced in numbers, and tractor farms were closed down, instead tractors were produced for the farms.
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Fidel Castro, however, led a successful revolution against Batista and took control over Cuba in 1939. The US government had suspicions that Castro was a communist, these suspicions grew as Castro began a thorough programme of reform of Cuba's economy and society, for example the government began to nationalise industries and to take over land and redistribute among the peasants. Castro was aware of the danger of falling out with the US government but was determined to carry out reforms.
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Fidel Castro emerged from the foothills of the Sierra Mountains as a symbol of freedom and equality, mottos of the long awaited Cuban revolution. This was in 1959, Fidel Castro has managed to maintain his absolute power for over 44 years.
Fidel Castro's social reform was also responsible for introducing more women into the education system as well as the work force. With education now more accessible, women accounted for 50% of university students and comprised 35% of the work force by the early 1980's. Women also became increasingly involved in leadership positions. By mid 1970's women accounted for 13% party membership along with 7% national trade union membership. Then, by early 1980's, women accounted for 32.4% of party memberships along with 40% of national union trade membership.
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After being reelected in 1884, Diaz secured passage of an amendment to the constitution permitting a succession of presidential terms, and remained in power until 1911. His regime was marked by notable achievements and also by a brutal tyranny. Diaz suppressed manifestations of the resulting social discontent with an iron hand until the Mexican Revolution of 1910, led by Francisco Madero and others. Diaz was compelled to resign and leave the country and died in 1915 while in exile in Paris.
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To what extent was the CIA's opposition to Fidel Castro's rule, along with its connections to the mafia, responsible for the assassination of President Kennedy?
These events may have become the source behind the reasoning to assassinate president Kennedy. The revolution in Cuba delivered a serious blow to the US strategic and economic interests in Latin American countries. It violated two canons of Washingtons Latin American policy. First, the revolution annexed property belonging to the US. This was done with out compensation, which was a cardinal rule in the US economic expansion policies. Second, Castro's actions were considered as being unacceptable when he had embraced communism and aligned Cuba with the Soviet Union.
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declared war on Spain and captured Cuba. This enabled the Cuban Republic to be founded in 1909. However, Cuban independence was limited by the United States. During the early 20th century, U.S. investment of businesses in Cuba grew. By the 1930's it became part of the Cuban economy. Cuban leader Ram�n Grau San Mart�n enacted legislation that reduced the influence of the U.S. government on Cuban businesses. The U.S., in retaliation, supported the Cuban military officer Fulgencio Batista, who overthrew the Grau government in 1934. Batista was the army chief of Cuba. He installed a series of "puppet presidents".
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Joseph Stalin sought to advance the interests of the Soviet state and his own regime. In 1946 the "Iron Curtain" was dropped separating the U.S.S.R. and its satellite nations from the rest of the free world. Iran, Greece, and Turkey and much of Europe seemed at risk to Soviet expansion. Asia was another target for communism with Russian troops controlling the northern half of Korea. Soviet expansion was often achieved through violence and terror. In 1946 President Harry Truman faced the communist threat with a policy of containment. The United States decided that they must apply "Unalterable counterforce at every point where the Soviets show signs of encroaching upon the interests of a peaceful and stable world."(Davidson 796)
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According to Frunze, the military doctrine outlined above could only be implemented in the state where 'the power belongs to labour' and where 'the working class has the leading role.' He also emphasized the inevitability of war as the soviet state was the only stronghold of socialism, and therefore, soviet military doctrine must be shaped accordingly. The strategy of the red army was a remaining ambiguity: defensive or offensive. In 1923 I. I. Vatsetis commander in chief of the red army forces and professor of the red army academy expanded the issue of the military doctrine further by stating that the war cannot be won by engagements and battles but by winning a campaign.
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In tentative, post-World War II America, Truman's adept address to Congress, diligent response to the communist threat in the Balkans, and awareness of the need for a democratic stronghold throughout Eastern Europe all contributed to the aggressive reform of America's proactive foreign policy. Truman delicately avoided any provocations surrounding the Soviet Union and the Middle East in order to keep American support, and instead emphasized the economic and political Portele 2 disparity in Greece and Turkey, comprehensively conveying the plight of the two nations to Congress and the American people.
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