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University Degree: Philosophy and Theology

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  1. Examples of how fallacies can be used in argumentative writing.

    The US does not consider it terrorism when hundreds of thousands of our sons and brothers in Iraq died for lack of food or medicine. So, there is no base for what the US says and this saying does not affect us.... Explanation: Tu Quoque is a very common fallacy in which one attempts to defend oneself or another from criticism by turning the critique back against the accuser. This is a classic Red Herring since whether the accuser is guilty of the same, or a similar, wrong is irrelevant to the truth of the original charge.

    • Word count: 3509
  2. Can We Justify Our Deductive Processes? I will begin by exploring the basic problem with deduction why it seems that any attempt to justify deduction is doomed to circularity, which would seem to make the task of constructing a valid justification im

    DANIEL BREGMAN November 2009 Table of Contents Abstract 2 Table of Contents 3 Can we Justify our Deductive Processes? 4 1. Introduction 4 2. The Problem with Deduction 4 3. Civilised Circles 7 4. Dissident Logics 10 5. Conclusion 12 Bibliography 13 Can we Justify our Deductive Processes? 1. Introduction Deductive reasoning is something that we use constantly in our everyday lives, but in philosophy, and particularly its more analytic traditions, it takes on an even more important role, as the only way we have of moving from one line of argument to the next without a risk of error.

    • Word count: 5191
  3. Marx once famously wrote, Hitherto, philosophers have merely interpreted the world; the point is: to change it. In what ways do the Frankfurt School theorists (Marcuse, Horkheimer, Adorno) address this challenge?

    The theorists are united, in principle, with what they see as the continuation of a Marxist project of developing an emancipatory philosophy in the form of 'Critical Theory', whose central aim is defined by Horkheimer as: "the emancipation of human beings from the circumstances that enslave them" (Horkheimer 1976:219). Hence, despite seeming to reject a number of aspects of Marx's writings, especially concerning the proletariat as ultimately the universal agent of social transformation, the theorists nevertheless seek to continue what they see as the Marxist project of emancipating people from the circumstances which dominate them.

    • Word count: 4567
  4. WWII Analysis

    The first element of combat power used effectively in the Battle of Saipan was firepower. Firepower is defined as the destructive force essential to overcoming the enemy's ability and will to fight.6 The Japanese first experienced the American destructive force on 11 June 1944 when the heavy bombers of the Seventh and Thirteenth Air Forces, along with naval ships, began bombarding the western beaches of the island.7 Although the four day air and naval bombardment failed to completely clear the beach, it drove the majority of the Japanese troops from the beaches, making the amphibious assault for General Ralph Smith's

    • Word count: 3027
  5. Culpa e prazer.

    Ele � algo central na vida cotidiana, ocupando, constantemente (mais mesmo do que gostar�amos), nosso imagin�rio. O consumo assume lugar prirnordial como estruturador dos valores e pr�ticas que regulam rela�es sociais, que constroem identidades e definem mapas culturais. Tamb�m, como � pr�prio de fen�menos deste porte, demanda, insistentemente, reflex�es, interpreta�es e teorias. Assim, minha inten��o ao pesquisar o consumo � indicar certas pistas para uma leitura de sua l�gica cultural como via de acesso ao imagin�rio contempor�neo e, em particular, aquele que se localiza na chamada cultura de massa.

    • Word count: 4276
  6. Free essay
  7. Nazism and Fascism

    A. Yes, you can upload the file as many times as you like before the deadline. Only the last version you upload will be saved. Q. Can I upload a file from home, or only from College? A. You can upload a file from home or anywhere else that has an internet connection. Q. Are the deadlines for submission of coursework final? A. Yes, the deadlines are final. The VLE will not allow you to upload work after 23:55 on the day of the deadline and failure to submit work on time will result in a mark of 0 unless there are extenuating circumstances.

    • Word count: 3407
  8. Change in Art

    The impact of his father's leaving, was a hard situation for Jacob to grasp because he was so young. But he did understand that he now was responsible for the care of his siblings and mother. His mother, Rosa Lee, struggled to find work and was not making enough money to support her children. She was forced to move to Harlem, New York, which enabled her to seek out a new paying job. Jacob and his siblings were left in foster care until their mother was able to save a sufficient amount of money to send for them.

    • Word count: 3556
  9. Free essay

    Critically discuss Freud's account of the origin of religion

    more by science into the psychology of the unconscious...and to transform metaphysics into metapsychology.3' Freud does not provide one single, coherent account of the origins of religions as the subject arises in a plethora of his works. However the common thread in all such works is that religion is a neurosis, a maladaptive response to the repression of Oedipal guilt. Freud notes that obsessive behaviour, what might be termed Obsessive Compulsive Disorder today, resembles acts of religious ritual. Both are compulsive acts which resolve the anxiety of the individual; the compulsive hand washing of the obesessional neurotic is no less 'sacred' an act than repeated Rosary recital.

    • Word count: 3063

    At the end of the battle, we will clearly see that there are numerous critical reasons, which contributed to the success of the Allied and the failure of the axis in this battle. BACK GROUND - WESTERN FRONT IN EARLY 1917 7. The British Army on the Western Front in early 1917 was 1,200,000 strong. The French Army had 2,600,000 men, and with the addition of the Belgian Army and the small Portuguese contingent, the Allies mustered a total of 3,900,000 fighting men.

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    Robert Patton and Anna Mercer Patton bore John Mercer Patton. John Patton married Margaret French Williams. One of the sons of John and Margaret was the first George Smith Patton died as a brigadier general in the Civil War. Later, the son of the Civil War commander, George Patton married to Ruth Wilson, who bore George Smith Patton, Jr., the future Commanding General of the Third Army. He was born on November 11, 1885. BACKGROUND HISTORY THE CHILDHOOD 7.

    • Word count: 4592
  12. Russell's Theory of Descriptions

    'K' and 'L' refer to two unspecified properties of 'x'. Test one: x is K x is L So, x is K and L Test two: x is K or L So, x is K or x is L Test three: x is K So, something is K Definite descriptions pass all three tests for singular terms. However, Russell's theory is that definite descriptions are not singular terms, but complex quantificational phrases. Russell's specific proposal is that propositions that share a form with "the author of Waverley was Scotch"5 (the form "the W is S"), have the following truth conditions: 1.

    • Word count: 3026
  13. An Exegetical Study of Genesis 15

    The world of Genesis 15 is one that is open to the supernatural - Yahweh3 speaks and makes promises and prophecies.4 It is also theologized narrative in the way that it functions within Genesis as a restatement of the promises of Yahweh in the form of a covenant, and in the ways in which it points forward to events yet to occur. Yet this text is not presented as a myth either - there is a sharpness and detail to the characterization of Abraham that suggests he is to be taken as a real, "flesh and blood" figure and not

    • Word count: 3039
  14. Evaluate the Causal Argument for the Identity Theory of the Mind

    As a starting point, it seems prudent to point out the reasons why one might even suggest such a theory. Why do we associate our concept of the brain with the complex and elusive 'mind?' As Kim2 points out 'why are we inclined to think that the brain is "the seat of our mental life?" as Descartes put it."' Kim argues it is not A Priori and is in fact is a suggestion based on the empirical, and is one that is fairly easy to substantiate.

    • Word count: 3250
  15. What is the extent of the importance of isolation in utopian and dystopian discourses (ancient and contemporary)?

    However, the example of the Amish people is one case where people have formed and maintained an almost entirely separate community that restricts and resists contact with the outside world, and works for communal rather than individual benefit. Originally descendants of the Swiss Anabaptists, the Amish communities are now scattered in various densities around North America, with one major branch residing in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. The lives of the residents were aggressively disrupted in October 2006, when Charles Carl Roberts IV - a truck driver who collected milk from the Amish communities and delivered it to outside dairies, and was one of the few 'Englishers' (non-Amish)

    • Word count: 3227
  16. Free essay

    heidegger and marcuse

    As a dialectical theory of rationality is based on the Frankfurt school. (Freeburg)7 Freeburg goes onto say, that Marcuse's theory of technology is based on an ontological understanding of being. (Freenburg)8 The difference Heidegger has is that he saw television as "the peak of this abolition of every possibility of remoteness" (Heidegger)9 he claims that in technology seeming "abolition of remoteness" we become distant from ourselves and things around us. (Wrathall & Malpas)10 they go on to say technology is, as Heidegger acknowledges, a mode of disclosedness or revealing, its particular en-framing of things.

    • Word count: 3409
  17. Identify the first four ecumenical councils of the Church, outlining their main doctrinal and practical work and decisions. Assess their overall importance.

    The latter, therefore, played a major role in the convocation and the procedure of the council. The Churches autonomy was preserved for Eusebius does not indicate the Emperor voted which probably suggests that he did not have the right to vote as this was the privilege of the senators and therefore the bishops. Precedence in the council also went to the supreme see of Rome, an inheritance of the most influential position in the Roman senate, the princeps senatus. The latter exercised a considerable influence as they were the first to voice their opinion and they were the first to vote.3 The most important task of the council was to reject the Arian confession of faith in its formation of the Nicaen creed: "...

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  18. It has sometimes been remarked how much has been written, both by friends and enemies, concerning the truth of religion, and h

    In the present period of history, however, we seem to have arrived at a time when, among the arguments for and against religion, those which relate to its usefulness assume an important place. We are in an age of weak beliefs, and in which such belief as men have is much more determined by their wish to believe than by any mental appreciation of evidence. The wish to believe does not arise only from selfish but often from the most disinterested feelings; and though it cannot produce the unwavering and perfect reliance which once existed, it fences round all that to ask the use of believing it could not possibly occur to them.

    • Word count: 13132
  19. "An acceptance of the practice of abortion is incompatible with Christian belief in the sanctity of life, but not with the attitudes of ethical philosophers or popular politicians." Discuss.

    Alternatively, methotrexate can be injected to terminate the pregnancy by halting the growth of the foetus; this is again followed by the administration of misoprostol. Clinical abortions are physical, rather than chemical, procedures to terminate and expel a foetus. The varying techniques employed depend on the length of gestation, but are most commonly used during the second trimester of the pregnancy. Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA) is appropriate up to the eighth week of pregnancy, and involves the use of a syringe to pull the foetal tissue out through the cervical opening.

    • Word count: 7001
  20. The geopolitical differences of the Netherlands and Germany seemed to have formed the origin or established the roots

    aims at elaborating on possible other reasons for the distanced relations between the Dutch and the Germans that are rooted in earlier history. The main argument draws on different geopolitical and religious developments that seem to have shaped the respective attitudes divergently. Having in mind the argument of Max Weber that religion has impacted the development of culture, the influence of the Reformation and out of it. the fruition of different Protestant movements, thus, Lutheran in most parts of Germany and Calvinism in most parts of the Netherlands, will be analysed according to those terms.

    • Word count: 6429
  21. 'Hospitality is generosity, unconditional love in action, rooted in Jesus' words and examples

    There are two main ways that the theme of Hospitality is approached in Luke. One being the symbolic nature of meals and banquets and secondly, the acceptance of outcasts. An examination of several parables from Luke's gospel will demonstrate the ways that the theme is approached in terms of Jesus' mission and ministry. To be clear, the mission of Jesus can be seen in Lk 19:10, 'For the son of man came to seek and to save what was lost'. We see here the notion of salvation as the savior of men. 'Salvation is also the coming of the Kingdom of God, the coming of God's reign of Justice, to deconstruct the worldly systems and values at odds with the purpose of God.

    • Word count: 3504
  22. Many of the set texts involve a physical journey of some kind (Perfume and The Hard Boiled Wonderland and the End of the World) Choose two texts and examine the significance of these journeys in the relation to the philosophy that informs each text.

    Therefore man (asexual) takes on a central role in the in the quest for motivation and meaningfulness of existence. A critique will be made of the society that surrounds and coerces the constructs and the author's (using the constructs) reaction to the coercion from the super structure, utilising the philosophical thoughts of Nietzsche, Delueuze, Guattari, Jung and Freud, with fleeting references to others. Murakami's book is framed within a Freudian philosophical thought of the conscious and the subconsciousiv. He introduces his readers to a juxtaposition of seemingly two unrelated worlds: The mystical world with unicorns and an impenetrable wall, and a high tech world wherein man has become machine.

    • Word count: 5672
  23. Comparing, Contrasting and Paralleling Hinduism, Buddhism and Sikhism

    in the Brahmanas, stories about heroes and gods in the Great Epics, and the answers to questions of life and death in the Upanishads. They are all written in Sanskrit. The Hindu is a cyclical faith, that is to say it is one that believes in reincarnation of the soul (atman). They believe that a person's karma determines the direction in which the soul moves. If one performs good deeds throughout his or her life, he or she will be closer to or unite with Brahman and reach ultimate salvation, Nirvana.

    • Word count: 3157
  24. Post-Atheism: from Apophatic Theology to "Minimal Religion"

    In his late text, Civilization and Its Discontents (1929), Freud establishes a close connection between religious feeling and the unconscious. Both appear to share their origin in what Freud describes, alluding to a letter from his friend, Romain Rolland, as the "oceanic feeling." "It is . . . a feeling as of something limitless, unbounded as it were, 'oceanic.'" According to Rolland, who is paraphrased by Freud, "[T]his feeling . . . is a purely subjective fact, not an article of faith; it brings with it no assurance of personal immortality, but it is the source of religious energy which

    • Word count: 18270
  25. During the final decades of the twentieth century, the study of consciousness evolved to the level of a new interdisciplinary field within the scientific community. Human consciousness seems to have moved to the forefront of scientific research and schola

    Other scientists are far less certain about "consciousness." Thomas Natsoulas narrowed his list to seven different uses of the term consciousness (Natsoulas, 1978), and there is no reason to believe that his choices exhaust the possibilities. Anthony Marcel and Edoardo Bisiach claim that the proliferation of uses of consciousness stems from the "domain or level of discourse" for the term. Sometimes consciousness is used as a functional term and other times it refers to phenomenological concepts. (Marcel and Bisiach, 1988)

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"The punishment of every disordered mind is its own disorder."

?Augustine of Hippo

If you routinely annoy your friends by questioning their every view, then a university degree in philosophy or theology might be perfect for you. Whether it be Socrates or St. Augustine, you'll study the history of thought in your chosen field, and equip yourself to criticise established ideas and construct your own thoughts. If taken together, the two disciplines complement each other nicely, allowing you to use the tools of philosophy to investigate the texts and ideas of religion.

Strong writing skills are absolutely crucial to success when studying philosophy or theology. If you need any help translating your brilliant thoughts intowriting, study Marked by Teachers' collection of teacher-annotated historical and philosophical studies essays. With the techniques you learn here, you'll soon transform your writing into a fitting showcase for your ideas.

Philosophy and theology students might stay in academia, become religious leaders, or pursue careers in fields like policy, teaching, management and media.


Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Outline the Cosmological Argument for the existence of God and assess its claims to prove that God exists.

    "The Argument attempts to proves Gods existence but in many cases jumps from one conclusion to the fact that God must be the cause of this with no evidence to lead from the conclusion to a God. It would be wrong to say that the argument does not prove the existence of God at all but the evidence it is based on is weak and not very persuasive."

  • I intend to assess two pieces of such knowledge Descartes which believes himself to prove with logic. The two ideas being the existence of God and the duality of the body and mind.

    "I think in the contexts of the meditations the ontological argument and the arguments for dualism don't work due to the Cartesian circle, as Descartes never gets past proving undoubtedly anything but; I think therefore I am. Descartes reasoning in my opinion does not prove God's existence or the duality of mind and body but more shows that it may be possible. This is largely due to the criticisms raised in this essay, such as the problem of interaction. It is maybe that we do not yet now enough about the essence of the mind to understand it completely."

  • Explain and discuss the significance of Descartes' work on Epistemology.

    "In the conclusion, Descartes made a large impact of Epistemology, as he did not rely on others teaching to assist him in his search for indubitable knowledge. He founded the 'Cogito ergo Sum' - which managed to show that he could be certain that whenever he was thinking or doubting, he was thus at the same moment existing too. Descartes also managed to prove the existence of God, through various arguments, such as the 'Trademark' and 'Ontological' argument. Other philosophers prior to him, like Aristotle and Aquinas, were also in search for certain knowledge, although, Descartes, discovered, how to find indubitable knowledge of the world, simply by his 'clear and distinct' rule, and by confirming this rule by the existence of God. Thus, forming his infamous 'Cartesian Circle.' Descartes inspired and influenced other philosophers, such as Baruch Spinoza."

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