Progress made in education in China from 1900-1997

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Progress made in education in China from 1900-1997 

The Twentieth Century marked an important transition period for education in China that comprises four distinct stages, which closely relates to important political events. The first stage, from 1900 to 1912, characterised by the end of the Qing dynasty in which the first introduction to Western academic ideas. Subsequently, the second stage lasted from 1912 to 1948 under the KMT regime. During this period, there was more presentation on Western ideologies. Then came the Maoist period, from 1938 to 1976, in which schools promoted Mao’s teachings that were inspired by Russian pedagogy. From 1976 to 1997 in the post-Mao era, although schools continued to deliver Mao’s teachings, the reappearance of public examinations was met with resistance. Thus, the key changes made in these four periods has highlighted the profound progress of education in China from Confucian ideologies to public education, despite temporary setbacks.

The banishing of the Imperial Civil exam system led to an overall progression in the field of education. Before the banishment, the Imperial Civil service examinations which only promoted Confucianism centred the education in China. Additionally, affluent students had a large advantage over poorer compatriots because they were able to afford private tutors, while the poor struggled with basic needs. However, the focus on Confucianism resulted in the lack of practical knowledge restrained development in the field of science and technology. From then, there was an introduction of a modern system “At the end of the Qing Dynasty, most of the education was provided by missionaries. They set up numerous university, medical schools, and schools for youngsters.” (Wu, 2017). This change showed progress from the majority’s perspective as China's education system started to include practical knowledge consequently improved China’s technology and scientific development. Overall, banishing the civil service exam system made remarkable progress in ideologies.

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After the extinction of the Qing dynasty, the new system under the KMT regime resulted in low availability for education due to its unaffordable fees in spite of banishing most Confucianism. Thus, education became a pillar of social reform across China as “New educational models from European, American and Japanese were set up in China.”(CEC, 2017) This system was good from the students’ and China’s perspective since it gave students a broader view of the world ultimately benefited China to catch up with modern society. Nonetheless, most families found it impossible to pay for schools fees which made education ...

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