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The Dutch trade during the Anglo- Dutch wars. The Anglo-Dutch wars were instigated by differences over trade between the Dutch Republic and the English Commonwealth

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Introduction

"The direct use of force is such a poor solution to any problem; it is generally employed only by small children and large nations".1 Wars are never a solution to a problem, as was found by both the Dutch Republic and England after the Anglo-Dutch wars. The Anglo- Dutch wars were a series of wars between England and the Dutch Republic in the seventeenth and eighteenth century. The start of the Anglo-Dutch wars coincides with the height of the Dutch Golden Age as well as the reformation of England into a Commonwealth under its new leader Oliver Cromwell. The end of the Anglo- Dutch wars also signified the end of the Dutch Golden Age. Since the Dutch Republic had found the rout to India under Cornelis Houtman and Jan Huyghen can Linschoten the Dutch Republic started to become one of the largest trading nations in the world.2 The Golden Age was approximately a century in which the Dutch Republic was among the richest and most prosperous countries in the world because of it international trading empire. The Anglo-Dutch wars were instigated by differences over trade between the Dutch Republic and the English Commonwealth and those same differences combined with the events which occurred during the wars in turn caused one war after the other war. In total there were 5 Anglo- Dutch wars, the first starting in 1651 and the fifth one ending in 1801. The Anglo- Dutch wars caused the Dutch trade to prosper and collapse trough treaties, the Anglo-Dutch wars themselves and the causes of the wars. The first Anglo-Dutch war was instigated by the passing of the Navigation Act by the British government in October, 1651. The Navigation Act stated that all goods that were to be imported into England had to be either carried by an English ship or by a ship sailing under the nation of origin. The Navigation Act also stated that all ships must salute English ships by striking their flag, no matter where they were ...read more.

Middle

The fourth Anglo-Dutch war was caused by the stop of economic growth in the Dutch republic as well as the regime change in England. With the Third Anglo- Dutch war over Willem III had become stadholder in 1673 and due to religious turmoil in England, Mary became the new Queen of England under the circumstances that her husband, Willem III, would become king.15 Willem III soon started to shift the economic headquarters from Amsterdam to London, and put a large part of the Dutch fleet under English command.16 Because of these changes the economic growth of the Dutch republic came to a standstill, whereas the England soon surpassed the Dutch Republic in profits from trades making them the new master traders of Europe.17 The English surpassing the Dutch trade in the fourth Anglo- Dutch war signified the decline of the Golden Age. When Willem III died in 1703, England ceased to be ruled by a Dutch king and the Dutch Republic became a separate country. The Dutch economy continued to work poorly, and with the Dutch supporting the American War of Independence, England declared war on the Dutch Republic again in 1780. The Dutch navy, which was significantly weaker that its former self in the Third Anglo-Dutch war, was incapable of protecting the Dutch trading fleet and was easily defeated by the English and the Fourth Anglo-Dutch war ended in 1784.18 The Colonies that the English had taken over during the war were all given back to the Dutch republic after the war ended. The fourth Anglo- Dutch war shows how weak the Dutch fleet and trade had become at the beginning of the eighteenth century and the Dutch Republic was lucky to get back there colonies after the war. The Fifth Anglo-Dutch war occurred from 1795 to 1801. In 1789 the French Revolution broke out and by 1795 the Dutch republic had become part of the French empire and was from then on to be called the Batavian Republic. ...read more.

Conclusion

The treaties of the Anglo- Dutch wars benefited the Dutch and Batavian republic overall, although the first treaty of Westminster and the treaties of the fourth and fifth Anglo- Dutch wars did not have a great impact on the Dutch trade, the Treaty of Breda and the second Treaty of Westminster helped the Dutch trade to flourish even more. The Anglo- Dutch wars impacted the Dutch trade immensely. The causes of the Anglo- Dutch wars had little effect on the Dutch trade, and it was mainly the trading rivalry between England and the Dutch and Batavian republics that caused the Anglo- Dutch wars. The wars themselves caused the Dutch trade to come to an almost complete standstill every time there was a war, the risk of the trading fleets to be taken over by mutineers even if the fleet managed to get through the English Channel was even greater because most of the war ships were fighting the English navy. The Treaties of the Anglo- Dutch wars had the greatest impact on the Dutch trade simply because the East and West Indian companies had to obey the Treaties and even an entire new colony was obtained for trough a very favorable deal. The Dutch trade mainly flourished during the second and third Anglo- Dutch wars because of the strength that the Dutch naval fleet had at the time as well as having a brilliant Admiral commanding the war fleet. The fourth and Fifth Anglo- Dutch wars signified the decline of the Dutch trade and this was mainly because Willem III had put a large portion of the Dutch fleet under English command and when He died and England and the Dutch Republic split again the Dutch Republic never got back its fleet. Throughout the Anglo- Dutch wars the Dutch trade prospered but eventually collapsed because of the causes of the wars, the wars themselves and the Treaties. ...read more.

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