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To what extent did Great Britains administration of Sudan influence the start of the First Sudanese Civil War, 1955-1972?

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Introduction

To what extent did Great Britain's administration of Sudan influence the start of the First Sudanese Civil War, 1955-1972? Word Count; 1,998 Section A. Plan of Investigation To what extent did Great Britain's administration of Sudan influence the start of the First Sudanese Civil War, 1955-1972? The civil wars of the Sudan are most famously attributed to religious differences between Muslims and Christians, and the uneven distribution of natural resources between the North and South; however as demonstrated in other African countries (namely Rwanda, Angola, and Cameroon), European imperialism is a common cause of instability on the continent. Noting the above, the investigation will strive to see if this byproduct of imperialism holds true in Britain's colonial administration of the Sudan and the subsequent first civil war. It will investigate the origin of British involvement in Sudan, its administration decisions and documents pertaining to the country and reactions of the Sudanese people; particularly regarding the Southern region. The study will then further analyze the publication Sudan: A Country Study and a copy of the proceedings of the Juba Conference, June 1947 for their origin, purpose, value, and limitation in order to add clarity and validity to the argument. ...read more.

Middle

and "[the Northerners] do not seek opportunities of exploiting backward tribes in the South" ("Proc. of the Juba" 1). Section C. Evaluation of Sources The most important source for this investigation was the work Sudan: A Country Study written by Helen Chaplin Metz for the Library of Congress's Country Study series. The series is prepared by the Federal Research Division and sponsored by the Department of the Army. Its purpose is to provide a detail account of all aspects of the given country, including geography, demographics, and history, while giving specific attention to the views and beliefs of the country's people. Its value lies in that it is written by a non-Sudanese author and not published under the auspices of either Sudan or South Sudan, both fractions which would prevent a skewed account. Limitation-wise, bias and dramatization are possible as it states in the forward, "the authors strive for a dynamic rather than static portrayal" (Metz 6) and, because the work was published in 1991, the study would have occurred amidst the controversial Second Sudanese Civil War. There is also the possibility that because it was for a United States of America organization, it would be slanted towards the Christian South. ...read more.

Conclusion

The few Southern representatives knew English as lawfully required. By suddenly instituting Arabic as the language of government and not giving time for Arabic to be taught, these people were unable to participation and the south was left virtually unrepresented. Conversely to the above arguments, divisions between the North and South do predate the British. As the statement by Thomas Owen shows, even in 1947 the south still remembered the practice of slave raiding conducted by the North and its "oppression." It is also arguable that the British did not instigate the new southern policy rather international and northern Sudanese pressure, and noting the time period, the effects of World War II; however while these might have influenced British decision, the final actions and implementations were of Anglo-origin. Section E. Conclusion Civil wars are caused by two internal fractions fighting over ethnic, political, religious, and even ideological issues. The British, regarding the first Sudanese civil war, are responsible for augmenting these two fractions and, moreover, for placing them in a position where they would conflict by later supporting the North and South unification. This is demonstrable by looking at the British's bias towards the south, their original separation of the South, and the sudden 1940's policy change. In conclusion then, while the British did not directly spark the fighting, they exacerbated is not created the root causes. Section F. ...read more.

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