• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

What was the significance of lend-lease materials for the war on the Eastern Front (1941-1945)?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

History Internal Assessment What was the significance of lend-lease materials for the war on the Eastern Front (1941-1945)? Words: 1990 Johan Oxenstierna Contents Page PAGE A. Plan of investigation_________________ 3 B. Summary of evidence_________________3 C. Evaluation of sources_________________5 D. Analysis____________________________5 E. Conclusion__________________________7 F. Appendix___________________________7 G. Endnotes___________________________9 H. Bibliography_______________________11 A. Plan of investigation What was the significance of lend-lease materials for the war on the Eastern Front 1941-1945? During the War on the Eastern Front 1941-1945, the Soviet Union received all kinds of material from the USA, the Great Britain (Commonwealth) and Canada that aided the soviet military effort against Germany. This was called "lend-lease". The aim of this investigation is to find out what impact lend-lease had on the war on the Eastern Front. The investigation will include a comparison between the amount of soviet production of material used before and during the war with the amount of lend lease material brought there, a comparison between the quality of Soviet products and lend-lease products used in the war and the findings will then be analysed. B. Summary of evidence The lend lease aid was shipped in convoys to Archangelsk and Murmansk in northern Russia, Vladivostok in the Far East and through Persia1. 1. The type and quantity of lend-lease products brought to the Soviet Union A total of 1.8 million tons of lend-lease shipments arrived to Russia in 1941-19422. In 1943-1944 the aid was stepped up and an estimated 7 million tons arrived in those years3. Table 1 (pg. 8) shows the quantity of military products that were sent to Russia by lend-lease. Table 2 (pg. 8) shows some civilian material sent to Russia by lend-lease. 2. The type and quantity of material produced in the Soviet Union Table 3 (pg. 8) shows the quantity of some military articles produced by the Soviet Union 1941-1945. Table 4 (pg. 9) shows the quantity of some military articles produced by the Soviet Union in the pre-war years of 1939-1941. ...read more.

Middle

When the war came most of those factories were set to produce combat materials instead. This does not mean, though, that civil materials were not needed anymore. Quite the opposite actually, transportation for example, was needed more than ever for supplies etc18. The lend-lease brought 429687 motor vehicles, 1981 locomotives,11155 railway carts and masses of raw materials. Without this essential reinforcement the Soviet industry would have had to concentrate more on civil production e.g. raw materials and transportation vehicles. Consequently, the war industry would not be able to develop as fast as it did. This is important because some historians claim that it was, in fact, the size of the Soviet war industry that decided the outcome of the Eastern Front conflict19. The military. Concerning pure military products, lend-lease had a smaller significance to USSR. From information in Section B one can calculate that only 8% of all Soviet tanks were provided by lend-lease and that they were all inferior to the mass-produced T-34. 16% of the aircraft is a more significant amount, since the quality was mostly better here, but evidence shows that most planes, as well as the better tank models were only seen in the Red Army by 194320. One should also include the enormous Soviet production of artillery guns21; it strengthens the impression that lend-lease war-items were insignificant. The counter argument is that the Soviet military was more dependent on civil lend-lease materials22. The most important civil contribution were the motor vehicles: With these, the Red Army could perform operations requiring speed and mobility23. 15 million boots and millions of meters of uniform cloth helped to equip the Red Army. Lend-lease also helped to improve the Soviet military communications24. The food issue. That the Germans had occupied 42% of the Russian agriculture by 1942 was an increasing problem to the Soviet leadership25. Without lend-lease, which sent 4.5 millions of tons of food 1941-1945 there might have been severe food shortages leading to starvation. ...read more.

Conclusion

28 Werth, Alexander: "Russia at War 1941-1945", Pan Books Ltd, London, 1964, pg 569 29 Losik,O., Stroitelstvo I boevoje primenenije Sovetskihs Vojsk v gody Velikoj Otetjestvennoj Vojny, Voenizdat, Moscow, 1979, pg 344-348 30 Bauer, Eddy, "Stalingrad - R�da arm�n sl�r tillbaka" : Bokorama/F�rlags AB Wiken, 1981, pg 58. 31 http://www.feldgrau.com/econo.html (collected on 24 October 2004). 32 Generally supported by "Lend Lease to Russia", from Major Jordan' Diaries, NY, Harcourt, Brace, 1952, Chapter Nine. 33 http://www.feldgrau.com/econo.html (collected on 24 October 2004). 34 Werth, Alexander: "Russia at War 1941-1945", Pan Books Ltd, London, 1964, pg 567 35 http://www.feldgrau.com/econo.html (collected on 24 October 2004). 36 Ibid. 37 Bauer, Eddy, "Stalingrad - R�da arm�n sl�r tillbaka" : Bokorama/F�rlags AB Wiken, 1981 pg 59 and "Lend Lease to Russia", from Major Jordan' Diaries, NY, Harcourt, Brace, 1952, Chapter Nine 38 Ibid. (same page/chapter) 39 Ibid. (same page/chapter) 40 Ibid. (same page/chapter) 41 Ibid. (same page/chapter) 42 Ibid. (same page/chapter) 43 Ibid. (same page/chapter) 44 Ibid. (same page/chapter) 45 Ibid. (same page/chapter) 46 http://www.airforce.users.ru/lend-lease/english/articles/geust/aircraft_deliveries.htm (collected on 24 October 2004). 47 http://www.fedlgrau.com/econo.html (collected on 24 October 2004). 48 Ibid. 49 Ibid. 50 Ibid. 51 "Military Aid to the USSR", http://www.battlefield.ru/library/lend/intro.html (collected on 24 October 2004) 52 http://www.feldgrau.com/econo.html (collected on 24 October 2004). 53 Ibid. 54 Ibid. 55 Ibid. 56 Samuelson, Lennart: "R�d koloss p� larvf�tter", SNS f�rlag, 1999, pg 257. 57 This (probably) includes anti aircraft artillery. 58 Harrison: "Why didn't the Soviet Economy collapse in 1942": A paper to the Total War conference on: "A world at total war: Global conflict and the politics of destruction, 1939 - 1945. (1996) 59 Zhukov, G.K., Vospominanija I Razmysjlenija ("Memories and thoughts"), vol 1, 1974, pg 252-262 60 Frankson, Anders/Zetterling, Niklas, "Slaget om Kursk": Nordstedts F�rlag, Stockholm, 2002, pg 104 61 Ibid. pg 105 62 Ibid. pg 105 63 Harrison: "Why didn't the Soviet Economy collapse in 1942": A paper to the Total War conference on: "A world at total war: Global conflict and the politics of destruction, 1939 - 1945. (1996) 64 Ibid. 65 Ibid. 66 Ibid. H. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree 1920-1949 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree 1920-1949 essays

  1. Why and when was Germany divided? 1945

    First he talks of the division process in 1949 explaining how the fact west became known West Berlin and East Berlin became known as the soviet sector meant that "true division was now crystal clear". However he then puts forward another argument saying that the fact that in 1961 the

  2. Book Review - The New Deal by Paul K. Conkin

    Authority, who Conkin saw as innovative, productive and demonstrative of the 'efficiency, flexibility, and social concern possible in government-owned non-profit corporations.'10 In 'The New Deal', however, Conkin appears far more concerned with criticising not only the actions and methods of the New Dealers themselves, but also its treatment by historians.

  1. Why did the Labour Party win the General Election of 1945?

    The focus of the manifesto was nationalisation. Labour advocated the nationalisation of iron and steel, inland transport, fuel and power, and the Bank of England. The Conservative manifesto, Mr Churchill's Declaration of Policy to the Electors was somewhat different to Labour's approach.

  2. To what extent did the Tsarist and Soviet governments control and influence music in ...

    its composers by making the opera the antithesis of everything that socialist realism was supposed to be: "Taken together with the endorsement of Dzerzhinsky's The Quiet Don�� and the attack on The Limpid Stream��... an approved recipe for Socialist Realism could be deduced by example."18 The article caused an intensification

  1. This report will analyse both the negative and positive impacts of the First World ...

    the First World War did not own marriage and children until they were dead. Thus, World War I affected the whole life of one generation. It could be considered that the imbalance between men and women caused by the war may break the rules of social development for a period of time.

  2. Account for the rise and fall of the Popular Front in France

    non-intervention; in which the Popular Front abandoned a programme of aid to the Popular Front government in Spain, in the face of pressure from the domestic fascist press, British hostility to such aid and finally Quai D'Orsay warnings that French intervention may prompt Germany and Italy to aid Franco.20 A

  1. Roses of Hope- Nazi destruction of in WW2

    They raised confused atmosphere by throwing furniture out of windows. The ground was besprinkled by broken beds where people peacefully slept, chairs on which they ate their breakfasts, toys which small children played with. The rest of Gestapo inflamed cleaned houses.

  2. Given the resources of the Grand Alliance, the defeat of the Axis powers was ...

    too soft and too decadent to fight, and if they somehow chose to fight, they could never win. The Allies could out produce the Axis in several key areas including manufacturing and refinery. This gave the Allies almost an unlimited amount of arms and supplies, something all the Axis powers had to take by conquering foreign lands.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work