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University Degree: Classical Studies

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  1. In what ways did the presence of the Emperor transform the powers and responsibilities of the Roman senate?

    Roman government at this time consisted of various factions. The magistracies - that is, the executive branch of government - were made up of elected members within various ranks; it was the magistrates that were responsible for passing an assortment of laws. For example, those who held the title of Quaestor were primarily responsible for finance and administration, whereas those who became elected as Consul were chief military and civil magistrates and were responsible for convening the senate. It is important to note the enormous prestige associated with the higher ranks of magistracies.

    • Word count: 2481
  2. Illustrate the case for reading the poem as (in part) a study in becoming Roman

    By book XII, that goal is within clear sight. The fact that the all-powerful father of the gods programmatically and teleologically tells of such future greatness so early in the poem gives the reader no option but to focus subsequently on how Aeneas achieves this fated goal. Vergil tends not to involve the gods as directly in the narrative of human affairs as does Homer, but uses them to great effect symbolically and to give such weighty pronouncements. Another programmatic feature of the first book involves its emphasis on kingship: to give just two examples, at line 265 we are told, by Jupiter, that Aeneas will reign over Latium and he is soon after described as king of the fugitive Trojans by Ilioneus (544).

    • Word count: 2133
  3. Commentaries on Catullus' Poetry (Poems 72 & 42)

    He uses, in the poem, two striking, and contrasting, similes to try to understand his love for Lesbia. He loved her (note the past tense) as a common might love his girlfriend (72.3), but in addition to that he loved her also as a father might his sons and sons-in-law (72.4). This is touching because it obviously implies that the latter relationship might be closer, with more of a connection, than the former, and, most importantly, that Lesbia was as dear to him as a son would have been, his own flesh and blood.

    • Word count: 2103
  4. Odyssey Commentaries (Books 2 & 6)

    Only Nausika� stood firm as he, a horrible sight, approached. Deciding not grasp her knees in his near nakedness, he nevertheless supplicates her verbally with his characteristic charm. Beginning by eloquently emphasising her beauty, even suggesting (perhaps flirtatiously) the happiness that this will bring to her future husband, Odysseus concludes his 'wooing' with an outline of his troubles and needs. The most striking theme of this passage seems to be, ironically, the most ambiguous: that is marriage or entanglement, specifically the 'many hints at a possible (yet impossible) marriage of Odysseus to Nausika�'3.

    • Word count: 2521
  5. What, if anything, is particularly Athenian about Greek tragedy?

    For example, it has been estimated that the theatre of Dionysus at Athens may have held around 12,000 people. There is no doubt that such performances would have had a monumental impact not only on Athenian citizens but also on foreigners invited to the polis for the festival, often engaging too in diplomatic meetings. Such a competitive aspect drew the crowds not only to tragedy but to the city of Athens itself. As I have briefly mentioned, tragedy in the fifth-century (the period during which most of our attested plays were written) was inexorably linked with the Great Dionysia festival, named such in religious reverence to the god Dionysus.

    • Word count: 2072
  6. Thesmophoria in Athens

    This essay will address both the paradox of a woman's position in Ancient Athens and address its more tangible aspects. As well, it will also attempt to answer the questions of why men tolerated such a festival and why women never used the festival as an opportunity to speak out against the restrictions placed upon the by the polis. The only detailed source of what actually took place during the festival is a scholion to Lucian's Dialogues of Hetaerae, which is essentially the "marginal notes to the work of a later scholar in a manuscript produced in the thirteenth century AD"4.

    • Word count: 2781
  7. Translation problems-does translation always betrays the original?

    Methodology and Procedures According to Nida and Taber (1974) in their book The Theory and Practice of Translation, believe that the focus of translation has shifted and that the focus is not on reproducing the form of a message, but evoking the correct response from the receptor. This Challenges my proposed title, 'Translating is inevitably betraying the original. There is no such a thing as a faithful translation' by saying that as long as the translator evokes the intended response from the receptor, the translation is successful.

    • Word count: 2183
  8. How does Dickens inform the reader of his negative view on education in the opening chapters of Hard Times?

    He also believes that without 'Facts' the children will just remain young and hopeless for the rest of their lives. At the start of the second paragraph Dickens turns his description to the actual room in which the children are taught. He describes it with a metaphor, calling it a 'plain, bare, monotonous vault'. This gives the image of a large room in which the children are locked up. It is described as a 'vault' because Gradgrind considers the children valuable to the future of the country and he doesn't want them to get any romanticist ideas from the outside world.

    • Word count: 2422
  9. Dracula - Good vs Bad

    However, it is believed that the main reason Dracula was written, is due to the fact that Stoker was subjected to a seriously bad dream, of which he could not let slip from his memory, and had to write the book to release the tension he was under. In the early 19th Century Stoker focused the novel based on a real fifteenth century family, which inspired him to write `Dracula` (reference from spark notes on `Dracula`). Stoker's dream impacted on the novel, which enriched the novel, making it more realistic and alive.

    • Word count: 2108
  10. What is metatheatricality? Does it have a significant function in Old Comedy?

    Some critics go further and into more detail: Schmeling, for example, addresses the issue of the play within the play: "The term 'th��tre dans le th��tre' has several equivalents in the majority of languages: play within a play in English, Theater auf dem Theater and Spiel im Spiel in German, Teatro nel Teatro or commedia nella commedia in Italian, etc. All these terms do not correspond exactly; for example, the English notion of the play within a play does not make the same distinction that French and German do between "th��tre dans le th��tre" et "jeu dans le jeu", the

    • Word count: 2679
  11. incepctor calls

    In Britain at that time there was many different types of socialism, Marxism, Christian socialism, Ethical socialism, Fabianism and Cooperatism. All the different branches of British socialism had slightly different opinions but one thing that remained throughout is that they wanted to bring equality and redistribute wealth. Mr Birling's character is a "heavy looking and rather pretentious looking man in his middle fifties" according to the stage directions. In the play he has an arrogant and self-righteous manner; like many upper class men he thinks he can get away with anything either through influence or money, and being upper class he has plenty of both.

    • Word count: 2929
  12. Leadership in the Aeneid and Antigone.

    The first of these qualities, courage, deals with a person's ability to stand up to danger or trying circumstances. While courage finds its most prominent display on the battlefield, facing up to difficult leadership decisions can also be a method of showing courage. Honor, a key part of ar�te, can be obtained by honoring the gods, thus staying on their favorable side. By serving one's community and state, one may also earn honor through either humble or glorified service. Virtue, perhaps the most interesting of the ar�te qualifications, has nothing to do with the modern definition of virtue which one might compare to morality, but rather involves looking out for the best interest of one's state.

    • Word count: 2378
  13. AntigoneDiscuss and analyse the themes which arise in Sophocles' Antigone

    Pride and its effects are central to the play of Antigone. It is a trait despised by the gods, who bring suffering to the proud, but in the Greek mind, pride is also an inextricable part of greatness. Pride is a multifaceted concept in Greek tragedy. Both Antigone and Creon are extremely proud making it impossible for either to back down as the Chorus points out concerning Antigone: "Not to give way when everything's against her." Antigone's dual sense of pride and stubbornness fuels her personal reactions. Her belief that her brother deserves a proper burial seems to transcend logic and directly counter both temporal and divine authority.

    • Word count: 2999
  14. A comment on the authors approach to historical writing as demonstrated by Thucydides (Thucydides, 'History of the Peloponnesian War', Book 6, chapter 15 (pp.418-19) and an analysis of the historical problems raised in this passage.

    The final line of the chapter sets the scene for a speech by Alcibiades to explain why he is best suited for the leadership of the Sicilian expedition. Thucydides makes several judgements about Alcibiades, which though not supported by evidence do damage his character and perhaps play on the hubris nature of his person. Like one of the great warriors of the 'Golden Age', Alcibiades conduct in war is described as excellent but his general character is flawed. This positive nature of his character may have something to do with Thucydides being a general in the same conflict, perhaps even

    • Word count: 2109
  15. Montpellier - Environment, People and the Quality of Life

    There are two ways of studying the quality of life in/of an area. Firstly is by the use of hard indicators, usually from census data, such as unemployment, average income, car ownership, housing tenure and crime rates. It is this sort of data that goes to make up many investigations on quality of life and deprivation. The benefit of such indicators is that they are, on the whole, comparable on a time scale. That is present data can be compared to data from ten years ago to analyse changes over time. It can also allow greater breadth in an enquiry by making comparisons between other areas easy. Another benefit is it is cheap.

    • Word count: 2594
  16. The Changing Character of Creon In the Antigone.

    Through this study I hope to come to a more thorough understanding of Creon's character and consequently gain a deeper insight into the meaning of the play as a whole. First impressions of Creon are favourable. The chorus describe him as "the new man for the new day"3 (line 174) and in his opening speech he seems to do what is right for the country, deeming any who place "a friend above the good of his own country" as "nothing" (lines 203-4). But even here we have a hint of one of Creon's problems - his view of the city.

    • Word count: 2137
  17. Is Castle Rackrent an elegy for or a satire of the landlord class?

    Despite the obvious preference that Thady expresses for the aristocracy, he presents a far more impartial view than one might think. Since Thady appears a simple man, the masters he serves either live up to the ideal laid down by their forebears, or they fail in this regard, but in each case it is in Thady's judgements that we can seek a degree of objective assessment of Edgeworth's own feelings towards the landlord classes. What Thady himself represents is another matter, since his native wit and unfailing loyalty seems unrealistic when shown opposite the shrewd and calculating figure of his

    • Word count: 2905
  18. Analysis of The Inferno suggests - Dantes.

    In the first Canto, Dante meets up with Virgil, who will guide him on the descent to Hell. Upon their first encounter, Dante becomes overwhelmed: The glory and light are yours, That poets follow - may the love that made me search Your book in patient study avail me, Master! You are my guide and author, whose verses teach The graceful style whose model has done me honor (Dante 1.63). Analysis of The Inferno suggests that there are two Dantes speaking throughout the epic. There is the narrator, known as the Dante the pilgrim, and the author, Dante the poet.

    • Word count: 2022
  19. Republic of Plato Essay - Ignorance, and Philosophical Conflict

    In the cave, the individuals undergo no separation, but rather all are stuck in ignorance. The internal conflict of a philosopher?s self-image appears under these conflicting view of ignorance. This separation results from the differing natures of ignorance in these two settings. In the city in speech, the element of ignorance is inherent for the lower ranked citizens, separated through the Noble Lie. In case of philosophic children, ?in all these labors, studies, and fears, the boy who shows himself always readiest must be chosen to join a select number? (537 a). The philosophic youths are separated into the dialectical philosophic path of education when their component metal is evident through their behavior, while the other classes are discerned similarly.

    • Word count: 2422

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