The Power of Naming: Place Names in England Historically speaking toponymy – the study of place-names – has focused on etymology as opposed to power discourse (Cameron 1996; Culpeper 2005; Diaz Vera 1996; Gelling 1995; Gelling 2007; Hough 1997; Kadmon 2004; Paisey & Paisey 2011; Scott 2003). However, in recent years, scholars have turned instead to the consideration of the power relationships implicit in the act of naming a geographic location (Radding & Western 2010; Rose-Redwood, Alderman, & Azaryahu 2010;). Particularly in the case of England, the power of naming becomes a key insight into the history of conquest from foreign powers that the island has experienced in its long life. These conquerors understood the act of naming as the linguistic equivalent of driving a flag into the soil of the vanquished foe’s garden – a means of solidifying and extending the message of their invasion and subsequent occupation throughout time. Such is the power expressed through names and naming processes. As Rose-Redwood, Alderman and Azaryahu (2010, p. 454) note, “the naming of places is one of the primary means of attempting to construct clearly demarcated spatial identities”. For the purpose of the following essay, these spatial identities are to be thought of as political identities as well. “As a place-name becomes opaque and the original meaning is lost over time, the
A Sociolinguistic study. Is there such a thing as mens and womens language? Discuss these issues with detailed reference to one sociolinguistic study in this area.
9. Is there such a thing as men’s and women’s language? Discuss these issues with detailed reference to one sociolinguistic study in this area. . Introduction “Why can’t a woman be more like a man?”(Holmes, 2008, p.164). From the end of 1960s to the beginning of 1970s, the study of “language and gender” has drawn people’s attention in developed countries such as the United States, Europe and Japan. During the second-wave feminism movement, women tried to reconsider the male-dominated society, culture and attitudes toward any areas such as media, education and communication. To improve women’s status in society, they paid attention to the language everyone uses in terms of communication. It was proven that there were some differences between women’s and men’s talk in points such as how they speak, who they communicate with and what vocabularies and phrases they tend to use. These cannot be explained simply because of sex differences but instead come from the deep background and history of women and men’s position in our society. Though people use a language without thinking, some stereotypes will also develop unconsciously. However, there should not be strict rules of how women and men should speak from the aspect of femininity and masculinity. In this essay, I shall consider features of men’s and women’s talk and what cultural background is
Discuss the cultural and political history that led English to become a world language. Give linguistic examples from any community to illustrate your answer
The extent to which the English Language has achieved global significance is phenomenal, in that no other language has ever been able to achieve such a status of linguistic eminence. According to Crystal (1997) a language achieves global status when it develops a special role that is recognised, either culturally or politically, in every country, across every continent of the world. He also signifies that a global language is not affected by the quantity of those who speak the language, but much more concerning who those people are, in that ‘without a strong power base, whether political, military or economic, no language can make progress as an international medium of communication.’ (Crystal, D. 1997:5) Throughout history, an international language becomes so for one principal reason; that being ‘the political power of its people.’ (Crystal, D. 1997:7) It is important to look at the historical significance of English in its ascension to linguistic dominance and its current position as an international language. There are two primary facets in relation to this ascension, them being geographical-historical and socio-cultural aspects. The geographical-historical aspect determines how English reached its position of pre-eminence, whilst the socio-cultural aspect provides an explanation as to why the language remains in this position of power. Speakers of English
Politeness Theory. The transcript of this conversation came from the customer services department of my work place.
Talking to Others Politeness Theory 26/03/2013 Course Work The transcript of this conversation came from the customer services department of my work place. The conversation took place during a telephone call that I answered from a customer. Prior to the start of my conversation I will be introducing my self and the customer, explaining who we are and what we are doing. Participant A. I am ‘Ilay”. I have been working in the sales and customer services department for 5 years. I’m female, aged 24. Participant B. The customer is a female aged between 40 / 55. She has been our customer more then 3 years and she is responsible for sales and the finance department at the company she works for. She called about a problem that she had come across, while using her new Microsoft word programme. First of all, the “Politeness Strategies” will be introduced then the transcript will be analysed according to this strategy, as much as possible. Transcription Keys (.) Pause of less then a second (2) Longer pause number of seconds indicated [ ] simultaneous speech Bold emphatic stress No Speaker Utterance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20 21 22 A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B “Good morning, customer service department you are speaking to ‘Ilay’ how can I help you today?” “Good
What is discourse analysis? Discuss with reference to multidisciplinarity and a selection of relevant theoretical approaches
Ninn GoldsworthyEN20211009697 Ninn Goldsworthy 009697 What is discourse analysis? Discuss with reference to multidisciplinarity and a selection of relevant theoretical approaches. EN2021 This essay will try to answer the question of what discourse analysis is and what methods can be used to evaluate the spoken and written word. Dealing with two main example of analysing discourse, written and oral, this essay will provide examples of how these methods of analysing discourse work within the field, and how they link to analysing discourse as a whole. Discourse analysis involves looking behind the written and spoken word and being able to explain the differences between all that is said and written. (Rogers, R. & Mosley, M et al. 2005, Pg: 365). It is a little hard to determine the words discourse analysis accurately as there are several known definitions of discourse. In some definitions, discourse refers to the text that it is written in, or it may be that it denotes speech. (Crystal, 1992, Pg: 91) wrote that: ‘Discourse: a continuous stretch of (especially spoken) language larger than a sentence, often constituting a coherent unit such as sermon, argument, joke or narrative’ whether written, or spoken, discourse remains an intriguing and fascinating subject. The phrase ‘Discourse Analysis’ was first introduced in 1952 by Zellig Harri. Harris wrote: Connected
The Old Man and the Sea is a story about a man named Santiago who must face many obstacles in order to obtain and keep his prize, which is a marlin. Santiago, in Ernest Hemingway's The Old man and the Sea, faces many overwhelming obstacles; however, it is through the overcoming of these obstacles that Santiago achieves inner success. At the beginning of his journey, Santiago's main objective was to simply catch a fish, a huge marlin but unforeseen difficulties forced Santiago to look at himself in a different light. With great persistence, Santiago triumphed over his own self-doubt, self-defeat and pride and ends his journey with an enormous sense of accomplishment and many lessons learned. There were many times Santiago was in situations in which he did not believe in himself but triumphing over those situations is what gave him his success over self-doubt. When Santiago was alone out at sea he constantly longed for Manolin's help to catch the marlin because Manolin had always helped him out with everything. When Santiago was at home, he was hardly ever alone because Manolin usually spent most of his free time with Santiago. "' . . . I wish I had the boy.' But you haven't got the boy, he thought. You have only yourself and you had better work back to the last line now, in the dark or not in the dark and cut it away and hook up two reserve coils'" (51-52). This statement
Leaving Home "Quickly now, do we have everything you need in the car? Hurry! The bus is going to leave without you!" Those were the words that my mother said to me just before I rushed off to the Bus Depot. On that night I would be leaving Omagh to go to Tucson, Arizona, with the Ulster Project. An overnight bus journey to Dublin, three flights and twelve people was what we were about to endure. Up to this, the furthest I'd been away from home was France, and the furthest I'd been on my own - England. This was a big step for me - 4 weeks in a foreign country, 4000 miles away, with only friends for support. I could tell this was going to be an experience for me. So I arrived at the Bus Depot at midnight in great anticipation of the journey ahead. My friends greeted me on my arrival, and by their faces I could tell that they were as anxious about leaving home as I was. The thought of leaving my family behind for 4 weeks was prominent in my mind. As I stood talking to my family and friends, waiting for others to arrive, there was an air of excitement among everyone. People were tugging suitcases out of cars and transferring them to buses, over-protective parents were questioning the leaders and many of us teenagers were getting ready to say our farewells to our family and friends who had gathered to see us leave. Fifteen minutes had passed since I
The Book Thief Essay "Even death has a heart." (p.242) The Book Thief by Markus Zusak is a book of death, love, and survival. There is the death of a friend, love of a parent, and survival of those who can take it. World War II was a devastating period and many did not have the mental strength to survive it. The Book Thief is about Liesel Meminger and all her accounts with death and how she coped with it, how she survives it all through words. The book is narrated by Death, and throughout the book, he adds in his own input at times. The Book Thief makes you realize the power that words can have, you just have to pay attention to them. The Book Thief takes place in another time period. A time where words are the power. Hitler rules with words. Words can be very powerful, especially when people are so vulnerable. Hitler formed a whole nation by using his words to claim power and convince people that there should be a superior race. Hitler began the genocide of the Jews with his words. Words are a very powerful weapon at times. "The words. Why did they have to exist? Without them, ... there wouldn't be any of this. Without words, the Führer was nothing." (p.553) In the book, Liesel uses the words to calm her at times, and help her remember. To help her remember the past. To help her remember her mother and her brother. Books have different significant meanings for her, but
Lianne D Haymer 16 January 2002 "Mid Term Break" by Seamus Heaney Seamus Heaney was born on April 13, 1939 to Patrick and Margaret Heaney, and was the eldest of nine children. They lived on a family farm in Mossbawn, County Derry in Northern Ireland. His work; which has won many prestigious awards, reflects his life, family, and culture during his childhood years and adult life, and sells by the tens of thousands. He is undoubtedly the most popular poet writing in English today. The poem "Mid Term Break" is based on an experience, which Seamus Heaney went through as a child. He was taken from his class, and put in the schools sick bay to wait for his neighbours to arrive, as they were taking him home. The first stanza uses assonance and alliteration to emphasise the funeral sound of "counting the bells knelling classes to a close". The word knelling (portent of doom), was used to describe how Seamus Heaney felt waiting, hearing each class come to a close, as the hours passed by; for him it was a daunting experience. The poet chose the title for the poem, as it reflects his circumstances at the time of his brother's death. The poem's title is an allegory as the poem has two levels of meaning, which is not fully delivered until the last, one lined, stanza. The poet Seamus Heaney was away at
Original Writing Maybe if I didn't give in too early, then it might have been different. Mum always told me to watch out. I didn't listen. I just didn't listen. As I reluctantly woke up that morning feeling extremely tired. The scent of the honeysuckle floated dreamily through the air. Beaming in through my window, the sun's rays danced like a flickering candle on the wall. It's been so long. It felt good. Outside, the birds were singing like a choir to welcome the day. Downstairs, my mother was preparing breakfast. How I wish I could have told her. Why didn't I? What could she have done? The aroma of freshly cooked bacon jolted me back to reality. Rolling over, I made an attempt to block out the inevitable. I felt uneasy. Why? Today was going to be different. Leaving smiling faces behind me, I enveloped myself in defenseless feelings. My tiresome eyes fixed to the ground in front, as I strolled unwillingly towards what the day had to bring. The smell of fresh air eased my pain, while I gazed up into the smiling sun. It was as if my life was about to change but I wasn't too sure how. Was this going to be an ordinary day? A few minutes later, I stepped through the double oak doors where I spent most of my day. The decrepit structure looked at me menacingly. Feeling as if I was passing through hell, I saw the devil himself. Peter. Well known around this part of town,