A Voice of Internal Conflict.
A Voice of Internal Conflict The most insightful and interesting stanzas can be found in a lyric poem. In this type of poetry, the voice in the writing is essentially that of the poet. An accurate example of this is "A Far Cry from Africa" by Derek Walcott. The attitudes of the speaker in this poem represent the same sentiments and experiences of the author himself. Walcott is a man of African descent, raised in the Caribbean on the ex-British colony island of St. Lucia1. This history of growing up in an English environment, aware of an opposing descent, influenced the life and work of Walcott. In this poem, he expresses the theme through the speaker's attitude, perception of his environment, internal conflict, and the tone and mood that are created by these elements. The feelings of the speaker toward the subject of the poem are very clear. He openly criticizes the brutality between the Africans and the colonial settlers. The language of the poem demonstrates that the speaker is angry at the entire situation and judgmental of both parties involved. Phrases such as "Corpses are scattered through a paradise" (4) and "his wars dance.."(19) combine the presence of violence with positive concepts. The speaker is mocking the brutality by describing it using the words "paradise" and "dance", that are normally associated with celebration and bliss. He refuses to accept the motives
A Study of Traherne's Metaphysical Poetry
A Study of Traherne's Metaphysical Poetry It is more than mere coincidence that the two poets who have produced the greatest visions of Paradise in the history of English literature both composed their works in the same twenty-five year period. The first - John Milton, needs very little introduction, while the second is the lesser known seventeenth century religious poet Thomas Traherne. Traherne's poetry, only uncovered at the end of the nineteenth century, has been quickly disregarded by many critics who consider Traherne an unrefined blend of Herbert and Vaughan. This hasty dismissal of Thomas Traherne as a poet in his own right seems a little unfair. Rather than judging Traherne's poetry by the preconceived standards we use to judge the likes of Herbert and Vaughan, his poetry should be analysed independently. Graham Parry, writing in his book, Seventeenth Century Poetry, states that Traherne's works record `the essentials of a life of praise and delight within a recovered Eden'1 This underlying theme of Paradise was one that was to dominate the mid-seventeenth century. It is not chance that Traherne and Milton emerged from the same period. Amidst the fervent atmosphere of the English Civil War there was much expectation that Christ would return to restore an Earthly Paradise. At a time when institution was collapsing many of the creative minds in England sought God
“Ideology represents the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence” (Althusser). Discuss with reference to the texts on the course.
"Ideology represents the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence" (Althusser). Discuss with reference to the texts on the course. Each of the central characters in "Open Secrets" by Alice Munro and "Paradise Lost" by John Milton are driven and sustained by the relationship between the realities of their existence and their personal ideologies. The conflict between ideology and reality is an important theme in the work of Munro and Milton and both the obvious discrepancies and the more subtle references to this define many aspects of the plot and characterisation. An examination of the reactions of characters to the restrictions placed on them by the reality in which they exist, and their perception of this reality is fundamental to understanding the ideologies which they possess. Their ideologies are the crucial influence on the experiences and eventual fates of each character. Ultimately the question of whether or not these relationships and conflicts are resolved or overcome is the key to gaining a deeper insight into the texts, and simultaneously provides the reader with evidence of the authors' own beliefs and ideologies. In Paradise Lost, Milton makes use of the ideas of contrast and opposition in order to create a text which is highly significant of his own personal ideology and, at the same time, a beautiful and intricate piece of
Kubla Khan and its Relation to Romanticism
Kubla Khan and its Relation to Romanticism 'Kubla Khan,' by Samuel Taylor Coleridge, is one of the most enigmatic and ambiguous pieces of literature ever written. Allegedly written after a laudanum (an opiate) induced dream, the author claims to have been planning a two hundred to three hundred line poem before he got interrupted by a 'man from Porlock,' after which he had forgotten nearly all of his dream. This may have been merely an excuse, and the poem was scorned at the time for having no poetic value, one critic even going so far as to call it 'more a musical composition than a poem.' This is partly true, as the language seems to strive for an aural beauty more than a literary beauty, although it accomplishes both. Like many great artists, Coleridge has been most appreciated after his death, when his radically different works could be justified, as the ideas presented in his works hadn't been popular during his life. Coleridge's philosophy in life was very romantic, and so nearly all of his poems exemplify the romantic ideal, especially Kubla Khan. This romantic poem uses brilliant imagery and metaphors to contrast the ideals of romantic paganism with often ingratious Christianity. The vision of paganism is the first idea introduced in the poem. The super-natural reference to 'Alph,' or Alpheus as it is historically known, 'the sacred river, [which] ran/ Through
Contrasts and Unity in Lycidas
Contrasts and Unity in Lycidas Lycidas is a poem of contrasts. Milton switches themes constantly, disrupting the flow and making it a poem of parts, disconcerting the reader who expects a unified entity. However, if we consider Lycidas to be a work in which Milton himself is the central persona, then the disparate parts can be brought together in a multi faceted unity. The opening section is replete with the imagery of unripeness 'harsh and crude' and 'bitter', which, although applied to evergreens and to the occasion, suggest the unpreparedness of the poet to undertake the task in hand. The first line, with its non-rhyming ending, warns the reader not to anticipate an accomplished poem. Indeed as we progress through the work, we find several unrhymed lines in an erratic rhyme scheme together with an irregular stanza pattern and eccentricities of meter. The intrusive six syllable lines amongst a majority of iambic pentameter have their origins in the Italian canzone but the occasional extra syllable must be regarded as a sign of the poet's immaturity. However the small eccentricities (they are too insignificant to be called errors) may well be deliberate. Take, for example, the case of the first line. The sentiment expressed is as out of place as the bachelor rhyme. Milton had at that time written verses on certain insignificant individuals but no one deserving 'Laurels'
Satan: Hero or Villain?
Julie Jentzen ENG 320 A Dr. O'Neill April 19, 2003 Satan: Hero or Villain? When picturing a heroic act, one would usually envision a feat that involves doing something courageous; such as rescuing a damsel in distress or single-handedly slaying an enemy army. The common element that links together the typical pagan epic heroes are these type of impressive public actions (5). In Paradise Lost, Milton depicted Satan as an almost praise-worthy figure. Milton's Satan bears many of the qualities similar to the classic Greek hero: he is strong, courageous, and charismatic (4). In Paradise Lost, Milton's character of Satan depicts the role of a hero in a non-conforming way. It is fascinating that Milton chose to begin his epic with the introduction of Satan, a figure who has been world-renowned for the prevalent representation of evil throughout history. Traditionally in an epic poem, the first character to be introduced to the reader would be the heroic figure. This is a bold move on Milton's part because he is daring enough to break away from the traditional structure of an epic poem without knowing what his audiences' response will be. Due to the fact that Satan is the only character knowledgeable of the early events in the poem, he is by default proclaimed the heroic figure of Paradise Lost. The opening scenes of Paradise Lost unveil Hell as a fiery and horrifying
In 1664 John Milton wrote what is now one of his most famous works, the Areopagitica.
Areopagitica In 1664 John Milton wrote what is now one of his most famous works, the Areopagitica. It was labeled by him as "A speech for the liberty of unlicensed printing to the parliament of England." (Milton, 1). Milton wrote his Areopagitica during a time of social change that saw the breakdown of authoritarianism and the dawning of libertarianism. Milton believed in the freedom of speech and was against the harsh printing laws that existed at the time. He wrote the Areopagitica to advocate the abolition of censorship; he believed in a free marketplace of ideas and felt that the restrictions on the printing press were only hindering the spread of wisdom. Milton explores many ideas throughout his piece, but the first argument that he starts discussing is the issue of censorship in relation to the church. Milton was very much against the Catholic Church. He disagreed with its values, and blamed the emergence of the censorship of the press on them, saying that they stop perfectly good books from being born, by implementing their law of prior restraint: "...first the inventors of it to be those whom ye will be loath to own; next what is to be thought general of reading, whatever sort the books be; and this order avails nothing to the suppressing of scandalous, seditious, and libelous books, which were mainly intended to be suppressed." (Milton, 3). Milton felt that
Discuss the presentation of Hell in Book One of ParadiseLost.
Discuss the presentation of Hell in Book One of Paradise Lost. Hell is presented in several ways within Paradise Lost but there are three main techniques used by Milton. These include through his own commentary, through Satan and his speeches and also through Beelzebub. Additionally Hell is also presented through the techniques used by Milton, his structure, style and use of language. Throughout Paradise Lost Hell is presented as a place, but also as a state of mind, which Satan refers to in his speech. Milton uses many opposites in Paradise Lost, contrasting Heaven with Hell, God with Satan, and good with evil. The contrast between light and dark exists in all of these opposites. The narrator characterizes the angels' physical appearance as full of light, and the devils' as shadowy and dark. Milton also uses light to symbolize God and God's grace. The absence of light in Hell and in Satan himself represents the absence of God and his grace. The opening scenes reveal Hell as a fiery, glittering place that reflects the corrupt souls of the devils. Milton establishes two opposing poles of evil and good, dark and light, and the action shifts to Earth, a region blessed by Heaven but vulnerable to the forces of Hell. Milton's first description of Hell is full of negative emotive words, 'obdurate pride' and 'steadfast hate' are adjectives used by Milton to describe Hell and
Milton's Paradise Lost - Political Satire? How does this help to understand the poem?
Milton's Paradise Lost - Political Satire? How does this help to understand the poem? Milton takes the traditional epic and transforms it with the clarity of his moral vision and with the power of his language, turning it into piece of rich and powerful verse. In the early parts of "Paradise Lost", Milton manages to convey sympathy with Satan's heroic energy, with Satan's rebellion against Milton's god seen as an epic battle where the devil and his followers are banished to the external and horrid place of hell. Satan describes the "hell within him" wherever he goes and, yet as the epic narrative progresses, the allegiance subtly shifts to Christ's message of love and a vision of Paradise free of Satan's destructive force. Milton believe that the proper end to all activities should be in God or goodness, based on this central belief of good and evil and its association with the Augustine concept of the 'chain of being'. Milton beliefs in a heaven, chaos and hell, as clearly defined entities, are more consistent with poetic myth rather a rational, scientific belief although Milton had visited Galileo, and the concept of physical space and the Universe clearly influenced his thoughts. Milton's blindness prevents him from seeing any light, except in strong symbolic terms, as the light of God illuminates and inspires the mind. Milton makes references to the greatest classical
How does Milton use generic systems in Paradise Lost?
How does Milton use generic systems in Paradise Lost? Paradise Lost is most obviously a long poem with Judeo-Christian subject matter, placing particular emphasis on the struggles and successes of individual characters. The size of these characters (Satan, God, Adam, Eve, Raphael) allows them all to be seen as heroes. This overriding concern with heroes and the nature of heroism categorises Paradise Lost firmly as epic, which, according to J. A. Cuddon, is at its simplest level 'a long narrative poem, on a grand scale, about the deeds of warriors and heroes' (264). Milton's poem can be further termed an epic because of its incorporation of a large number of different forms and modes within its primary narrative of 'man's first disobedience'. Rosalie Colie has mentioned that Homer's epics were the source of all arts and sciences - philosophy, mathematics, history, geography, military art, religion, hymnic praise - and all literary forms (22 - 3). By including a wealth of references to other epics, a model of classical tragedy, several pastoral episodes, various lyric forms and a number of dramatic elements, Milton extends the range of his subject matter so that his poem becomes almost a master-epic, embodying a panoply of literary kinds and strengthening its affinity with Homeric epic. His inclusivist approach aligns him equally with Sidney and Spenser, his greatest English