In 1664 John Milton wrote what is now one of his most famous works, the Areopagitica.

Areopagitica In 1664 John Milton wrote what is now one of his most famous works, the Areopagitica. It was labeled by him as "A speech for the liberty of unlicensed printing to the parliament of England." (Milton, 1). Milton wrote his Areopagitica during a time of social change that saw the breakdown of authoritarianism and the dawning of libertarianism. Milton believed in the freedom of speech and was against the harsh printing laws that existed at the time. He wrote the Areopagitica to advocate the abolition of censorship; he believed in a free marketplace of ideas and felt that the restrictions on the printing press were only hindering the spread of wisdom. Milton explores many ideas throughout his piece, but the first argument that he starts discussing is the issue of censorship in relation to the church. Milton was very much against the Catholic Church. He disagreed with its values, and blamed the emergence of the censorship of the press on them, saying that they stop perfectly good books from being born, by implementing their law of prior restraint: "...first the inventors of it to be those whom ye will be loath to own; next what is to be thought general of reading, whatever sort the books be; and this order avails nothing to the suppressing of scandalous, seditious, and libelous books, which were mainly intended to be suppressed." (Milton, 3). Milton felt that

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Linguistics, Classics and related subjects
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Show how Ngugi uses his narrative to contrast the inner emotional qualities in his characters- (chapter 7 pages 99-107)

Show how Ngugi uses his narrative to contrast the inner emotional qualities in his characters- (chapter 7 pages 99-107) After a long hard struggle, In 1963 Kenya was finally on the verge of grasping their long awaited independence from the British. The novel, 'A Grain of Wheat', takes the reader back to the period between the fighting and the so-called 'new world'. It is a true manifestation of emotional individuality of both the colonized and colonizer alike, where they reflect on what has been gained by their triumph, but more importantly what has been lost in their fight for sovereignty. It is a poignant novel of love, betrayal and sacrifice, which in them selves are strong emotional qualities, and are only emphasized by the narrative. In this extract it becomes clear that Ngugi allows the reader to decide what the characters are feeling by contrasting different events and characters, sometimes even by distinguishing between past and present actions. Therefore it is suggested that through the contrasting narrative Ngugi wants the reader to make certain judgments upon his characters. The first contrast that comes into light is the revelation of Kihika's departure to fight in the forest and join the other freedom fighters. This is not surprising to the reader, since we see Kihika's strong passion, for the cause, formed at a young age where even his 'heart hardened towards'

  • Word count: 1651
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Linguistics, Classics and related subjects
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Contrasts and Unity in Lycidas

Contrasts and Unity in Lycidas Lycidas is a poem of contrasts. Milton switches themes constantly, disrupting the flow and making it a poem of parts, disconcerting the reader who expects a unified entity. However, if we consider Lycidas to be a work in which Milton himself is the central persona, then the disparate parts can be brought together in a multi faceted unity. The opening section is replete with the imagery of unripeness 'harsh and crude' and 'bitter', which, although applied to evergreens and to the occasion, suggest the unpreparedness of the poet to undertake the task in hand. The first line, with its non-rhyming ending, warns the reader not to anticipate an accomplished poem. Indeed as we progress through the work, we find several unrhymed lines in an erratic rhyme scheme together with an irregular stanza pattern and eccentricities of meter. The intrusive six syllable lines amongst a majority of iambic pentameter have their origins in the Italian canzone but the occasional extra syllable must be regarded as a sign of the poet's immaturity. However the small eccentricities (they are too insignificant to be called errors) may well be deliberate. Take, for example, the case of the first line. The sentiment expressed is as out of place as the bachelor rhyme. Milton had at that time written verses on certain insignificant individuals but no one deserving 'Laurels'

  • Word count: 1530
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Linguistics, Classics and related subjects
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Pullyz Paradise lost - Adam and Eve

Pullyz PARADISE LOST: Adam and Eve The dramatic characters of Adam and eve have led to a spectrum of opinions, which touch issues regarding the roles of the sexes even today. Milton's dramatization of the biblical eve was interpreted vain, having trivia; characteristics inclined to fall. What was ignored was Milton's assertion of eternal; providence for both man and woman. Virginia Woolf and many other literary women's view are that Milton's verse is a powerful rendering of a culture myth, which is at the heart of west literary patriarchy. Reasons for this are that it is the story of a woman's secondness. her "otherness" which leads to her demonic anger, her fall, her sin, her fall and her exclusion from the garden of god's which for her is the garden of poetry. According to the feminists, milt shows Adam as god's favored creature, and eve as inferior who is satanically inspired. . For most women writers Milton and creature of his literary imagination constitute what 'Gertrude stein' calls patriarchal poetry. Adam and eve are capable of obedience to god; eve prefers to believe the devil. Adam loves his place of eve above his love of god. Of their free will they are disobedient. Eve before the fall is innocent womanhood, and after the fall is guilty womanhood. God is their creaotor and he has forbidden them to eat the fruit. The obligation to obey is stressed again and

  • Word count: 1493
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Linguistics, Classics and related subjects
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An Analysis of Satan’s Soliloquy in John Milton’s “Paradise Lost”

AND SO THE ARCH-FIEND SPOKE An Analysis of Satan's Soliloquy in John Milton's "Paradise Lost" In the eighty-two lines that consist of Satan's famous soliloquy in Book IV (lines 32 to 113) of John Milton's Paradise Lost, one is given a great deal to think about. Obviously, first and foremost, one gets a deeper look at the character of the "tragic hero" of Milton's epic, who is consumed by his jealousy of God's new creation, Mankind. Also, by seeing more of Satan's character, one also sees Satan's reasons for sinning, how sin originally began, and in a sense, he establishes a defence for his own, ill-thought-out actions. And finally, Satan's soliloquy was a vehicle for Milton to further establish the main theme of his epic, which is, as one reads in Book I, to "justify the ways of God to men." (I.26) Above all, this deeper glimpse of Satan shows the reader that he (Satan) is quite intelligent. We see cunning skills of logic while he debates with himself the pros and cons of every point that he raises. The reader also sees in Satan that one thing that Adam and Eve crave so dearly -- self-awareness. But this self-awareness that Satan possesses does not seem to enlighten him, as Adam and Even hope it will; in fact, he seems tortured by it, as he banters back and forth with himself. This same self-awareness also enable him to see that although he has a throne in Hell,

  • Word count: 1473
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Linguistics, Classics and related subjects
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Humanism in Dante and MiltonHumanism had a profound impact on European society during the Renaissance

Humanism in Dante and Milton Humanism had a profound impact on European society during the Renaissance. This movement transformed the thinking processes of many Europeans, altering the way these people viewed themselves, their lives, and their place in the world. Literature written around the time of the Renaissance displays humanism's influence on the European social order. Dante Alighieri, a prominent Florentine writer, completed his Inferno around 1314. Although Dante lived before the widespread proliferation of humanism and humanistic writings, his style exhibits many precursors, if not aspects, of later humanistic thought. The aftereffects of humanism are apparent in the writings of John Milton, an English writer whose works were greatly influenced by the tumultuous political climate of seventeenth century England. Whereas Dante's Inferno displays many qualities to be emphasized by humanism, Milton's Paradise Lost, published in 1667, demonstrates the culmination of the effect humanism has had on his society. The writings of both men are products of the respective times in which they were written; Milton wrote almost three and a half centuries after Dante, and he lived in a different society in which Dante lived. Despite these differences, both the Inferno and Paradise Lost display aspects found in humanism, although they may convey these aspects to the reader very

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Linguistics, Classics and related subjects
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Jean-Baptiste Molire's Don Juan has all the outward appearances of seventeenth-century French farce - the stage settings are surreal, the costumes are ludicrous, and the wordplay is witty.

James S. Bowling Dr. Candyce Leonard MALS 775 2 February 2005 Molière's Don Juan: A Man Behaving Badly "He is the greatest rascal the earth has ever held, this madman, dog, devil, Turk, and heretic..." - Sganarelle, Don Juan Jean-Baptiste Molière's Don Juan has all the outward appearances of seventeenth-century French farce-the stage settings are surreal, the costumes are ludicrous, and the wordplay is witty. The particulars have their origins in Molière's years of experience directing a troupe of traveling actors in southern France. Appealing to a popular audience, Molière adopts the format of the Commedia dell'Arte, the troupes of traveling Italian actors that present farce with a maximum of gesture and mime and a minimum of dialogue. Despite the trappings of farce, Don Juan has very serious elements, ones designed to elucidate the character of the protagonist, his relationship with the world, and his impact on those he deals with. It is Molière's genius to join these elements to themes that attract a more aristocratic (and presumably more sophisticated) audience in the nation's capital. In many respects, Don Juan is a man apart and totally self-contained. Just as Satan, in Milton's Paradise Lost preferred to "reign in Hell rather than serve in Heaven," so Don Juan is adamant to follow his own life prescriptions-no matter what the outcome-rather than

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Linguistics, Classics and related subjects
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Compare the ways that vultures are portrayed and used in the poems by Margaret Atwood and Chinua Achebe

Compare the ways that vultures are portrayed and used in the poems by Margaret Atwood and Chinua Achebe Achebe and Atwood appear to be writing about vultures, but are actually commenting on something different. Both poets compare vultures to humanity but Atwood's poem describes vultures in a good ways whereas Achebe describes vultures in a bad way. In Achebe's poem the first section talks about vultures. On the whole it portrays them to be evil and dark but then suggests that humans are no better than vultures. Achebe uses a lot of dark negative words to portray vultures in the first section of the poem, he uses dark words that are, "greyness", "drizzle" and "despondent" to set the scene, this shows that the vultures live in a dark habitat. This first section of the poem uses good imagery to set the scene. The next two lines suggest a stereotypical part of a vultures home, on a dead tree. "Dead" suggests that the vultures have killed the tree as well as other animals. Achebe then describes the vultures themselves and uses mostly negative words, such as "bashed in head", "bone", "corpse" and "trench." Bone and corpse suggests death which represents the vultures to be bad and related with death. Bashed in head shows that vultures are ugly which makes a negative atmosphere and image. But Achebe also uses some positive words like "affectionately", "mate" and "perching."

  • Word count: 1290
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Linguistics, Classics and related subjects
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Paradise Lost - What Do We Learn About Satan's Character from Line 84 To Line 191?

Question: What Do We Learn About Satan's Character from Line 84 To Line 191? Milton's portrait of Satan has fascinated critics since Paradise Losts first publication, leading some in the romantic period to claim that Satan is, in fact, the heroic protagonist of the whole work. Certainly Milton's description of Satan has greatly influenced the devil's image in western art and literature since the book's publication. From lines 84 to 191 in Paradise Lost Book 1, we are introduced to the character of Satan, who has just been hurled from heaven, 'because he trusted to have equalled the Most High'. As a reader, one first meets a stunned Satan, chained down to the fiery lake of hell, surrounded by his co-conspirators. From lines 84 to 127, where Satan is speaking to his good friend, 'Beelzebub', Milton presents him as being nostalgic about heaven, 'Myriads, though bright...' - something one sees significantly for the first and last time throughout the poem. Satan's great yearning for heaven is brief, and when finally suppressed, Milton offers a fine and revealing example of Satan's rhetoric and quick-moving contradictions, as he instantly expresses excuses for his failure. Firstly, he declares that 'Till then who knew, the force of those dire arms?' explaining how they were unaware of Gods powers before testing him. This is supportive evidence, backing up the suggestion

  • Word count: 1094
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Linguistics, Classics and related subjects
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How far do you agree with this judgment on Milton's handling of Satan in ParadiseLost I & II?

How far do you agree with this judgment on Milton's handling of Satan in Paradise Lost I & II? Satan in Paradise Lost presents an unusual dichotomy; he is both the personification of cosmic malevolence and a pathetic character. As a theist who is resolved to "justify the ways of God to man", one assumes that Milton would not deliberately show Satan in a wholly sympathetic light. Indeed, Milton warns that humans are particularly attracted to Satan's "guile" and that he is ultimately a deluded fraud. Yet Satan's villainy is caused by his faults and his conflict as the "the Antagonist of Heav'n" contributes to both the plot and God's over-aching scheme. It seems counter-intuitive to suspend the ethical context of a theodicy, however, Satan's exploits could be described as tragically heroic. As Milton engages in other conventions of classical epics such as epic similes and the invocation, one would assume that Paradise Lost has a hero of some kind. The protagonist, God, does not appear until the third book whilst Satan features prominently in the first two books. He is the first identifiable character which would gain the audiences sympathy in a traditional drama. He also exhibits the traits of a villainous tragic hero as his downfall was caused by hubris. His hamartia is "obdúrate pride"; by fancying himself as "equalled to the Most High", he is appropriately cast

  • Word count: 1062
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Linguistics, Classics and related subjects
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