The Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka, Mansfield Park by Jane Austen, and Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte-present an indispensable contribution into the world literature of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century.

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Three brilliant novels—The Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka, Mansfield Park by Jane Austen, and Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte—present an indispensable contribution into the world literature of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. All of them are written by the authors who earned their fame with a great number of literary works, and are full with emotions caused by numerous social interrelationships of the heroes. The aforementioned works by the stated above authors are full with lively situations that help to a great extent understand and analyze the real similar situations that happened in the lives of the readers.

The Metamorphosis is a story by Franz Kafka about a man named Gregor Samsa who one day wakes up to find himself “changed in his bed into a monstrous vermin”.  The mutation occurs the night before in his “unsettling dreams” and appears to be solely physical because Gregor maintains all of his human mental capacities. At the beginning of the novel Gregor works in a company as a traveling salesman. He hates his job, but he is forced to work there in order to support his family—his father who became bankrupt, his mother, and his sister Grete, who was the closest person for him in the world.

Gregor may be in separation emotionally from his family before his metamorphosis even takes place. Gregor’s locked door indicates that Gregor was previously removed from the Samsa circle of family union. The physical aspects of Gregor’s room, such as the confined feeling that the furniture creates, is a microcosm of Gregor’s life. The furniture traps Gregor in his room, just as the Samsas have trapped Gregor for financial stability.  

The only source where Gregor receives love after his metamorphosis is from his sister. One example which expresses Gregor’s craving for love appears directly after he wakes up. Kafka writes, “In fact, Gregor felt fine, with the exception of his drowsiness, which was really unnecessary after sleeping so late, and he even had a ravenous appetite” (Kafka, 5). The hunger that Kafka is feeling is really not a hunger for food, but for love.  There are several instances in which Kafka reveals Gregor’s hunger in The Metamorphosis.  Gregor’s sister, Grete, temporarily extinguishes Gregor’s hunger for love when she feeds him. The food that Grete feeds Gregor is a metaphor for the love that she is giving him.

Another aspect of human relationships that Gregor lacks is understanding. Nobody really knows who his true self really is. Gregor’s metamorphosis reveals many of Gregor’s subconscious thoughts. Lack of understanding between him and his family is evident in his thoughts regarding his new speech. Kafka writes, “It was true that they no longer understood his words, though they had seemed clear enough to him, clearer than before, probably because his ear had grown accustomed to them” (Kafka, 13).  The phrase “clearer than before” shows that Gregor only begins to understand himself after his metamorphosis is complete.

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Even though it may seem as if Grete might be able to comfort Gregor forever, she betrays him in the latter part of the story.  Her first sign of duplicity is when she moves out his furniture.  Kafka writes of Gregor’s thoughts, “They were clearing out his room: depriving him of everything that he loved; they had already carried away the chest of drawers, in which he kept the fretsaw and other tools” (Kafka, 35).  The furniture in Gregor’s room is one of the only things he has left that makes him feel like his old self, and Grete is ...

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