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University Degree: Statistics
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The figures also incorporate average prices and number of sales within Greater London by individual London Boroughs. Sales in this context are taken to mean the transfer of ownership for value of freehold and long leasehold residential properties, whether or not the purchase was supported by a mortgage. No weighting or adjustment was applied to the information collected to reflect any seasonal or other factors. The price data can be said to be actual unadjusted averages, drawn from the great majority of all residential sales completed during the last quarter of 2002. All types of accommodation have been included in the numbers, whether detached, semi-detached, terraced houses or flats or maisonettes were sold.
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The increase in 2009 means that gross profit was higher relative to sales revenue and that cost of sales was lower relative to sales revenue in 2009, than in 2008. 3) Sales Revenue per employee Labour is a very important resource, but more important to that is how well it is managed. This is one of the issues, which most businesses struggle with. Unsatisfied labour force simply means lower production, which may also affect the quality and reputation of the business.
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On the other hand we can see that the Vegetarian range was the less liked kind of food with only 3 votes (6%). People had the opportunity to choose one of the given options or if they preferred something that is not on the list to chose other and specify. This graph shows that the people were satisfied with the options and had no other types of food in mind. To see the rest of the statistics of this graph I refer you to look in the appendix 9.3, figure 1b page 15.
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For the above example the corresponding H0 would be that there has been no increase or decrease in the mean. Always the null hypothesis is tested, i.e., we want to either accept or reject the null hypothesis because we have information only for the null hypothesis. Types of Tests Tests of hypothesis can be carried out on one or two samples. One sample tests are used to test if the population parameter (?) is different from a specified value. Two sample tests are used to detect the difference between the parameters of two populations (?1 and ?2).
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Factors predicting disclosure of chronic illness status in the workplace and general well-being for individuals with Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Seventy-nine patients (71.8%) had worked full time and 31 had worked part time. The mean number of years since diagnosis of IBD was 9.4. Linear regression analyses were performed to assess the association between the 3 predictors and 2 criteria. Pearson correlation coefficients were then computed to evaluate the associations between the 2 criteria. These analyses will be described below. Statistical significance was set at p < .05. 1. Joint predictive effects of coping strategies on Illness Disclosure and General Well-being (Appendix 2)
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2007 Descriptive Statistics For Offense and Defense independent variables there exists no problems with skewness and Kurtosis. So the data for 2007 has no normality problems and the data is sufficient to use. Offense Level of measurement and sample size issues The variables being used in a discriminant analysis should be non-metric for the dependenant variable and metric for the independent variables, which in this analysis and the following analysis's is true so the measurement level requirement is satisfied. The minimum ratio of valid cases to independent variables for discriminant analysis is 5 to 1, with a preferred ratio of 20 to 1.
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Methodology Sociologists use many different research methods to investigate the society. There are two main sources of data that sociologists tend to use. These sources are primary and secondary sources. There are advantages and disadvantages to both of these methods. Primary data Primary data is data that is gathered by yourself. The advantages of primary sources of data are that the data collected is up to date and is very reliable because it has been collected personally. The disadvantages of primary sources of data are that it is a hassle to obtain and gathering the data is very time consuming. Primary data can be collected in many ways. These include: 1)
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The report is about the planned refurbishment of the Spectrum leisure centre situated in Guildford. The report will be presented to the Spectrum Committee on 18th January 2007. Surrey County Council requires research about the customers of the Spectrum leisure centre before commencing refurbishment. The report will cover issues such as what facilities need to be offered, the prices to charge, the hours to open and the likely demand. To achieve this, the report will consist of primary and secondary research of visitors and users of the Spectrum leisure centre. A plan will be devised as to what type of research is most appropriate for this report.
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With primary sources the researcher has more control of these factors. Quantitative/Qualitative Data Data collected is also either Quantitative or Qualitative. Quantitative data is a form of research that results in a form of numbers, statistics or measure. It is a form of research where responses are able to be counted. Quantitative data allows precise comparison between results and analysis of any pattern of results. Quantitative data is limited in that, at some point it has to be labeled, therefore linking it to qualitative data.
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Data can be collected by a variety of methods: 1. Direct observation - this can be expensive but is accurate. It also needs to be unobtrusive. 2. Direct inspection - this is a standard procedure done by organisations whether it is permanent or temporary. 3. Written questionnaire - this is relatively cheap. However, it has a low response rate and needs careful design. 4. Personal interviews - these are expensive but they are able to deal with complex issues. 5. Abstract from published statistics - this is cheap, easy to use but may not be directly relevant to what the organisation wants to know.
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It is therefore run in conjunction with a survey of actual visitors to the Museum. Both Web and physical audience surveys will be run as longitudinal projects, so that we can build up a picture of fluctuations and changes in the profile over the coming years. METHODOLOGY The following report is based on responses to a short pop-up survey, which was posted on the Science Museum homepage on Monday 6 August 2001. Log data were also used to supply additional information on virtual visiting patterns.
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CRITICALLY EVALUATE THE PROPOSITION THAT, 'DUE TO THE GROWTH OF THE MODERN WOMENS MOVEMENT THERE HAS BEEN AN INCREASE IN FEMALE OFFENDING SINCE THE EARLY 1970S'
The issue was first raised by Freda Adler (1975) in 'Sisters in Crime' which establishes that the increase in female crime is proof that the feminist movement is working, as women are freer to behave like men (Williams 2004: 470; Heidensohn 2002: 496). Since the women's movement it has been viewed by some writers that women are obtaining similar social positions to men and this will inevitably include the positions in criminal activity. They could leave the private sphere of the home and engage in the public sphere of work, leading to unacceptable social opportunities such as crime (Williams 2004: 471).
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This essay will attempt to look at how crime is measured, and where 'official' statistics are constructed from. The validity and reliability of this data will be discussed. It will also examine how the public can be misinformed of the real figures of crime throughout the eyes of the media and how this has elevated the public's 'fear' of crime. The term 'moral panic' will also be addressed. How crime is recorded is a good place to start , crime statistics were first published in France in 1842(Quetelet, 1842). England and Wales then followed suit in 1876 and the U.S even later in 1930.
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The methods I have used to establish that inequalities exist between different wards in Northampton are: Primary:Affluence Surveys
Secondary data is data that is available from other sources. Affluence Surveys show the quality of cars in the wards and also the average house size and a description of a typical house. Environment Quality Surveys rate different aspects of each of the wards including condition of houses, clean air and parking spaces. Quality Of Life questionnaires are filled in by people living in the wards about each of the wards in general. This covered various categories such as jobs, housing, shops and levels of crime/vandalism.
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Interview and survey: an evaluation and contrast of these two approaches to data collection In this essay I shall be evaluating and contrasting the interview and survey approach to data collection
However, the main advantages of using surveys to collect research data is that surveys can be used to gather information from a large number of people, where interviewing large numbers would be extremely time consuming and costly. The possible answers can be pre-coded enabling a quick analysis of the collected data. However, the recipient is put in the position of aligning their answer with one of the available choices and this may not be reflective of their true position. Furthermore, the questions may be misunderstood and unlike an interview situation, there is no way of seeking clarification.
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Decreasing fertility rates across England & Wales and its relationship with increased cases of sexually transmitted infections seen in Genito-urinary medicine clinics: A case study.
Between 1991 and 2001 reported cases of STI's in GUM clinics more than doubled in England & Wales (Figure 1) (www.statistics.gov.uk). Table 1. Age specific fertility rates, England 1960-94 (Hinde 2003) The aim of this case study was to statistically analyse the potential relationship between decreasing fertility rates in England & Wales and the number of new cases of STI's reported by GUM clinics. Therefore the null hypothesis Ho predicted that there was no relationship between decreasing fertility rates in England & Wales and the increase in number of STI's seen by GUM clinics.
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Discuss the Contention that the media produce partial and exaggerated images of Crime, In what ways might these influence Public Perceptions of Crime?
One of the most important sociological terms when looking at media and crime is that of a "moral panic". One of the most influential and important theories of this was put forward by Stanley Cohen, in assessing deviancy amplification. (Whereby societal reaction creates more of the undesired behaviour.) Cohen's work showed how police attempts to control 1960 subcultures - the mods and rockers, coupled with sensationalist heightened media attention led to a moral panic, thus increasing the popularity of these groups to the younger generations, and therefore an increase in the numbers of these Subcultures, whilst at the same time the older generations labelled such youngsters as "devils" etc.
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Institutionalist school reject the idea official statistics are objective indicators of social conditions. They consider official statistics as neither valid nor reliable indicators of objective phenomena. The institutionalist believes official statistics tell one more about process of how the official statistics are made. The radical, agrees with the institutionalist, however they would locate the institutionalist theory within a wider theory of the dynamics and structure of society.1 (Squires 1990) Official statistics is secondary data, which is information that has already been allocated and readily available.
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What are the difficulties and pitfalls in attempting to conduct a national survey on people's sexual activities?
This is not a cross section of the population, and so does not tell us a great deal about the spread of the HIV virus. It is a specific sub-group, which is expected to be of a particularly high risk because of their lifestyle, and so can not be used as a measure to assess the general population's behaviours and the findings generalized to the wider population (Cochran, Mostelier, and Tukey 1953). When conducting a large scale survey on peoples sexual lifestyles several important things need to be considered.
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There are many ways to manipulate a graph. Below is a list most commonly used tactic to distort and misrepresent the data. 1. Alter the scale (not start with zero, change the intervals) 2. Alter the axis (Change intervals, pick unusual variable for x axis) 3. Avoid showing t he whole context (take it out of context) 4. Add distractions and fillers (take the attention away from the data) 5. Show 1 dimensional data with 2& 3 dimensional figures, which will distort the increase in data by higher proposition. 6. Bad choice of graphs (Unsuitable graph for the given data) 7. Bad wording and labeling (creates vagueness) 8.
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i) Data Source. Heath, A. et al. British Election Studies. [computer file] Colchester: ESRC Data Archive, 1993. The British Election Study is carried out after each General Election. It is based on surveys conducted between April and August 1992 and attempts to find some reasons for voting behaviour. Among some of the studies' concern for collecting the data is to investigate the magnitude, causes and erosion of enduring support for the two main parties. ii) Operational Definitions. Left wing voting is taken as a vote for the Labour party; Right wing voting, a vote for the Conservative party.
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Police officers will target ALL black men that might be wearing red jackets. Innocent blacks would be questioned because they might fit the description, it does not mean officers are discriminating or using racial profiling in a negative way. Zakhary is in favor of "data collection" and says the cameras in patrol cars provide accountability for his officers. There are many individuals and organizations willing to offer solutions to what President Bush called "a national problem." Racial profiling is one of the most critical issues facing law enforcement today. In order to address this problem, legislation should be introduced to include "a standard definition" of racial profiling.
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In August 2000, France T�l�com acquired Orange plc for a total consideration of �25.1 billion. Orange plc's wirefree(tm) interests were merged with the majority of those of France T�l�com to form the new Orange SA group. The Orange brand now operates in the United Kingdom, France, Switzerland, Romania, Slovakia, the Netherlands, Thailand, the Ivory Coast, the Dominican Republic, Cameroon, Botswana and Madagascar. The Orange group also has minority interests in Portugal (Optimus), Austria, (Connect Austria), and Mumbai/India (BPL Mobile). Orange makes a difference to people's lives by creating simple and innovative services that help people communicate and interact better. Data Analysis and Time Series Graph The data below displays the total turnover (in million euros)
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Thus it is this debate I shall now turn to. In order to answer the overall question it is necessary to firstly take into account the practical arguments in favour of using official statistics in research. Arguments in favour include that official statistics are widely available in large quantities. This allows the researcher to generalise to the whole of the population. Due to statistics being readily available and free this in turn saves the researcher time and money and therefore they can turn their attention to more serious matters concerning their research.
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A survey done by Seal et al.'s (1957) is an example of the use of surveys. It was a study done on child-rearing practices using two groups of mothers from the Boston area of the USA. The data was gathered by rating open-ended answers to structured questions given to the mothers in a taped interview, the raters never met the mothers personally. The researchers found that positive relationships between the use of physical punishment and a child's higher aggression level.
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