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University Degree: Statistics

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 1
  1. Stochastic Applications of Actuarial Models with R coding

    MATLAB was used to perform this procedure and plot the results in the below graphs. The code can be located in the Appendix 1.1 attached. The green, black, blue and red lines indicate the probability for default rating for a sovereign rated BBB, A, AA, AAA respectively at the beginning of 1995. It can be noted that the probability for default rating for sovereigns rated BBB, which is around 3.4*10-3 after 10 years, exceeds the probability of default ratings for sovereigns of other ratings by a significant amount over the 10 years.

    • Word count: 3564
  2. How statistical interpretation can cause data to appear misleading

    Interviewing, surveys or questionnaires and observations are the three main methods of collecting data for analysis. Although interviewing allows the respondents to talk about their own opinions, the reliability of the data is dependent upon the individual's responses (Gratton and Jones (e), 2004). Eggert (2007) notes that there is research to suggest that interviewing is one of the most unreliable techniques; this could be because the respondent may recall the information inadequately, have incorrect knowledge on the question in hand or may misinterpret the question. Another reason for interviewing to favour so low could be because the majority of people, including managers have not been trained efficiently in interviewing skills and may even add in a

    • Word count: 3451
  3. Dress code study. The method of random sampling in this investigation was cluster sampling. The population of our investigation was all ABC University female students. Since all ABC University female students stay in block 1, we took 20 students from thr

    The questionnaire was as followed:- Hello! We are doing a survey for our Mathematics project. Your help of answering the following questions is appreciated. This survey is anonymous, so please answer honestly. Thank you very much! Gender: How many summons(es) have you received due to improper attire from June 2005 to June 2006? 0 5 1 6 2 7 3 8 4 9 Others:____________ Which type(s) of restrictions do you think should be abolished? (If you think none of these should be abolished, you may leave it blank.) Short shirt (does not cover bottom) Sleeves of shirt do not reach wrists Too tight pants Pants must be at least ankle length Our purpose of investigation

    • Word count: 5341
  4. Does the data indicate that the revised (one week) forecast is significantly more accurate than the first (one month) forecast? In order to find out whether the revised forecast is significantly more accurate than the first forecast, we can use t-test to

    Difference could be in either way; therefore, it is a two-tailed test. Formulate the Null hypothesis and the Alternative hypothesis (H0 and H1): H0: �1>�2 H1: �1?�2 The level of significance is ? = 5%, then ?/2 = 2.5%. With degrees of freedom,?=23,from Statistical Table, 5, tcrit = 2.069. tcalc = = -2.77, with =191.58, =338.59 tcalc > tcrit Reject H0. In other words, the result of revised forecast is more accurate than that of the first forecast. t-Test: Paired Two Sample for Means Variable 1 Variable 2 Mean -842.3333333 -650.75 Variance 227542.7536 323320.3 Observations 24 24 Pearson Correlation 0.804134873 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0 df 23 t Stat -2.771992028 P(T<=t)

    • Word count: 4466
  5. The aim of investigation is to see if there is a link between the Gross National Product (GNP), average BMI (Body Mass Index) and average Life Expectancy of a country. I have chosen to do this because it gives a good insight

    How I am going to carry out the Investigation A) The data needed for this investigation is the data from 30 different countries. I need to collect each countries average BMI, GNP and life expectancy. To make sure that this investigation is fair, I need to take results from MEDCs (more economically developed countries) and LEDCs (less economically developed countries) this will improve my investigation because it will produce a wider spread of results. I have chosen to investigate 30 countries as this will mean that I can do an even number of MEDCs and LEDCs.

    • Word count: 3629
  6. Contents Table

    12000.00 18000.00 14 25.00 130.00 8000.00 18000.00 15 22.00 135.00 8000.00 16000.00 16 30.00 135.00 8000.00 22000.00 17 29.00 136.00 10000.00 20000.00 18 25.00 140.00 12000.00 24000.00 19 24.00 135.00 10000.00 23000.00 20 28.00 120.00 10000.00 17000.00 3 Description of Data In order to identify which descriptive analytical tools to use I must identify the type of data being analysed. The data is Univariate as is a single set of data. This then gives way to the question what is the scale level of the variable.

    • Word count: 3218
  7. Foundation Degree Computing - Statistical Methods

    When we were happy with the layout of the questionnaire, we proceeded to stage two, collecting the data. Collecting the Data After combining questions and producing our questionnaire, we went our separate ways to gather the data from our subjects. We each had 10 questionnaires, which had 14 questions on it. The ideal scenario being to capture data from a cross section of the population to include as many different age ranges as possible to maximise the proportion. We visited various locations around the town and carried out the questionnaire, most of the subjects were happy to answer the questions, and only a small percentage of subjects were unable to supply us with the information we were looking for.

    • Word count: 3860
  8. Increases in crime since the 1950's

    The BCS relies on its data through the general public, the question must be asked, how much weight should we attach to the views of the public? It is easy to forget about a crime, and some people might not even realise that a crime has occurred. Respondents may remember an incident, but may be to embarrassed to write about it, on the other hand, they might invent an offence, possibly to seem interesting. Nevertheless, where the victim does tell the truth, these surveys can be very successful.

    • Word count: 3384
  9. RESEARCH PROPOSAL In order to identity the specific fields within the broad genre of socio-economic trends that affect the percentage of women in parliament, it is necessary to review current theoretical research and information. It is clear from prelimin

    It is the inclusion of women in the labour market that prompted the question as to whether social (ie - welfare, education) and economic (ie - wage equality, employment rates) factors do have a significant effect on levels of women seats in parliaments. Research Question: Do socio-economic factors affect the levels of women seats in parliaments of the OECD countries? If so, to what extent? In order to answer this question accurately, it is necessary first to examine the existing literature and research.

    • Word count: 4682
  10. To establish how religious/community background, income, age and education have effect on the attitudes towards the Good Friday Agreement

    Preliminary research is mainly based upon secondary data, whereby trends and changing patterns are identified within that certain environment. University survey's already completed would enable us to identify student opinion without taking part in primary research. Secondary data can also be utilised in planning a primary study. Past studies' reports may indicate the questions that should be asked in a new study. In this research programme, information taken regarding students in the UK was extracted, and enabled similar type questions be asked. Secondary data accessed via library searches, information direct from Antrim Hall, in-house information and on-line database searches offer information which states the possibilities of expanding the availability of such foods within university campuses, emphasising quality throughout.

    • Word count: 4942
  11. Maths - Second hand cars.

    40.92 46000 6 55 7864 4500 42.78 130000 3 14 8900 4995 43.88 24000 2 10 13510 7499 44.49 27000 4 27 13800 7495 45.69 25000 2 92 8710 4693 46.12 50000 5 21 11225 5999 46.56 42000 3 9 13175 6999 46.88 41000 3 41 13650 6995 48.75 71000 6 71 27855 13995 49.76 40500 1 91 7518 3769 49.87 38000 4 5 7995 3999 49.98 37000 3 1 16000 7999 50.01 7000 1 49 13850 6895 50.22 14730 4 85 7440 3495 53.02 55000 6 15 8601 3995 53.56 31000 4 70 10810 4995 53.79 18500 2 50

    • Word count: 3347
  12. A Critical Appraisal of Three Research Studies Related To Peripheral Venous Cannulae and the Incidence of Phlebitis.

    Pearson's (1996) research findings were used in the formation of the existing guidelines on peripheral venous cannulation within my Trust. These guidelines are now undergoing a review to ensure that they are in line with the Trust's Risk Management Strategy. As part of the Trust review process I am carrying out a literature review on the care of patients with peripheral venous cannulae in order to identify associated risk. From a professional perspective, nursing staff are increasingly performing cannulation. Professional and personal accountability underpins nursing practice and Clause 6, section 6.5, of the Code of Professional Conduct (2002)

    • Word count: 4303
  13. Ripping the Bodice - Romance Novels and Perceptions of Rape in America

    How does the fact that rape in romance novels ends in love change how one perceives rape in real society? Does it make one think [TJL6]more leniently about rape? Or, conversely, would it make one more aware of rape in society and the contradictions and "gray areas" that surround rape? Such understanding could help in understanding how rape cases should be prosecuted, how rape should be legislated, and much more. To explore this topic, one needs to have a working knowledge of two different research areas.

    • Word count: 7039
  14. Four factors that determined the choice of car; miles per gallon, horsepower, service interval and price. Utilising SPSS, the subsequent report will aid in describing, manipulating, analysing and interpreting this sample of collected data.

    12000.00 18000.00 14 25.00 130.00 8000.00 18000.00 15 22.00 135.00 8000.00 16000.00 16 30.00 135.00 8000.00 22000.00 17 29.00 136.00 10000.00 20000.00 18 25.00 140.00 12000.00 24000.00 19 24.00 135.00 10000.00 23000.00 20 28.00 120.00 10000.00 17000.00 3 Description of Data In order to identify which descriptive analytical tools to use I must identify the type of data being analysed. The data is Univariate as is a single set of data. This then gives way to the question what is the scale level of the variable.

    • Word count: 3218
  15. Quantitative Analysis for Business.

    We found 11 families with no children, 12 families with 1 child, etc. In all we have data from 47 families. You can see the pattern already. Most families have between 0 and 2 children. Having more than 3 children is quite rare. Note that we can still construct the original data from this table. There would be 11 zeros, 12 ones, 13 twos, etc. Suppose you have a much larger data set with hundreds of values. If you created a table like the one above, it would go on for pages, and you wouldn't see any patterns.

    • Word count: 3608
  16. Looking at the similarities and differences between jobs and pay that effect the young and old, and between men and women.

    I will compare nine different occupational groups, and base my investigation on statistics prepared for April 1997, for Great Britain as a whole. Method I will compare managerial, professional, clerical, service, sales, factory, and other occupations. I will compare male workers of all ages, with female workers of all ages. Hypotheses I will use data for full time employees only, because that is the data provide by the table. I will only use data for employees on full adult rates.

    • Word count: 4180
  17. After careful consideration over the possible investigations that can be carried out with the data at hand, I have made a decision on the investigation that I am going to carry out.

    To make things as simple as possible, I will use a method of sampling called clustering. I will pick a random starting point on the other leagues and then pick the nine results that come after that starting point. Of course this is just an example and therefore with the real investigation, the number may be different, so until then this is the method that I will use for the investigation. I will carry out this method for all of the leagues and divisions then take the goals that were scored and at the times that they were scored, then put them in a table which will be split up into ten minute periods.

    • Word count: 6128
  18. 'Is a Premiership team's performance affected by the number of foreigners in the team'?

    My criterion for a 'foreign' player is one with origins outside the United Kingdom (UK) and Republic Of Ireland (Rep.Ire). I have named the players with these origins as 'FRGN'. Players with UK or Rep.Ire origins have been named UK/Rep.ire. Hypotheses - Here are my hypotheses for the investigation: 1. I am expecting that the higher ranked clubs will have the most amounts of foreign players (foreigners) in the whole league. 2. The teams in the middle of the table, positioned between 7th and 13th place, to generally have a low number of foreigners in their starting line-up.

    • Word count: 3044

"Statistical thinking will one day be as necessary for efficient citizenship as the ability to read and write."

-H.G. Wells

All around you, data is being collected. Scientists collect data for their research, companies collect data for marketing purposes, and Google Street View cars roll down backstreets, collecting still more data. It can be hard to find a clear path through such a vast jungle of information. Luckily, we havestatisticians to guide us. If you want to be one of the chosen ones, cutting through the confusion to reveal the causality beneath, a university degree in statistics could be for you.

Well-written reports are an important part of success in a statistics degree, and will be especially critical if you go on to work in industry. If you want to improve your writing skills, try browsing Marked by Teachers' collection of student-submitted statistics papers. Studying the teacher-annotated examples will speed you along that learning curve until you're earning the marks you deserve.

Statistics graduates may take a higher degree in the same subject, or a related subject like mathematics; and go on to careers in areas including finance, insurance and business.


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