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University Degree: Statistics
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The ethnographers, also known as 'field researchers' and 'phenemenologists' are probably the biggest active researchers in the UK presently. They believe that all social action is intentional and therefore one needs to decipher the reasoning that underlies action, hence, in order to understand how people behave, research has to imitate real life and attempt to see and understand the world from the point of view of the subject or participant. Interactionists mirror this belief. Unstructured interviews are used to collect qualitative data from a respondent, which allows them time and scope to talk about and develop their opinions on a particular subject.
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The size of the range bars causes one to question the reliability of the experimental data. These are especially large at higher temperatures of heat treatment (i.e. 70oC) where the gradient is steepening. At the lower temperatures of 30oC and 40oC, the range bars are overlapping. This means that one cannot be sure whether absorbance of light by the solution at 40oC does indeed decrease when compared to the previous reading. The range bars can be seen to overlap for the remaining temperatures of heat treatment, which means that it is hard to say within the error of the apparatus, what the exact value is.
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April 2002 August 2002 Net Change % Change Metropolitan Police 5,004 4,576 -428 -9% West Midlands 1,332 962 -360 -27% Greater Manchester 1,252 992 -260 -21% Merseyside 402 394 -8 -2% West Yorkshire 684 536 -148 -22% Avon and Somerset 434 346 -88 -20% Thames Valley 331 265 -66 -20% Nottinghamshire 277 271 -6 -2% South Yorkshire 246 185 -61 -25% Lancashire 158 173 +15 +9% Total 10 forces 10,110 8,700 -1,410 -14% (This statistical data was obtained from www.crimereduction.gov.uk)
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This study was the largest and most comprehensive survey of sexual behaviour ever conducted. The information was collected from over 19,000 randomly selected British representatives selected through the Post office postcode address file. To gain access to the sample, times were arranged for meeting at their homes. Before this research, how the disease spread was unknown and the number of victims was thought to be 1 in 3. This research was a descriptive and detailed study of sexual attitudes and lifestyles of the British public aged 16 to 59. The objective was to find out the link between sexual behaviour and AIDS.
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After careful consideration over the possible investigations that can be carried out with the data at hand, I have made a decision on the investigation that I am going to carry out.
To make things as simple as possible, I will use a method of sampling called clustering. I will pick a random starting point on the other leagues and then pick the nine results that come after that starting point. Of course this is just an example and therefore with the real investigation, the number may be different, so until then this is the method that I will use for the investigation. I will carry out this method for all of the leagues and divisions then take the goals that were scored and at the times that they were scored, then put them in a table which will be split up into ten minute periods.
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I decided to look at the extended family as I have a clear understanding as to what the extended family is and I am able to find information about this topic. The Extended Family - this is the nuclear family, and more distant relations, e.g. grandparents, aunts, uncles etc. It is generally said that the extended family relationships have declined in importance in the twentieth century, because the social and geographical demands of an industrial society are more fluid. This has meant changing roles for women.
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I intend to conduct an investigation involving two sets of variables (x and y) in order to see how they relate to each other.
In everyday terms, the investigation I intend to conduct will follow a practical and significant path. Hopefully, the conclusion will shed some light on the set of quantitative data, producing an outcome of significance and, to some degree, provide useful information on the issue that was not already apparent. 'I propose to find out if there is a relationship between the amount of teenagers smoking cigarettes and the rising number of teenagers with mobile phones in the UK.' At face value, these two variables only have one thing in common, the age of the population involved.
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so determining the correlation between the increase or decrease in crime fighting efficiency in the US and the UK, and also, determine the degree of efficiency change over a period of sixteen years in the US. B. Data Collection The data I have collected is freely available on the FBI website, as part of a study conducted on crime between the US and the UK. Unfortunately, the Home Office website for the United Kingdom was unable to produce data from sixteen years ago online; as such data had been archived.
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Do older students (September born) attain better results in KS3 maths than younger students (august born)?
5. EXTENSION OF PROBLEM: if there is enough time, and my investigation is correctly completed to a suitable standard, then I may think of extending the problem. 6. CONCLUSION/EVALUATION: I will need to write a summary of what I found out and maybe how I could have improved on it. RECORD NUMBER DATE OF BIRTH KS3 MATHS RESULT 2 1-SEP-1986 7 3 5-SEP-1986 7 4 6-SEP-1986 5 5 9-SEP-1986 5 6 10-SEP-1986 4 7 13-SEP-1986 5 8 14-SEP-1986 7 9 20-SEP-1986 7 10 21-SEP-1986 4 11 26-SEP-1986 5 12 26-SEP-1986 6 13 27-SEP-1986 4 14 27-SEP-1986 5 As I have stated above, I will need to stick closely to my plan.
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In research we need to be sensitive aware of peoples morals and values. Positivism - A view where phenomena should be studied in a scientific manner. To find out things for certain. Case study - strengths and weaknesses - A detailed in-depth study of a group or event. - Weakness - it is not representative of others which are similar to it - Strength - it is good to use as a hypothesis, an untested theory, for research that you may plan to do in the future. Methodological pluralism - Sampling methods / Sampling frame - strengths and weaknesses - A sampling method is how you plan to choose a sample from a population.
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This assignment is based on research methods and how they are employed in health care settings. It also explains the reasons for research and examples of different ways people have used it.
Quantative researchers tend to produce and test hypothesis rather than look at problems and questions. They tend to describe their work statistically in the representation of numbers. These researchers would tend to argue that their technique is more scientific, reliable and open to checking by other researchers. (Lecturer notes 2002) Primary and secondary data The data used in a statistical survey, can be either primary data or secondary data. Primary data is data that has been found by you and so you know were it came from and that it has never been used. Primary data costs more to produce and conduct. It has to be collected from a source. The source can be (A)
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that there is more to this method. '...quantitative researchers collect facts and study the relationship of one set of facts to another.' (P5) She goes on to add. 'They measure, using scientific techniques that are likely to produce quantified and, if possible, generalizable conclusions.' The approach to this research project will be on a qualitative basis and whilst there are a range of disadvantages to this method, including, as identified by Anderson (1990) - the ability to collect a large number of replies, allow for easy collation and cheap and readily available, Anderson did identify advantages with a qualitative approach.
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My task is about the statistics of life expectancy in Africa and Europe. My hypothesis is "people in Europe live longer then people in Africa".
I will collect the information form population data charity. information so it should be fairly reliable. I would like my data to be to one decimal place but two would I feel to be accurate and inappropriate for this task. With this data I will using standard deviation and graphs to present the data. Working through the task I will use many different types of calculations. In the following segment of my project I will show the different calculations and why I will use them. Mean: the sum of all results divided by the number of results.
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My criterion for a 'foreign' player is one with origins outside the United Kingdom (UK) and Republic Of Ireland (Rep.Ire). I have named the players with these origins as 'FRGN'. Players with UK or Rep.Ire origins have been named UK/Rep.ire. Hypotheses - Here are my hypotheses for the investigation: 1. I am expecting that the higher ranked clubs will have the most amounts of foreign players (foreigners) in the whole league. 2. The teams in the middle of the table, positioned between 7th and 13th place, to generally have a low number of foreigners in their starting line-up.
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Plan: The sample population are children aged between eleven and sixteen. I have chosen a stratified random sample. I have taken the sixth and twenty-first people in each register of every tutor group. The data I need to collect is the persons age, sex, tutor group and their estimations for a normal piece of string flat out straight and a piece of string wrapped around a pen.
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We presented the children with a form which they complete themselves with basic information such as shoe sizes. As a class they collectively took there own pulse rate. Although this may not seem over accurate with children of this age most of the data we received falls within human medical boundaries. Sampling the data � I will take a random sample of 30 students from each year group we have information. � The sample will consist of 16 boys and 14 girls. This is to most accurately represent the 53%: 47% split in the population births. I found this information out by e-mailing the national statistics office.
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I will use the formula: (X+Y) (X+Y being the data) N (N being the amounts of data) Place Height Above Sea Level (X+Y) N Av. Hrs Of Sunshine Per Day Alice Springs 580m 113 ? 12 = 9.416 9.42 (3sf) Johannesburg 1692m 105 ? 12 = 8.75 8.75 (3sf) Lusaka 1154m 95 ? 12 = 7.916 7.92 (3sf) Mexico City 2309m 85 ? 12 = 7.083 7.08 (3sf) Quito 2875m 67 ? 12 = 5.583 5.58 (3sf) San Jose 1145m 67 ? 12 = 5.583 5.58 (3sf) Windhoek 1728m 117 ?
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They are also quite interesting hypotheses to analyse, and it would be good to find out more about my local environment. I decided to discard certain variables, mostly because of the time limit imposed to collect my data accurately, and they would also be irrelevant to my hypotheses: - (a) Depth and number of rock pools. (b) Distance the pools were from the sea (c) Different types of seaweed (d) Number of rocks in rock pools (e) Number of grains of sand on the beach As you can see these variables are mostly irrelevant, especially (e)
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Official crime statistics can be knocked down and so far sideways those responsible criminologists ignore them. Discuss.
unreliable. (Reiner, 1996) Many offences will fail to become apparent to police due to various social factors. Awareness is such a problem. Some individuals, organisations or government bodies may not be aware that a crime has been committed against them. The ingenuity of the fraudster, the complexity of the act, lack of knowledge and vigilance of the victim and the police can enable the crime to become invisible. (Jupp et al., 1999: 7) The invisibility of crime, leads to victim failure to report and the police unable to take a proactive approach to discover Although victims are aware that they have been victimised by criminal acts, they maybe reluctant to report to police due to variety of reasons: fear of reprisals, fear of self incrimination, embarrassment (Devis et al., 1995: 82-84)
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The Chi-Squared Test is used to determine whether the actual results of the experiment confirm the null hypothesis stated. For this investigation, the null hypothesis would be; 'temperature has no effect on the percentage of seeds that germinate' Whereas the alternative hypothesis would be; 'temperature does have an effect on the percentage of seeds that germinate' We will now determine whether the results fit the null hypothesis: The following results were obtained: -10?c 4?c 22?c 30?c 40?c % Germinated 0.0 8.0 88.0 81.0 5.6 By using these results we can determine the expected frequencies if the null hypothesis is correct: ==> Total percentage of seeds that germinate / Number of different categories ==>(0.0 + 8.0 + 88.0 + 81.0 + 5.6)
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How has Central Avenue and West Bridgford changed over the past 80-100 years and is the pedestrianisation a good idea?
That being photographs, questionnaires, interviews and any other source which involves me taking part in the actions. The other data collection will have to be secondary, this will involve getting any relevant information or pictures from newspapers, libraries or maybe any source of computer technology. I will then have to use the data of which I collected to show what I have found out about the question, hence the title. This will be issued under the data analysis section. I will then have to make a conclusion, as to what I have learnt and discovered, and to what effect this has upon the society.
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When choosing data, it is very important to select data to be included in testing on an unbiased selection process. This ensures that the results are reliable. If the data was biased in anyway this would mean that, although the hypothesis may seem to be true, it cannot be applied to other situations and may be of limited value. In this statistical work I only used one type/make of car, Mercedes, and within this I used only the "C-class" range and within that, the saloon style.
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So here the independent variables will be following: NUMBEROFSCHOOLS STUDENTRATIO (Student/Teacher Ratio) MEANSCORE (Mean score of students in tenth Grade) The scatter plots of dependent variable with explanatory variables are given in pairs as below: (b) (c) Figure 1: Scatter plot of Expenditure per student in a district each independent variable. Note: only (b) shows signs of trend and this independent variables are expected to have most explanatory power. The table1 below contains the correlation statistics of the variables .We may see that correlation between Number of schools in the district and Student/Teacher ratio is high.
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