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University Degree: Statistics
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2007 Descriptive Statistics For Offense and Defense independent variables there exists no problems with skewness and Kurtosis. So the data for 2007 has no normality problems and the data is sufficient to use. Offense Level of measurement and sample size issues The variables being used in a discriminant analysis should be non-metric for the dependenant variable and metric for the independent variables, which in this analysis and the following analysis's is true so the measurement level requirement is satisfied. The minimum ratio of valid cases to independent variables for discriminant analysis is 5 to 1, with a preferred ratio of 20 to 1.
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Does the data indicate that the revised (one week) forecast is significantly more accurate than the first (one month) forecast? In order to find out whether the revised forecast is significantly more accurate than the first forecast, we can use t-test to
Difference could be in either way; therefore, it is a two-tailed test. Formulate the Null hypothesis and the Alternative hypothesis (H0 and H1): H0: �1>�2 H1: �1?�2 The level of significance is ? = 5%, then ?/2 = 2.5%. With degrees of freedom,?=23,from Statistical Table, 5, tcrit = 2.069. tcalc = = -2.77, with =191.58, =338.59 tcalc > tcrit Reject H0. In other words, the result of revised forecast is more accurate than that of the first forecast. t-Test: Paired Two Sample for Means Variable 1 Variable 2 Mean -842.3333333 -650.75 Variance 227542.7536 323320.3 Observations 24 24 Pearson Correlation 0.804134873 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0 df 23 t Stat -2.771992028 P(T<=t)
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Critical Analysis of a Research Paper The paper I am going to analyse is taken from the journal of strength and conditioning research. It was written by Ledford, A., and Branch, J,D. The paper focuses on the effects of creatine supplementation on peak
The abstract follows on to give a more detailed account of the research with a summary of results. There is also a sentence at the end which outlines the conclusions found. It states that 'the practical application of the study is that 5 days of creatine monohydrate supplementation did not increase wingate test peak power production and work capacity in women.' (Ledford, A., Branch, J,D. 1999) The abstract uses a lot of abbreviations which makes it easier for the author to write. The reader may find this difficult to follow. There are two small sections at the end, the first listing key words used, the second detailing reference data.
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Step 3: Main menu->Analysis->Point Histogram->Point Info (Range without filter obtained) Step 4: Main menu->Filtering->Morphological->Erosion & Dilation->Box (Filtering performed) Steps 2 & 3 are repeated and new range with filter is obtained. 4. The step 1 to Step 4 is repeated for Biscuit P, Biscuit W, Biscuit D and background. The range without filter and the range with filter are obtained and tabulated in Table 1.1. Histogram for each biscuit before and after filter are recorded (Figure 1.1-1.8). The new range for index replace is determined.
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They are two different classifications of data but due to there many similarities can sometimes be classed as one.) ratio data is measured on a ratio scale similarly to interval data it has equal numbers of units or intervals, It uses zero to represent a missing value and it is impossible to have a negative value. An example of this would be distance covered on the bruce protocol test or VO2 max. Ordinal data is often referred to as ranking data, gives a numerical value to the order of different variables but doesn't indicate the actual scores for example ordered scales (never, rarely, sometimes, often, all the time)
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Methodology Sociologists use many different research methods to investigate the society. There are two main sources of data that sociologists tend to use. These sources are primary and secondary sources. There are advantages and disadvantages to both of these methods. Primary data Primary data is data that is gathered by yourself. The advantages of primary sources of data are that the data collected is up to date and is very reliable because it has been collected personally. The disadvantages of primary sources of data are that it is a hassle to obtain and gathering the data is very time consuming. Primary data can be collected in many ways. These include: 1)
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I will use line graphs to illustrate the data that I have collected because they will be easy to compare with each other. I intend to use average and standard deviation as calculations to represent my data. The hypothesis for the question, are men faster at swimming than women? Will be, "men are faster than women at 100m freestyle than women.". I am proposing the hypothesis in this way simply because men have a larger physical strength than women. The question, does the amount of people from a certain club in an event effect the speed of the people in that club?
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The report is about the planned refurbishment of the Spectrum leisure centre situated in Guildford. The report will be presented to the Spectrum Committee on 18th January 2007. Surrey County Council requires research about the customers of the Spectrum leisure centre before commencing refurbishment. The report will cover issues such as what facilities need to be offered, the prices to charge, the hours to open and the likely demand. To achieve this, the report will consist of primary and secondary research of visitors and users of the Spectrum leisure centre. A plan will be devised as to what type of research is most appropriate for this report.
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The aim of this literature review is to look at the strengths and limitations of ethnographical research and also look at the origins and applications of this type of research method
gathering and using unstructured data, (c) using a relatively small number of informants, and (d) interpreting the meanings of human behaviour. To do a ethnographical experiment the experimenter needs to select a project area of interest collect data with interviews and also make ethnographical observations after all the data has been collected an analysis must be done so results can be drawn and then the findings written up into a report or journal. The first ethnographical research was adopted from a anthropologist called Bronislaw Malinowski, who published the book "Argonauts of the Western Pacific" in 1922.
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WHAT IS A MORTALITY RATE? A mortality rate is the number of deaths that occur in a particular population in a specified period of time (www.elissetche.org) Information about the number and causes of deaths is available for the UK from the 19th century onwards. The registration of a death is compulsory and a doctor is required to certify the death. Death registration data is collected and analysed and the death statistics are published annually. The information recorded on death certificates is: * Date and place of death * Name of deceased * Sae of deceased * Place of birth * Date of birth * Occupation * Usual address (edited by S.
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Moreover if I were to add a line of best fit this, would help me to predict and calculate the differences between the low data and the high data. I can then analyze all of the data carefully and accurately and then I will be able to write a constructive summary of the investigation in general. Hypothesis I predict that if as I investigate the comparisons of cars I would state that I believe the most popular coloured car are red the reason for this is for as I glance at the first page of data this to me is the modal number.
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Apparatus list Item Quantity Concentration and volume Table to show reasons for choice of apparatus Item What it is used for Reason for choice Safety Hazard Precaution Table to show how concentrations of working solutions will be made End concentration Volume of ......... Volume of ....... Table to show the variables that must be controlled Variable Why it must be controlled How it will be controlled Class practicals and individual preliminary work can help you to: * identify key variables and design 'fair test' * plan a procedure which includes appropriate controls * select equipment * work out a suitable number of measurements / observations to include in plan * work out a suitable range of measurements to take.
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* The response rate is difficult to tell Questionnaires produce quantative which is useful in my method of research as then I can compare the respondents results to therefore I can come to a conclusion to whether females do the majority of household and childcare tasks. However I cannot generalise, as I would have to observe the whole country then. I will use both open and closed questions to get different types of information such as qualitative and quantative data.
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Sociologists choose quantitative research method because it allows you to test your hypothesis. Emile Durkheim (1897) was a positivist's sociologist who believes that showing a statistical data on a research is valid because it is a social fact. He used statistics to test his hypothesis, "Suicide is caused by lack of social integration". He said that catholic and protestant religions differ in how well they integrate. Using official statistics he revealed how protestant had a higher suicide rate than catholic. Statistics showed him that his hypothesis was right. Quantitative research method allowed him to test his hypothesis.
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The aim of investigation is to see if there is a link between the Gross National Product (GNP), average BMI (Body Mass Index) and average Life Expectancy of a country. I have chosen to do this because it gives a good insight
How I am going to carry out the Investigation A) The data needed for this investigation is the data from 30 different countries. I need to collect each countries average BMI, GNP and life expectancy. To make sure that this investigation is fair, I need to take results from MEDCs (more economically developed countries) and LEDCs (less economically developed countries) this will improve my investigation because it will produce a wider spread of results. I have chosen to investigate 30 countries as this will mean that I can do an even number of MEDCs and LEDCs.
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During this trip, and whilst we were recording data, there were problems which were encountered amongst methods, results and therefore the conclusions. The first one we came across was the longshore drift survey part.
This meant that only one of the two locations would be used, meaning that the results were not accurate overall making the conclusion questionable again for the longshore drift survey section. With the groyne measurements, the most accurate data available was not obtained due to safety reasons, because it would not be safe to climb onto a slippery groyne and take measurements, therefore the most accurate estimates of the groyne measurements were recorded.
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I have included both sets of graphs in my work. Hypothesis 1 The higher the mileage the lower the value of the car. I expect my graphs to show that the greater the mileage the lower the value of the car. To investigate this hypothesis I used a bar chart and scatter graph (see graphs) From my results I can see that the number of owners does affect the price of a car. I worked out the mean for my results by adding up my used car price data and my number of owners data and then adding the two
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With primary sources the researcher has more control of these factors. Quantitative/Qualitative Data Data collected is also either Quantitative or Qualitative. Quantitative data is a form of research that results in a form of numbers, statistics or measure. It is a form of research where responses are able to be counted. Quantitative data allows precise comparison between results and analysis of any pattern of results. Quantitative data is limited in that, at some point it has to be labeled, therefore linking it to qualitative data.
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Data can be collected by a variety of methods: 1. Direct observation - this can be expensive but is accurate. It also needs to be unobtrusive. 2. Direct inspection - this is a standard procedure done by organisations whether it is permanent or temporary. 3. Written questionnaire - this is relatively cheap. However, it has a low response rate and needs careful design. 4. Personal interviews - these are expensive but they are able to deal with complex issues. 5. Abstract from published statistics - this is cheap, easy to use but may not be directly relevant to what the organisation wants to know.
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12000.00 18000.00 14 25.00 130.00 8000.00 18000.00 15 22.00 135.00 8000.00 16000.00 16 30.00 135.00 8000.00 22000.00 17 29.00 136.00 10000.00 20000.00 18 25.00 140.00 12000.00 24000.00 19 24.00 135.00 10000.00 23000.00 20 28.00 120.00 10000.00 17000.00 3 Description of Data In order to identify which descriptive analytical tools to use I must identify the type of data being analysed. The data is Univariate as is a single set of data. This then gives way to the question what is the scale level of the variable.
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When we were happy with the layout of the questionnaire, we proceeded to stage two, collecting the data. Collecting the Data After combining questions and producing our questionnaire, we went our separate ways to gather the data from our subjects. We each had 10 questionnaires, which had 14 questions on it. The ideal scenario being to capture data from a cross section of the population to include as many different age ranges as possible to maximise the proportion. We visited various locations around the town and carried out the questionnaire, most of the subjects were happy to answer the questions, and only a small percentage of subjects were unable to supply us with the information we were looking for.
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It is therefore run in conjunction with a survey of actual visitors to the Museum. Both Web and physical audience surveys will be run as longitudinal projects, so that we can build up a picture of fluctuations and changes in the profile over the coming years. METHODOLOGY The following report is based on responses to a short pop-up survey, which was posted on the Science Museum homepage on Monday 6 August 2001. Log data were also used to supply additional information on virtual visiting patterns.
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CRITICALLY EVALUATE THE PROPOSITION THAT, 'DUE TO THE GROWTH OF THE MODERN WOMENS MOVEMENT THERE HAS BEEN AN INCREASE IN FEMALE OFFENDING SINCE THE EARLY 1970S'
The issue was first raised by Freda Adler (1975) in 'Sisters in Crime' which establishes that the increase in female crime is proof that the feminist movement is working, as women are freer to behave like men (Williams 2004: 470; Heidensohn 2002: 496). Since the women's movement it has been viewed by some writers that women are obtaining similar social positions to men and this will inevitably include the positions in criminal activity. They could leave the private sphere of the home and engage in the public sphere of work, leading to unacceptable social opportunities such as crime (Williams 2004: 471).
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The majority of crimes are not reported to the police at all. (BCS 98 p.19) People are not willing to report crimes to the police due to various reasons: firstly, an awareness problem. Some individuals, organisations or government bodies may not be aware that a crime has been committed against them. The ingenuity of the fraudster, the complexity of the act, lack of knowledge and vigilance of the victim can make the crime invisible. (Jupp et al., XX: 7) Secondly, the normalisation problem.
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The BCS relies on its data through the general public, the question must be asked, how much weight should we attach to the views of the public? It is easy to forget about a crime, and some people might not even realise that a crime has occurred. Respondents may remember an incident, but may be to embarrassed to write about it, on the other hand, they might invent an offence, possibly to seem interesting. Nevertheless, where the victim does tell the truth, these surveys can be very successful.
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