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University Degree: Statistics
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RESEARCH PROPOSAL In order to identity the specific fields within the broad genre of socio-economic trends that affect the percentage of women in parliament, it is necessary to review current theoretical research and information. It is clear from prelimin
It is the inclusion of women in the labour market that prompted the question as to whether social (ie - welfare, education) and economic (ie - wage equality, employment rates) factors do have a significant effect on levels of women seats in parliaments. Research Question: Do socio-economic factors affect the levels of women seats in parliaments of the OECD countries? If so, to what extent? In order to answer this question accurately, it is necessary first to examine the existing literature and research.
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Statistics however often help provide powerful interpretations when it comes to generalizing information because they are able to allow the viewer to see shapes and patterns by using graphs that may not be apparent when interpreted just as numbers.
Statistics are never able present the absolute truth because they are generalizing the information they attain. The population of a country for example, changes every moment due to deaths, births, and immigration. We cannot present the actual total population of a country; therefore we must learn how to make accurate assumptions when creating statistics on a country's population. This is also known as Demography. In Geography, I learned that the methods for demography might include finding the average number of people in one household; then manipulating that estimated number to find a country's population. Since the foundations of our calculations are based on estimates of the absolute truth, the errors of our assumptions will magnify when this information is being manipulated.
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This essay will attempt to look at how crime is measured, and where 'official' statistics are constructed from. The validity and reliability of this data will be discussed. It will also examine how the public can be misinformed of the real figures of crime throughout the eyes of the media and how this has elevated the public's 'fear' of crime. The term 'moral panic' will also be addressed. How crime is recorded is a good place to start , crime statistics were first published in France in 1842(Quetelet, 1842). England and Wales then followed suit in 1876 and the U.S even later in 1930.
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Examine the arguments and evidence sociologists would use to explain rates of ethnic minority criminality in the Official Criminal Statistics.
An Interactionist would agree but within this argue that everyone breaks the law, but only certain individuals are targeted by the police and courts to be labelled as criminal or deviant. Becker claims, "Once a person is labelled criminal or deviant, they begin to act in ways that confirm the label in the form of self-fulfilling prophecies." The picture presented by the official statistics on crime and ethnic minorities consists of a concentration of criminality amongst certain sections of young males.
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The methods I have used to establish that inequalities exist between different wards in Northampton are: Primary:Affluence Surveys
Secondary data is data that is available from other sources. Affluence Surveys show the quality of cars in the wards and also the average house size and a description of a typical house. Environment Quality Surveys rate different aspects of each of the wards including condition of houses, clean air and parking spaces. Quality Of Life questionnaires are filled in by people living in the wards about each of the wards in general. This covered various categories such as jobs, housing, shops and levels of crime/vandalism.
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This is a procedure that is based on sample evidence and probability theory to determine whether the hypothesis is a reasonable statement. Hypothesis testing is a five-step procedure: Step 1. State the null and alternative hypotheses. The null hypothesis is a hypothesis about a population parameter. It is often the reverse of what the experimenter actually believes; it is put forward to allow the data to contradict it. Step 2. Select the level of significance. This is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true.
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If the latter is true, this has severe implications for the use of such information when demonstrating current crime trends (Louw, 2001). The most important feature of police crime statistics is that they tell us about crimes that the public report and the police record. As a result, crime statistics often say more about reporting patterns and police procedure than about actual crime levels (Maguire, Morgan, & Reiner, 1994). Nevertheless, police statistics provide useful information on the following: By analysing the number of crimes recorded by the police in a given time period and in a particular geographic area, changes in crime levels over time can be tracked.
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To establish how religious/community background, income, age and education have effect on the attitudes towards the Good Friday Agreement
Preliminary research is mainly based upon secondary data, whereby trends and changing patterns are identified within that certain environment. University survey's already completed would enable us to identify student opinion without taking part in primary research. Secondary data can also be utilised in planning a primary study. Past studies' reports may indicate the questions that should be asked in a new study. In this research programme, information taken regarding students in the UK was extracted, and enabled similar type questions be asked. Secondary data accessed via library searches, information direct from Antrim Hall, in-house information and on-line database searches offer information which states the possibilities of expanding the availability of such foods within university campuses, emphasising quality throughout.
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Interview and survey: an evaluation and contrast of these two approaches to data collection In this essay I shall be evaluating and contrasting the interview and survey approach to data collection
However, the main advantages of using surveys to collect research data is that surveys can be used to gather information from a large number of people, where interviewing large numbers would be extremely time consuming and costly. The possible answers can be pre-coded enabling a quick analysis of the collected data. However, the recipient is put in the position of aligning their answer with one of the available choices and this may not be reflective of their true position. Furthermore, the questions may be misunderstood and unlike an interview situation, there is no way of seeking clarification.
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For instance, when one variable increases and the other also increases, then the correlation in this case would be positive. On the other hand, if a correlation is negative, that means, when one variable decreases, the other also decreases. > Survey research targets to answer questions about current status of the subject of study. This usually involves studying attitudes, practices or concerns of certain group of people. (Gay & Airasion, 1999). > Causal-comparative research aims to find a cause-effect relationship between two or more different programs, methods, or groups.
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40.92 46000 6 55 7864 4500 42.78 130000 3 14 8900 4995 43.88 24000 2 10 13510 7499 44.49 27000 4 27 13800 7495 45.69 25000 2 92 8710 4693 46.12 50000 5 21 11225 5999 46.56 42000 3 9 13175 6999 46.88 41000 3 41 13650 6995 48.75 71000 6 71 27855 13995 49.76 40500 1 91 7518 3769 49.87 38000 4 5 7995 3999 49.98 37000 3 1 16000 7999 50.01 7000 1 49 13850 6895 50.22 14730 4 85 7440 3495 53.02 55000 6 15 8601 3995 53.56 31000 4 70 10810 4995 53.79 18500 2 50
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Decreasing fertility rates across England & Wales and its relationship with increased cases of sexually transmitted infections seen in Genito-urinary medicine clinics: A case study.
Between 1991 and 2001 reported cases of STI's in GUM clinics more than doubled in England & Wales (Figure 1) (www.statistics.gov.uk). Table 1. Age specific fertility rates, England 1960-94 (Hinde 2003) The aim of this case study was to statistically analyse the potential relationship between decreasing fertility rates in England & Wales and the number of new cases of STI's reported by GUM clinics. Therefore the null hypothesis Ho predicted that there was no relationship between decreasing fertility rates in England & Wales and the increase in number of STI's seen by GUM clinics.
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A critical evaluation of an article - According to the article, "Causes of crime" by C.A. Ellwood, the causes of crime could be separated into two parts
Firstly, the sentence that could be shown to be biased is that "among industrial classes the least crime was committed by agriculture classes while the most crime was committed by the unemployed" (Ellwood, 1924). Moreover, he cited another investigation, in which he also omitted information, that 40 percent of all misdemeanor arrested were the unemployed. But he didn't talk about the remaining, 60 percent.
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Produce a critically annnotated bibliography of one of the following: Unemployment, Crime, Inflation
It is defined as an act against an individual or property that is forbidden by law. Each years' publication of "Crime Statistics England and Wales" relates to the relevant survey and covers the same areas as the official statistics. Although these are still official statistics, they do allow a certain amount of independent analysis. Media availability: Book form available in the Essex University library. The British Crime Survey http://www.open.gov.uk/home_off/crime3.htm Time Cover: 1983-1993. Country Cover: England and Wales. Operational Definitions: there are no explicit operational definitions here and so assumptions that it is the same as the "British Crime Survey" in "Crime Statistics in England and Wales".
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I've selected the Peugeot 306 2.0 as the make and model for sample in this assignment. This particular has been on the market for more than six years. I chose my sample of 15 vehicles from the website www.autotrader.co.uk
This particular has been on the market for more than six years. I chose my sample of 15 vehicles from the website www.autotrader.co.uk The method of sampling I used was ....................sampling because I chose This sample data is likely to be the representation of the population because I used this particular sample.
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Discuss the Contention that the media produce partial and exaggerated images of Crime, In what ways might these influence Public Perceptions of Crime?
One of the most important sociological terms when looking at media and crime is that of a "moral panic". One of the most influential and important theories of this was put forward by Stanley Cohen, in assessing deviancy amplification. (Whereby societal reaction creates more of the undesired behaviour.) Cohen's work showed how police attempts to control 1960 subcultures - the mods and rockers, coupled with sensationalist heightened media attention led to a moral panic, thus increasing the popularity of these groups to the younger generations, and therefore an increase in the numbers of these Subcultures, whilst at the same time the older generations labelled such youngsters as "devils" etc.
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"Positivist researchers adopt a quantitative methodology and carry out surveys and questionnaires - Interpretevist researchers adopt a qualitative methodology and carry out interviews and ethnographies - Drawing on examples of research skills, Explain why
Therefore, in their eyes the study of feelings or human behaviour was not considered valid within the scientific approach. Watson and Skinner's research into behaviourism within the field of psychology was very much a product of this line of thought. Popper introduced the idea that theories within science should be "falsifiable". The basis behind this idea is that all hypotheses should be tested rigorously to try to prove that they are wrong. He argued that finding confirmation for a hypothesis was too easy and that people often ignored or overlooked observations that might disprove their theories - this was his main Page 2/6 criticism of Marxism for example.
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Institutionalist school reject the idea official statistics are objective indicators of social conditions. They consider official statistics as neither valid nor reliable indicators of objective phenomena. The institutionalist believes official statistics tell one more about process of how the official statistics are made. The radical, agrees with the institutionalist, however they would locate the institutionalist theory within a wider theory of the dynamics and structure of society.1 (Squires 1990) Official statistics is secondary data, which is information that has already been allocated and readily available.
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What are the difficulties and pitfalls in attempting to conduct a national survey on people's sexual activities?
This is not a cross section of the population, and so does not tell us a great deal about the spread of the HIV virus. It is a specific sub-group, which is expected to be of a particularly high risk because of their lifestyle, and so can not be used as a measure to assess the general population's behaviours and the findings generalized to the wider population (Cochran, Mostelier, and Tukey 1953). When conducting a large scale survey on peoples sexual lifestyles several important things need to be considered.
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A Critical Appraisal of Three Research Studies Related To Peripheral Venous Cannulae and the Incidence of Phlebitis.
Pearson's (1996) research findings were used in the formation of the existing guidelines on peripheral venous cannulation within my Trust. These guidelines are now undergoing a review to ensure that they are in line with the Trust's Risk Management Strategy. As part of the Trust review process I am carrying out a literature review on the care of patients with peripheral venous cannulae in order to identify associated risk. From a professional perspective, nursing staff are increasingly performing cannulation. Professional and personal accountability underpins nursing practice and Clause 6, section 6.5, of the Code of Professional Conduct (2002)
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Official statistics can be used as a general research tool covering topics ranging from the economy to unemployment and from health to education.
Unfortunately, 'crime' has changed over that period of time. Therefore the comparability of offences and offence groupings over time is very problematic. Criminal statistics are subject to changing definitions of offences, although recent and planned changes in counting rules are pushing figures up towards a more realistic level. Changes introduces in 1999, for example, included common assault for the first time and led to 12% increase in the total number of offences. Another reason for official statistics not giving an accurate representation of crime levels is the fact that a lot of crime occurs that is not reported.
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The difficulty of using these Official Crime Statistics as accurate figures is that they do not show an increase in crime but just an increase in the discovery of crime. For example, one of the problems in a major city may be prostitution. The police will make prostitution one of their targets to crack down on, which will result in discoveries of more prostitutes, but not necessarily an increase in prostitution in the city. Quinney and Wildeman (1977), depict this interpretation of statistics in crime rates in Muncie, J.
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What I did, was take notes of my group members and the reference lists to familiarize my self with the topic and also with the resources that were used by the group to do the presentation. However for me to complete the task of concluding the presentation I had to analyze each of the other sections add them, as I felt necessary. Whilst reading over the introduction I didn't feel the need to add much of its context into the conclusion as to refrain from repetition within the presentation.
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How does the fact that rape in romance novels ends in love change how one perceives rape in real society? Does it make one think [TJL6]more leniently about rape? Or, conversely, would it make one more aware of rape in society and the contradictions and "gray areas" that surround rape? Such understanding could help in understanding how rape cases should be prosecuted, how rape should be legislated, and much more. To explore this topic, one needs to have a working knowledge of two different research areas.
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There are many ways to manipulate a graph. Below is a list most commonly used tactic to distort and misrepresent the data. 1. Alter the scale (not start with zero, change the intervals) 2. Alter the axis (Change intervals, pick unusual variable for x axis) 3. Avoid showing t he whole context (take it out of context) 4. Add distractions and fillers (take the attention away from the data) 5. Show 1 dimensional data with 2& 3 dimensional figures, which will distort the increase in data by higher proposition. 6. Bad choice of graphs (Unsuitable graph for the given data) 7. Bad wording and labeling (creates vagueness) 8.
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