How successful was the Manchester Ship Canal before 1914
How successful was the Manchester Ship Canal before 1914? To understand why The Manchester Ship Canal could be considered successful before 1914, it must first be understood why Manchester needed another canal in the first place. The ship canal could be called a financial failure up to 1914 due to the escalating costs and rivalries between the Liverpool Docks and railway companies with Manchester itself. This essay will highlight the major points that led to the Manchester Ship canal becoming a success by 1914. During the 1800's there were several canals connecting Manchester to the surrounding area. From the Bridgwater canal, this was the first to be built to the Macclesfield canal one of the last to be built. They all connected Manchester to trade routes all over the country. Crucial to Manchester's success in the cotton trade was the import and export of cotton. The canals and later the railways that served Manchester and the surrounding area were crucial, bringing and taking goods by barge, to the docks at Liverpool. It was during the Great Depression in the late 1870s that things came to a head. During this worldwide depression, Manchester was going in to economic decline. Industries were failing, with factories and shops closing and a steady migration of people away from Manchester1. Like the Duke of Bridgwater before them, the local business men realised that the
What has Roland Barthes' idea of myth contributed to our understanding of popular culture?
What does Roland Barthes' concept of 'myth' contribute to our understanding of popular culture? Before we can answer this question, we must first indentify any ambiguities and issues within the title. The first is the use of the word 'understanding'. One definition of understanding is 'the power of comprehending; esp the power to make experience intelligible by applying concepts and categories'1. There are numerous theories and arguments surrounding popular culture, and as such it could be argued that we still do not truly understand it. Secondly, comes the assumption that the reader agrees with the suggestion that Barthes' writings on myth did in fact have an impact on the way we assess popular culture. There are several facts that can be used to highlight this point. For example, it could be argued that as Barthes did not have a following of thinkers who modelled their own theories after his, and that as such there is no recognised term as 'Barthesism', that Barthes work was not as important as and lacked the visibility of Karl Marx, and could therefore be considered 'unimportant' in comparison. In light of this, this essay will instead look at the ways in which Barthes' work has changed the ways in which we look at popular culture, and aims to answer the question, 'To what extent did Roland Barthes' concept of 'myth' influence the ways in which we examine popular
The Importance of Women in the Colonial World
The Importance of Women in the Colonial World Women's importance in the colonial world was an ever-changing process. They were seen as equals in early Native society but over the years women's roles have changed drastically. The books one has studied have great influence on how people view women in the past but others have little. Women have played a role from the earliest times even before written language, among the Natives, in their stories and legends of women beings. Women once had a role in every aspect of human lives but as the colonists and religious leaders from other countries started to migrate there role was changed and never reestablished. Women have important roles to play in their own societies. Eleanor Burke Leacock's, Myths of Male Dominance: Collective articles on Women Cross- Culturally (Monthly Review Press New York and London, 1981), beautifully describes the importance of native women and their roles. Leacock points out that "universal male dominance is myth not fact"1 and because this book contains articles by different authors, one gets a wide variety of works that each encourage and represent women in different areas. The authors illustrate native women before and during colonial times by discussing gender roles, the evolution of society, and male dominance ideology. Leacock gathered articles that directly represent women's
During the recent years in the history of modern art, there is one thing that one cannot miss to notice - we see that artists and the media are bound together.
During the recent years in the history of modern art, there is one thing that one cannot miss to notice: we see that artists and the media are bound together. One cannot exist without the other. The media feed from the extremes artists, sometimes, go to so that they can deliver a piece of art. And artists survive completely on the coverage of the media. Artists wish to shock and provoke in order to achieve getting as much publicity as possible. Art collectors also benefit from scandals or publicity stunts that are being created solely for attracting attention on a specific name. Saatchi is a very good example of an advertisement expert who knows how to play the media game very good and he secures his investments by creating as much publicity as possible around the artist whose pieces he bought. Throughout the history of modern art, there have been many people who know well how to attract the media and take advantage of that to raise their value in the art market. But there are two who we can consider masters into creating some kind of interest around their names: Andy Warhol and Jeff Koons. Each used the media as their subject matter and also became a media subject at the same time. Each made their purpose in life to live under the spotlight because they knew that only this way their words would be heard. I will start with Andy Warhol. He
Computer Graphics - Quadtree decomposition and effect of depth.
Computer Graphics PROJECT Quadtree decomposition and effect of depth. ) Introduction This document represents the final report for our project done for Prof. Gregory Dudek in Computer Graphics (308-557) course taught at McGill University. I have chosen the area of quad trees, and particularly the effect and advantages (and disadvantages) of depth on the image outputted after compression in the quad trees. The definifition of a picture is a two-dimensional array, where the elements of the array are black or white points; two-dimensional arrays are very widely used to represent different kind of pictures Here is an example of an image represented as a two-dimensional array. Each pixel is an element of the array. Most of the time, the 'gif' and 'jpeg' standards provide performance hard to imitate , so we are going to test if even with less data stored we can have also a good picture . 2) Brief Overview a)Basic Algorithm Quad tree Decomposition consists in subdividing the image into blocks that are more homogeneous than the image itself. This technique works by dividing the square image into four equal-sized squared blocks. If block meets the criterion, it is not divided any further. If it does not meet the criterion (only black or only white value), it is subdivided again into four blocks, and the test criterion is applied to those blocks. This process is repeated
Portfolio On Burroughs and Cut-Ups, Including Comments On My Own Cut-Ups
PORTFOLIO ON BURROUGHS AND CUT-UPS, INCLUDING COMMENTS ON MY OWN CUT-UPS CONTENTS Page 1--------------------------------- Title Page Page 2---------------------------------- Contents Pages 3-22----------------------------- Commentary on Cut-Ups and Burroughs and word count Page 23-------------------------------- Bibliography Page 24-------------------------------- Example of a 'Picture Letter' Pages 25-27--------------------------- Original Text used for Cut-Ups Pages28-31---------------------------- Examples of Experimentation with cut ups with various songs Pages 32-34--------------------------- My own Cut-Ups commented on in pages sixteen to nineteen (see reverse of pages thirty-two and thirty-three) My Cut-Up Experience Cut ups essentially began when Brion Gysin "sliced through a pile of newspapers...made a mosaic out of the strips of newspapers...when he read it he thought it was hilarious...for Burroughs...Gysin's cut-up newspapers switched on the electric light bulb over the cartoon character's head"1 What was essentially an amusing accident, tied in with old surrealist games, for Gysin, was, for Burroughs, something completely different; it was a way of escaping the traditional format of word layout and communication on paper. It introduced an element of unpredictability and put the words and their meanings into different perspectives. This idea had been
Critical analysis: Virginia Woolf, 'A Room of One's Own.'
Emma Alaball-03069044. EL1S04-Reading/Writing women. Diana Wallace. 7/11/03 Critical analysis: Virginia Woolf, 'A Room of One's Own.' Emma Alaball-03069044. EL1S04-Reading/Writing women. Diana Wallace. 17/11/03 Virginia Woolf is one of the most highly acclaimed female authors and feminists of the nineteenth and twentieth century. Her essay and lecture, 'A room of one's Own,' clearly demonstrates her attitude and opinions towards a patriarchal society during her lifetime. Woolf portrays her judgments through the use of language, style, narrative, and outspoken viewpoints about men, male-dominance, and female subservience. The end of chapter six is a clarification and summary of Woolf's beliefs, which are expressed throughout the essay. This essay will provide a critical analysis of this part. Woolf's use of style, language, and narrative is evident throughout the extract. She particularly uses irony and sarcasm combined with humour in order to contradict the general opinions of men, as well as to emphasise and clarify her argument. "Like most uneducated women...I like reading books in the bulk." This quote is particularly ironic, in that one must be educated in order to be able to read accurately. Here, Woolf is using the male belief that women are uneducated with the intention of rebelling against the society in which she lives, as she challenges the
Investigate the Guardian and the Mirror in terms of their news agendas, and the type of news they value as important.
Investigate the Guardian and the Mirror in terms of their news agendas, and the type of news they value as important. This essay aims to explore the news agenda and news values of the British newspapers, The Guardian and The Mirror. The essay will touch on aspects of what each newspaper deems newsworthy, due to their publications over a one week period (excluding the weekend editions) from the seventeenth of November, through to the twenty first. This week was chosen, as it seemed to be a fairly average news week, avoiding the presidential elections in the U.S.A. the previous week. To analyse the newspapers, Galtung and Ruge's (1973) research was applied to each newspaper each day. Galtung and Ruge were social scientists, and they studied press cuttings as part of their research into peace studies. The cuttings they studied were from the Congo, Cuba (1960) and Cyprus (1964). From this research, they established twelve factors which may bring a news story the to the attention of the public and the newspapers. These factors include Continuity, Unexpectedness and Consonance for example. Many of these factors can overlap each other. These factors will be explained more clearly in the main section of the essay. A similar set of values from Harcup and O'Neill's (2001) research into what is newsworthy will also be used. They revisited Galtung and Ruge's newsworthy factors and
ICT GCSE Major Project : A Media magazine aimed at teenagers in the school
ICT GCSE Major Project Analysis Project Title: A Media magazine aimed at teenagers in the school The Situation: Ras Al Khaimah is a small emirate (equivalent to a county) based in the United Arab Emirates in the Middle East. It is about 80 km from Dubai, a neighboring emirate with an entertaining and lively capital. Ras Al Khaimah is a small city with all types of nationalities such as English, Pakistani, Egyptian and of course Arabs living there. It has few public facilities, only last year was Ras Al Khaimah's first shopping centre built which has a cinema, restaurants and a variety of shops and there are few other entertainment's in Ras Al Khaimah, so many people travel to Dubai to be able to fill up their social lives. Most people worship Islam, and there are a numerous number of mosques in the city, there is one church in Ras Al Khaimah where Christians can go to worship. Ras Al Khaimah English Speaking School or RAKESS is a moderately sized school, based in Ras Al Khaimah (in which you must be able to speak English), which has around 350 students in all of primary and secondary. It is a private school for both boys and girls, and has many facilities including a swimming pool, tennis courts and 4 fully equipped I.C.T labs. One of the problems of Ras Al Khaimah is its social life, it only has one shopping centre and many people have to entertain themselves by
Sterotypes in the media
§ Examine the evidence of the stereotypes of social groups / issues in the media. What are the causes of stereotyping and to what extent do they influence attitudes. Draw on at least two groups and / or issues in your answer. Stereotyping in mass media is often inevitable as media producers need as wide audience as possible to quickly understand information. This can be seen as a form of 'coding' as it quickly gives audiences a common understanding of a particular social group or issue, usually relating to their / it's classing, race / ethnicity, sexual orientation or gender. For this reason stereotyping is often seen in a negative way as it creates simplistic categories of wide and diverse groups of people and these often ignorant assumptions can be transformed into realities. This can lead to representations being used to justify those in positions of power and can perpetuate social prejudice and inequality. Representation is the process in which meaning is derived from stimulus denoted by the media and connotative messages can be varied and individual to the consumer. Representation is a construction of reality, not a mirror image. The media has the power through selection and reinforcement to give portrayals of groups and subcultures in society. To examine the causes and consequences of media stereotyping, I will look specifically at the representation of two