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University Degree: Paper-based media studies

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  1. How is vaccination portrayed in the media?

    are to be believed then the gains to be had from proper vaccination coverage (or 'herd immunity') throughout society are not only beneficial to individuals but are essential to public health and wellbeing. The counter arguments from the mainstream press include claims that the medicines used are insufficiently tested, are dangerous to human health and are only being pushed on the public to ensure continued profits for powerful, multinational drug companies. Vaccination advances have often been treated with scepticism and fear by the mainstream press. The coverage that was received by the swine flu vaccine in 2009 presented worldwide controversy, and many of the tabloid press organisations were eager to stress that the vaccine (H1N1)

    • Word count: 2661
  2. In this critical analysis I aim to identify and examine how the Benetton Group (BG) capitalise on their image using the concept of racial integration, as well as cultural, social and ethical approaches to equal opportunities and human rights through thei

    This is when the United Colors of Benetton slogan was created as 'the 'united' colors of its sweaters soon became a metaphor for the united skin tones of the youth from many different countries for whom the sweaters were designed' (Benetton Group 2010). The concept was so strong that it became the trademark and Benetton slowly stopped using the clothes as their main focus and started concentrating on social issues and they used their website as a vehicle for doing this.

    • Word count: 1140
  3. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that Chomskys claim that the mass-media rely on official government and corporate sources out of economic necessity is weak and no longer valid in present-day; this weakness does not necessarily result in the

    Within the first chapter of the book Manufacturing Consent, Chomsky introduces the 'Propaganda Model', a model that is used to describe "the forces that cause the mass-media to play propaganda role, the processes whereby they mobilize bias, and the patterns of news choices that ensue" (p. xii). The propaganda model is comprised of five successive filters that raw material news must pass through before print. These filters follow the effects that money and power have on filtering out news stories that are publishable and how they contribute to marginalizing dissent while allowing government and private corporations to publish news in their personal interest.

    • Word count: 1526
  4. According to research, women journalists battle both for jobs and to be taken seriously. How (if at all) has this picture changed over the last few years and if it has, in what ways?

    Before the changes listed above, reporting on the news was seen as being a job directed at males. This may be because the desired traits of a journalist are more aligned to those possessed by the male species. Saltzman describes "...traits of journalism essential for success - being aggressive, self-reliant, curious, tough, ambitious, cynical, cocky, unsympathetic..."1 These attribute are stereotypically uncharacteristic of the feminine form, who tend to be more "compassionate, caring, loving, maternal, sympathetic"2 which supposedly render them unable to produce effective stories on the 'hard-beat reports'.

    • Word count: 2603
  5. My essay will analyse the heroes in the following four texts, The Epic of Gilgamesh[68], The Odyssey[69], Mulan[70] and Where the Wild Things Are[71]. These texts were chosen as they differ significantly in context, culture and form. This investigation re

    Although heroes are still alive, even in a weakened form, they are indeed on life support! Gilgamesh was chosen as the base mythological text and will be used to make comparisons to popular stories we read today which lack the calibre of their predecessors. The values these stories explore are not as significant in comparison to the universal concepts explored in myths. Their journey, obstacles and trials are shorter in duration, less momentous and less significant, lacking the inspirational power and self-sacrifice that myths are renowned for. The Epic of Gilgamesh is the original heroic myth described by Joseph Campbell as "the greatest tale of the elixir quest"8.

    • Word count: 7597
  6. Culture Shock

    A young girl that I spoke to, I had asked what she did for fun and she quickly replied by telling me that she only had enough free time to have fun during their summer vacations because she spends every extra hour of her time studying for school. She then continued to tell me about how China was so populated that being accepted into a college was near impossible and that practically everyone gets straight A's because of the high competition with all the other students her age in Beijing.

    • Word count: 1442
  7. Chocolate vs Vanilla

    Body: Main Point A.: Chocolate is delicious and good for your health. * Antioxidants found in dark chocolate can help your heart by lowering blood pressure and preventing heart disease and diabetes. Contrary to popular belief, saturated fats found in chocolate have no adverse effect on cholesterol levels. (Ingall, Marjorie, cnn) * Chocolate promotes brain health by increasing blood flow to the brain; improves memory and fights memory loss (Ingall, Marjorie, cnn) * Stimulates metabolism with the chemical theobromine and small amounts of caffeine (Smith, HJ; Gaffan, EA; Rogers, PJ, pubmed).

    • Word count: 934
  8. Zygmunt Bauman. Bauman, in his book, highlights the most impossible thing, to find real meaning of the elimination process in both programs Big Brother and The Weakest Link. Baumans Dread of Death focuses only on the process of evicti

    Bauman, in his book, highlights the most impossible thing, to find real meaning of the elimination process in both programs 'Big Brother' and 'The Weakest Link'. Bauman's 'Dread of Death' focuses only on the process of eviction, which is unavoidable, every contestant faces eviction. Bauman writes that every person is an individual and 'the whole point is that you do not need to do 'something' 'to deserve' the eviction' (Bauman 2006: 24). 'The Weakest Link' is a program in which the teamwork is an illusion.

    • Word count: 642
  9. Critical Discourse Analysis

    another by sense; Intentionality - the message has to be conveyed deliberately and consciously; Acceptability - indicates that the communicative product needs to be satisfactory in that the audience approves it; Informativeness - some new information has to be included in the discourse; Situationality - circumstances in which the remark is made are important; Intertextuality - reference to the world outside the text or the interpreters' schemata. Nowadays, however, not all of the above mentioned criteria are perceived as equally important in discourse studies, therefore some of them are valid only in certain methods of the research.

    • Word count: 1509
  10. Media Criticism Assignment: Sexism in Advertisements

    I believe that it is extremely important that women of all shapes, sizes, and ethnicities be aware that the unrealistic images of beauty are merely "eye candy" with the sole purpose of attracting an audience. Advertisements try to offer us a unique opportunity to study their construction of beauty because our culture glorifies the very idea the "beautiful ideal", thereby, creating an exemplary female prototype. Through advertisements, both print and commercial, women have long been represented in a problematic and often deplorable fashion.

    • Word count: 1769
  11. New media culture/ Cyberculture

    Indeed, new media culture's constituents partly concern with the attitude, the psychology of people towards cyberspace; in other word, they mainly emerge due to the way users interact with new media everyday via any forms and approaches. For example, Internet environment provides virtual market such as eBay and people fully take advantage of this site which accustoms them with new way of shopping, cybershopping, which in turn makes up new media culture. Before deeply plunging into discussion of how new media blurs or creates boundaries between imaginative fiction and reality, it would be interesting to envision what is the so-called Virtual Reality (VR).

    • Word count: 2937
  12. What caused the British media to become more independent of governement?

    These significant social changes led to mass democracy, and therein, a need for a larger number of voters to be informed. It seems that there was a responsibility, felt by those who could, to inform the voter; government should be based upon public opinion, so "the world would be better managed if the sum of general knowledge and understanding were greater" (Matheson, 1933:87). This illustrates the view taken by those running and working for the BBC around the time of its reincarnation to a corporation.

    • Word count: 1555
  13. Semiotic Analysis of Advertisements

    First, the title immediately announces that the magazine is among the genres of teenage magazines. The 19 seems to represent that the magazine is aimed at 19 year olds or at least teenagers within that age range who may think they are as mature as a 19 year old. As the title boldly stands in the top left-hand corner in a girlish bright hot pink colour, the eyes are initially drawn to towards this and in using the Kress and Leeuwen's theory of layout this gives the magazine a sense of idealism, suggesting that the reader should aspire to attain the life and image referred to within the pages (Bell 1997).

    • Word count: 1678
  14. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the five main advertising media? Explain why Internet advertising differs from the other advertising media.

    (2009, p: 91) Newspapers and magazines can be regarded as the most common two advertising media of print. There are two types of the advertising media of print is display advertising. The most significant advantage of print advertising is the wide range and big size of the readership because of the lower cost made the mass production of the print advertising compare with other advertising media. In addition, as once the advertisement has been designed; it can be copy millions of times on the paper and being published for a long time. Thus, the low cost of production of print advertising also contribute to another two advantages of quality reproduction and longevity of print advertising.

    • Word count: 1677
  15. Merits and Limitations of Feminism in Advertisements

    These limitations mean that they do not have the luxury to develop their characters and must use stereotypes so that they can concentrate on getting the message across. Although advertisers and others who manufacture these mass cultural images argue that the popular culture only reflects the society, the reverse is also true and the media images at a subconscious level influence the society's behaviour. This affect of the popular culture on the way the society perceives itself has many people worried, among them the feminists who believe that such limiting images of women in popular culture is having a negative impact on the emancipation of women.

    • Word count: 2585
  16. Mobile usage between Japanese and Australian Youngsters

    the market, latest products and innovations), and also the analysis whether a country's culture cause this trend or it is the one affected by this trend? 2. Mobile Phone Industry Another aspect in marketing of telecommunication services is about the service quality. Technically, the congestion-based pricing that most telecommunication carriers use in their service offering is based on the idea that their networks are occupies evenly during the day, which means the utilization is above the specific target. However, once the traffic surges, mobile carriers face difficulty providing the same access for customers, which cause the inconvenience for customers such as drop call, network congestion, and blank spot, to name a few.

    • Word count: 2080
  17. Building Brands without Mass Media

    Perhaps the new media scene will take more time to develop than the two or three years that the pundits have predicted. Perhaps it will not affect everyone: some people may not want (or may not be able) to pay to access ad-free media. It is not hard to imagine, however, that the media landscape as a whole will be very different in only a few years. To build strong brands in this uncertain environment, Indian companies would do well to study their counterparts in the USA & Europe.

    • Word count: 5045
  18. Investigate the Guardian and the Mirror in terms of their news agendas, and the type of news they value as important.

    These factors include Continuity, Unexpectedness and Consonance for example. Many of these factors can overlap each other. These factors will be explained more clearly in the main section of the essay. A similar set of values from Harcup and O'Neill's (2001) research into what is newsworthy will also be used. They revisited Galtung and Ruge's newsworthy factors and updated them with factors of their own. They used Galtung and Ruges' research as a starting point to view news stories and created a more contemporary set of criteria. These factors are rather similar to those of Galtung and Ruge's conducted years before.

    • Word count: 1795
  19. Innocents Abroad

    (Obenzinger, 119). While America in that time still contended with the aftermath of the war, they became a rising industrialized country and the aspirations to travel grew. In this time, also known as the Gilded Age, the United States had very strong growth in the economy and population. Because of the second industrial revolution the American manufacturing industry surpassed Britain and they developed as an international superpower. In short, this was the development of America as the New World (The History place).

    • Word count: 1413
  20. Henry Jenkins and fan communities

    (Jenkins, H 2007 Blog) Henry Jenkins a well-known university professor and is the founder and Director of MIT's comparative media studies program. Author of several books he is well-known for his media research on fans and fan communities. He believes that fans as the pioneers of cyberculture that without fans - there would be no such thing as cyberspace. This essay focuses on the internet as a new interactive audience, the introduction of participatory culture to the internet in relation to fanfiction and youtube, collective intelligence and lastly the essay will explain Jenkins reasons behind why he thinks fans are indeed pioneers of cyberculture.

    • Word count: 3325
  21. Marketing Bling H20

    (Adam K & Armstrong D, 2008) After reviewing the media on bling and the website the demographic profile for bling would be 20 - 35 year old female with a high level of disposable income. Those with disposable incomes are looking to increase their social status within the community. Psychographic In psychographic segmentation, buyers are divided into different groups based on their socioeconomic status, lifestyle and personality. (Adam K & Armstrong D, 2008) In accordance with bling, the socioeconomic status of a typical customer would be a high disposable income earner.

    • Word count: 1400
  22. Issues Risk and Crisis Communication Critique and Case Study

    Jones (2004) said that "JHI began manufacturing asbestos in 1917 and held an estimated 90% of market share in the growing Australian market." Being the market leader for asbestos in Australia JHI did not want to lose their position within the market and implemented some clever strategies in 2001 which gave them some advantage with their publics. The company tried to strategise a way to spin out legacy issues that dealt with asbestos and initially created 'Project Green' initially set up to compensate victims that suffered in any way from the harmful asbestos fibres.

    • Word count: 4723
  23. Free essay

    Sterotypes in the media

    Representation is a construction of reality, not a mirror image. The media has the power through selection and reinforcement to give portrayals of groups and subcultures in society. To examine the causes and consequences of media stereotyping, I will look specifically at the representation of two different social groups in the media - young black males and lesbians. I will discuss the connotations attached to each group drawing from various examples from the media. University lecturers Larry Gross and George Gerbner argue that the media participate in the "symbolic annihilation" of gays and lesbians by negatively stereotyping them (often restricting

    • Word count: 1590
  24. Gender & s*x: Cultural Studies

    This is very relevant to Cultural Studies as it concerns representation within society and identity and presents the issue of whether it is the biological attributes of s*x that defines the individual as male or female or the cultural influences of society and gender. Definitions and ideas of gender and s*x and what it is to be a man or a woman, like identity and nationality, is unstable and ever-changing. Cultural Studies is concerned with the topic as it is constantly being re-shaped and culturally constructed by ideas of social identity and nationality with Barker commenting that 'what is means to be gendered remains a cultural question' (Barker, C.

    • Word count: 1434
  25. Representation of Black Women in Vogue UK: Is Fashion r****t?

    (Powell, 2008) Media holds a very important pose in creating representations of difference, identity, ethnicity, race, power relations. Some of the most controversial aspects of media representations are the ones depicting difference as 'otherness'. For decades, there have been criticisms of the depiction of women in advertisements, magazines and throughout the media. Moreover, representation of race difference and stereotypes of black minorities have also raised controversy throughout the years. The aim of this extended research is to combine these two aspects of study and explore and analyse the representation of black women in British Vogue magazines throughout the twentieth century.

    • Word count: 5449

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Are The Media Racist? Discuss using appropriate examples with particular reference to Pilger's concept of 'unpeople'.

    "In conclusion, I don't think it would be fair to brand the media as Racist. A far more appropriate term would be Eurocentric; a way of thinking about 'us' and 'them' inherited from the days British colonialism and imperialism in a vain attempt to perpetuate some form of power relationship. Within the field, there may well be media institutions that are racist but the majority of the main stream outlets fall in to the above category. That doesn't mean to say that it is right. A bias to the national cause is only natural, and shouldn't be discouraged but a serious investigation should be undertaken to look at how ethnic minorities and non-western countries are represented in the media and how they could be represented more accurately. Not only does it insult those represented unfavourably but it also insults the intelligence of those who read and believe these 'half-baked' stories."

  • How Does the Media Source News and How is it Selected? To What Extent is News Constructed?

    "Summing up, we can come to the conclusion that when writing and editing news, there are a lot of important factors to bear in mind that are essential for the achieving of a successful publication The magnitude, significance and way of portraying a story or event, determinate whether the aims of triumphing among the exigent public and its demands have been fulfilled. The structure of news and its construction are primordial requirements that need to be carefully situated. Susana Corona Cruz 1"

  • Assess whether the Northcliffe Revolution is a useful way of understanding developments in the UK press in the period 1890-1930?

    "In conclusion it is my opinion that the 'Northcliffe Revolution' is a justified angle to proceed from if there is a need to understand the developments of the British press in the period 1890-1930. Northcliffe's contribution to the history of the press is not one of journalistic nature. He was the master of forward thinking. His greatest contribution to the press of his period was to finally modernize it economically. He didn't radically reform journalism; he more simply adapted it to fit in with his designs of a contemporary press industry. Jean Chalaby (Chalaby: 2000: 28) defined his influence well when she described Northcliffe's contribution as being one that; "...is not as a journalist but as a press owner who had an extraordinary understanding of the implications of journalism for the daily press. He applied and developed journalistic practices more than he invented them. He brought the daily newspaper into the 20th century and modernised journalism in the process...""

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