Did media coverage of the Vietnam War change the war's course and outcome?

Did media coverage of the Vietnam War change the war's course and outcome? The American military action in Vietnam, from 1954's first CIA military mission in Saigon to the 1973 Paris Peace Accords, has been the single most important war in recent history with respect to the relationship between the media and the military government. It was the first war where absolute freedom of the press was granted and where the technology was available to bring almost real-time media coverage to the citizens of America and the rest of the world. The lasting effects of the media coverage of Vietnam have been seen in every war since and unrestricted media access is not likely to be seen again in any conflict. The debate over how much, if any, influence the media had over the wars final outcome has been a persistent one and is likely to continue for a long time to come. As a result, there is almost limitless material advocating each side of the argument, some statistical and some opinionated. This essay will attempt to study a balanced mixture of the differing arguments and draw some conclusions based on the evidence. The first issue I wish to look at is a temporal analysis of the changing positivity of the media coverage by considering significant points in the war that were heavily covered in the media. There was a steady build up of US military support activity in Vietnam throughout

  • Word count: 2908
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Media Studies
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Pluralist, marxist, functionalist and feminist approaches towards the subject of the mass media.

The term mass media refers to the following forms of communication: television, radio, books and magazines, recordings and films. All these share the characteristic that one source of information communicates with a large number of people who have no means of communicating back. The development of the media has been linked to the changes in technology and growth of an affluent audience. We are at the beginning of a revolution in mass communications with the introduction of word processors, the World Wide Web and satellites. The media are an important part of the process of secondary socialisation (this includes other agencies such as the school and the church), which reinforces the activities of the family in its role of primary socialisation. They reinforce the values learned in the family, which allow people to become full participating members of society. The media perform an important role in society control, by helping to create attitudes to certain forms of behaviour and groups of people. From the pluralist perspective, the mass media does involve various forms of bias, since in any situation where there are differing viewpoints which cannot all be adequately represented, bias is bound to occur. Three points within this model are that (1) in general terms, the range of media available in society covers most of these possible viewpoints; (2) the audience/consumer

  • Word count: 2877
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Media Studies
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What is historical context and can texts be explained or enriched by considerations of context?

What is historical context and can texts be explained or enriched by considerations of context? Historical context is largely responsible for assigning a place into which a text can be 'fitted', a set of conditions out of which the fiction has been moulded and a grounding which is therefore fixed historically in time and space. However, historical context is essentially the backdrop and starting point from which the literature comes into being and as attitudes of readers change over the years so adaptations of context alter the reception and analysis of the text, thereby challenging the authority its initial circumstances have over the literature for years into the future. The question of the usefulness of historical context in getting to the core of a text can be compared to the scientific puzzle of nature versus nurture in the assessment of human character. In the same way that the essential nature or historical circumstances of a human is regulated and balanced by its nurture or changing circumstances and influences, there is also a limiting extend to which the fact behind the fiction helps to explain or determine a text more deeply. The novel "Heart of Darkness" is often identified in this way by its assigned timing in terms of the imperialist attitudes of the west and placement as a discourse of colonialism within Africa. The thematic journey into the unknown, the

  • Word count: 2830
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Media Studies
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The British press

The British press It is no secret that the 'tabloid' or 'popular' press has been subject to criticism for many years, and the reasons for it are made far move obvious when it is compared to the broadsheet press. It is, however, only quite recently that the division has become so very clear as it is today - and there are few people in the UK who are unaware of the broadsheet / tabloid division. But, what one may ask, are the differences between the two, and indeed, why do they exist? The easier answer to the latter is that the divisions in the two types of press reflects a division in society of certain groups of people clamouring after different news and alternative ways of presenting this news. It is in almost every aspect of the papers that the incongruities are evident - the topics covered, the language used, the graphics, photography and layout and the framings of different stories. This essay will attempt to outline the pretexts for the type of coverage which has now become typical of the tabloid newspapers and examples of this coverage. In doing so, a consideration of why it is so subject to debate and criticism should emerge. In my own opinion, I think that we cannot claim to know or understand the reasons for the contrast, and it will ever remain ambiguous as to why the divisions have become clear - although many scholars have put forward arguments. However, it

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Media Studies
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TO WHAT EXTENT DO YOU AGREE, OR DISAGREE WITH THE ASSERTION BY GUARDIAN JOURNALIST NICK DAVIES, IN HIS BOOK FLAT EARTH, THAT THE BRITISH JOURNALIST HAVE BECOME CHURNALIST?

JOURNALISM THEMES AND ISSUES M29CMC COURSE WORK 2 TOPIC TO WHAT EXTENT DO YOU AGREE, OR DISAGREE WITH THE ASSERTION BY GUARDIAN JOURNALIST NICK DAVIES, IN HIS BOOK FLAT EARTH, THAT THE BRITISH JOURNALIST HAVE BECOME "CHURNALIST"? BY ARAMIDE KING TUTOR FRED MUDHAI DATE 24/04/08 Nick Davies' Flat Earth News and 'Churnalism' in British Journalism: a personal response "For journalists, the defining value is honesty - the attempt to tell the truth. That is our primary purpose." Nick Davies, author of Flat Earth News An award-winning reporter Nick Davies, together with his team at the journalism department in Cardiff University, come up with a highly controversial book on global journalism and media using comprehensive analyses of around 2,000 articles from various publications - local and international including the prestigious ones in the British media industry. With his 31 years of exposure to the journalism profession, his book is an alarming expose of how journalists write news. Davies claims that his book is not to criticise individual journalists but the structures that govern and constrain them. In his book, Davies asserts that British journalists has become 'churnalists' and involved on what he called 'churnalism'. This paper discusses the extent of agreement on Davies' assertion. Davies' assertion is an agreeable concept as it assesses the current condition

  • Word count: 2764
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Media Studies
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Discuss Germaine Greer's views towards feminism from the 1970's to the 1990's.

Discuss Germaine Greer's views towards feminism from the 1970's to the 1990's. To What extent does she reflect the ideas of other contemporary feminist writers? Germaine Greer was born in Melbourne, Australia in 1939. She had a strict catholic upbringing and appeared not to be supported very well by her parents. Because of this her childhood experiences could be seen as instrumental and this may have caused to question her role in life. From an early age Greer began to question many things, for example at home her mother favoured her brother over her and she began to notice that boys were treated better than girls. Also whilst attending the Star of the Sea convent she was once dismissed from class for disagreeing with a nun who said that communism was the devil's work. Upon leaving school Greer soon dropped her catholic faith although it is still viewed by many today that she still holds many of their beliefs. After her education at the convent Greer enrolled at Melbourne University in 1956 and graduated with a BA honours in 1958. From here Greer moved to Sydney in 1959 where she went on to study and graduate with a 1st class honours MA in 1963. Upon arriving in Sydney Greer joined a group known as 'the Push' and became a very active member. They provided Greer with a Philosophy to emphasize the attitudes and lifestyle she had already acquired in Melbourne. Instead of

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Media Studies
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Claude McKay's "If We Must Die," considered by many to be the "inaugural address of the Harlem Renaissance," speaks to the traditional ideal of black masculinity

Nehemiah Smith English 408 Mr. Hoyt April 11, 2003 Racial and Gendered Utterances in Shakespeare's Othello and Claude McKay's "If We Must Die" Claude McKay, born in Jamaica in 1890, and considered by many to be the first intellectual of the Harlem Renaissance, moved to New York in 1915 to join the burgeoning literary scene. As a result of a summer of race riots in 1919, McKay penned what is designated as his most important literary contribution: "If We Must Die." Because of the revolutionary, yet universal, nature and tone of the poem, much literary criticism has been rendered in an attempt to further show how the sonnet continues to be transfigured in socio-political, literary, and historical contexts. I. CRITICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY Summary of Material The volume of material to be found on McKay's "If We Must Die" is vast. However, in regard to the specific thesis of this paper, the information is limited. This is perhaps due to the lack of specific insights into the affects of the work within the context of women's issues and the absence of any research on how the work was received in the white literary circles of the time. Claude McKay's "If We Must Die," considered by many to be the "inaugural address of the Harlem Renaissance," speaks to the traditional ideal of black masculinity while simultaneously demonstrating the tension between racial and gendered

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Media Studies
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Philosophy of Journalism

CAMPBELL DOUGLAS PHILOSOPHY OF JOURNALISM ESSAY 1 MARCH 2003 "An editor is required to edit and should not be fettered by the direction of any third party, unless, of course, that was agreed in advance." (The Journalist, December 1995) Editors have a responsibility to print information, opinions and ideas without outside restraint but within the accepted boundaries of legal, moral and ethical concerns. This is broadly accepted as the ideal model of journalism practice. The editor can find himself bound by criminal or civil law and codes of practice and conduct, which can be considered acceptable forms of censorship necessary for the common good. However, it is the newspaper owner's inevitable links with commerce and the state which represents the greatest threat to editorial autonomy. With the advent of Gutenberg's moveable type in the 15th century came the first news books which developed into newspapers and gave birth to editorial autonomy in its earliest sense. But while the radical press flourished in the 1800s, it was to enter a vacuum during periods of massive social change in the early 20th century. By 1918 the press was shown to be out of step with public opinion when Labour gained 22 per cent of the vote without the support of any daily or Sunday paper. Lucy Brown (1971) suggests the political elite devoted more time and skill to

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Media Studies
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How is vaccination portrayed in the media?

How is vaccination portrayed in the media? The portrayal of vaccination in the media has always been a controversial issue. When a new vaccination program makes the news the mainstream media often find themselves accused of ignoring the evidence in favour of scaremongering reports or the distortion of facts and yet the media commonly counter with the argument that they are acting on respectable evidence and valid scientific studies. The matter is yet to, and may never be resolved. Many people will always believe newspaper reports containing scientific reports whilst others will remain sceptical. Within the subject of vaccination in the media new reports consistently emerge, often with controversial consequences, although some become a lot larger than others. This is not to say that alternative coverage does not exist. Certainly there are many purportedly more 'respectable' publications that would claim to show unbiased coverage and factual or statistical evidence but these are often incompatible with the more popular reporting from mainstream news and the tabloid press. When presented with this ongoing, contradictory reportage it might be difficult for someone to make a considered opinion, particularly if they have no prior knowledge of the science of vaccination or little understanding of media machinations. Whilst the public dialogue continues between tabloid journalists,

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Media Studies
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Eudora Wetley "A Worn Path" symbolism analysis

Jason Martinez Martinez p. #1 English 102 Slaughter 6-25-12 A Worn Path “A Worn path”, by Eudora Welty, first published in 1941, contains in itself a vast array of ideas and symbols for readers to interpret. For this reason literary analysts still find the text as appealing today as it was seventy years ago. The characters and the events in this beautiful piece of literature have been analyzed time and again, yet the uncertainty of the text encourages the reader’s mind to draw meanings of his own. Eudora Welty was known for her beautiful use of symbolism and similes. In the short story “A Worn Path” her use of symbolism emphasis the social issues that hold greater meaning when seen from the historical perspective and encourage the reader to draw connections between the social dynamics of the era especially to the clearly stated racism, Christianity, and historical characters associated with both the blacks and Southern America. My hypothesis is that Phoenix Jackson and her journey are a pessimistic story about the destructive nature of racism and Southern Culture of that time, this story is told using symbolism. The short story, seemingly, is about a rather difficult journey made by an elderly black woman, through landscapes unsafe for a women with her fragility, encountering

  • Word count: 2649
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Media Studies
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