According to research, women journalists battle both for jobs and to be taken seriously. How (if at all) has this picture changed over the last few years and if it has, in what ways?

According to research, women journalists battle both for jobs and to be taken seriously. How (if at all) has this picture changed over the last few years and if it has, in what ways? Since 1975 and the introduction of second wave feminism, the world has been exposed to a major change with respect to the positions which women hold in society. Where the kitchen was once deemed the only place where a woman could reside and wile her days away, this has subsequently been replaced by, the once exclusively male dominated domain of, 'the office'. Changes in the social, economical, political, sexual and cultural powers which stood between men and women have shifted and now it appears that women can take on and even control previously male dominated industries. The media industry is no exception to this change. However, it did not give in quite so easily to the empowerment of women as other sectors, and it appears that problems still exist within the workplaces of this industry today. After the civil rights struggle and anti-war movement of the 1960s, women were able to find careers in many areas, here, specifically, journalism. While they were given jobs it appeared to be not because of their talents, but more due to the necessity to show that the industry was neither bias nor sexist. Before the changes listed above, reporting on the news was seen as being a job directed at males.

  • Word count: 2603
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Media Studies
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What did reconstruction mean to African Americans?

Quentin Sloper Between Slavery and Freedom: African American History, 1865-1945 WHAT DID RECONSTRUCTION MEAN TO AFRICAN AMERICANS? Reconstruction took place in the aftermath of the Civil War which ended in 1865 when the Confederates of the Southern States surrendered to the Union of the North. Its aim was to reorganise the States so that they could become part of the Union. After taking part in the war and having been granted Emancipation by Abraham Lincoln in September 1862, blacks believed that Reconstruction was going to mean a time of sweeping change and increased rights. To some extent this was the case with 'Congressional Reconstruction' resulting in the passing of the first Civil Rights Act (1866), and the ratification of the 14th and 15th Amendments in 1868 and 1870. However, before this period, President Andrew Johnson implemented his 'Presidential Reconstruction' plan. A former slave owner himself, he 'showed little concern over the status of freed people and believed they needed to be controlled by Southern whites'1. Ensuring that the Southern States ratified the 13th Amendment which outlawed slavery, Johnson allowed States to appoint former slave owners and Confederates as delegates to rewrite their constitutions. This resulted in the creation of policies

  • Word count: 2597
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Media Studies
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Merits and Limitations of Feminism in Advertisements

Popular Culture Assignment 2 Major essay Essay topic: "Discuss the merits and the limitations of one of the major theories of popular cultures (for example, Feminism). Use one example of popular culture to make your case". This essay is to establish an analytical discussion of both the merits and the limitations of feminism in the chosen scenario of advertising. Owing to the sophistication of the theories and advertising context, the essay will intermingle both the good values and the drawbacks of feminism theorical agenda with examples to illustrate the case. The popular culture has a deep impact on the society and social structure. As explained by Strinati (2004), in the modern setting, popular culture is the culture commercially manufactured by a few for the consumption by the masses. The mass media, which includes print, television, movies and music, usually, portray the society in the way that people manufacturing these products interpret the society. These people are also concerned with the commercial success of their product and so must present a culture which they believe will be accepted by the widest audience. In the process, the popular culture often ends up stereotyping people because it is easier to portray women, minorities and foreigners as stereotypes. This stereotyping becomes even more pronounced in advertisements since the advertisements are a form of

  • Word count: 2585
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Media Studies
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Features are a magazines' biggest strength. What makes a good feature and a good feature writer?

MAGAZINE JOURNALISM Features are a magazines' biggest strength. What makes a good feature and a good feature writer? TERM PAPER Beenish Rai M.C.III Tuesday, November 18, 2003 ITRODUCTION TO THE CO-RELATION OF MAGAZINES AND FEATURES The significance of journalism today is self explanatory and self evident. If newspapers are the backbone of print media, magazines are its strength. Magazines have added colour to the otherwise dull life of print media. In order to study rather explore the significance of magazine journalism it is appropriate to study the psychology of the people criteria of the times and demands of the society as well as the changing tastes of the members of society, buying the capability the likes and dislikes of the elite society. Magazine journalism is rather a reflection of society itself. It is a non academic According to E. Frank Candlin, "A magazine is a non academic discipline which enriches the knowledge of an ordinarily educated person guiding him intellectually, spiritually besides improving his behaviour and attitude towards the social cultural political and economic affairs."1 Due to its thought provoking articles, writings, gleanings from the existing literature and formulation of thoughts driving trends besides leading to formation of public opinion a magazine should seem as if it is talking about the people who would read it. This is

  • Word count: 2570
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Media Studies
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While the spoken word has been a vital means of communication for much of human history, technological advances, such as printing, have given man the ability to record his thoughts for eternity in the form of written language.

While the spoken word has been a vital means of communication for much of human history, technological advances, such as printing, have given man the ability to record his thoughts for eternity in the form of written language. Advances in printing technology have caused significant events in both the religious and social spheres of Europe since the 1455 invention of Gutenberg's technique of metal alloy typesetting. Yet, as European social advances were under way, China was not as deeply affected due to its long history with less technological methods of printing. China has relied on the printed word to communicate to it people and control their actions and thoughts since far before Gutenberg's work in Europe. The first instances of printing in China occurred around 868 A.D. with crude clay block printing. This method was almost entirely illegible therefore anything widely distributed was hand-written in order for the reader to be able to interpret the information. As early as the tenth century, current news in the form of important events in the Imperial Court, official edicts, and memorandums, were being hand-printed and distributed to the public. Towards the sixteenth century movable type began to be utilized along with a system of official mail service which allowed for a wider distribution of these official bulletins. While these great advances in printing should

  • Word count: 2546
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Media Studies
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When Truth is the First Casualty of War

INTERNATIONAL JOURNALISM ___________________________________________________________ WHEN TRUTH IS THE FIRST CASUALTY OF WAR INTRODUCTION It is a widely held belief that 'truth is the first casualty of war'. The words of Winston Churchill, "Truth is so precious that she must often be attended by a Bodyguard of Lies" also encapsulates the universal truism that the truth is inevitably distorted in times of war. Never has this been so apparent than in the United States' 'war on terror' and in particular Operation Iraqi Freedom. The media coverage of the Iraq War in 2003 has been at the forefront of journalistic ethical discourse because for the first time, over 600 journalists were embedded with coalition forces and given unprecedented access to military operations and personnel. The concept of 'embedded journalists' poses an ethical quandary for the media as it presents significant challenges to truth and objectivity. This essay will argue that the pursuits of truth and objectivity by embedded journalists in Iraq are noble ideals, however they are difficult to achieve in practice. Beginning with a definition of 'embedded journalists', this essay will subsequently trace the history of this practise back to earlier times of war. Further to this discussion, the essay will examine the concepts of truth and objectivity. After this initial analysis, the essay will go on to

  • Word count: 2544
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Media Studies
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The Canadian Magazine Industry Canadian magazines interpret the world from a Canadian point of view

The Canadian Magazine Industry Canadian magazines interpret the world from a Canadian point of view. They provide a forum for Canadian ideas and information. They incorporate consumer, literary, academic, trade and professional journals and are designed to entertain, inform, educate and provoke commentary. The Canadian magazine industry plays a fundamental role in shaping the country's cultural identity; however, the economic and political challenges it faces will continue to threaten the future of the industry. The Canadian Encyclopedia defines magazines as "paper-covered publications issued at regular intervals, at least four times a year". Author Fraser Sutherland expands that definition, citing magazines as "a portable receptacle containing articles of value" (Sutherland, 2). Magazines reach people in different forms. Paid magazines are sold on the newsstands or delivered through the mail to subscribers; magazines supplements such as TV Guide and Report on Business are included free with the purchase of a newspaper; and unpaid subscriptions or controlled-circulation magazines are free and sent to the homes or offices of specific groups of people defined as a target audience. With rare exception, all magazines carry advertising, usually in the proportion of 60% advertising and 40% editorial (The Canadian Encyclopedia). Magazines create demographically identifiable

  • Word count: 2543
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Media Studies
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The writing of history is never impartial; the authors would inevitably assert their interpretations of events in their writings.

Comparative History Assignment TAN WOAN CHYN (email: [email protected]) st Nov 2002 Analysis of A G.C.E. O Levels History Textbook -- 'Odyssey: Perspectives On Southeast Asia - Malaysia and Singapore: 1870-1971' by Marissa Champion With Reference to 'A History of South-East Asia' by D.G.E. Hall and 'In Search of Southeast Asia: A Modern History: A Modern History' Edited by David Joel Steinberg Introduction The writing of history is never impartial; the authors would inevitably assert their interpretations of events in their writings. Their views are shaped by their backgrounds such as ethnicity, nationality, education, beliefs, political orientations, interests and career. Their interpretations might also be directed by the government authorities or other agencies and institutions. In this essay, I attempt to analyze a G.C.E. 'O' Level history textbook, 'Odyssey: Perspectives On Southeast Asia - Malaysia and Singapore: 1870-1971' by Marissa Champion approved by the Singapore Ministry of Education for use from 2001 to 2005. Attempts to compare its contents with that of the sections on Malaysia and Singapore in 'A History of South-East Asia' by D.G.E. Hall and 'In Search of Southeast Asia: A Modern History' edited by David Joel Steinberg1 will also be made. The 'Mysterious' Author It is not clear whether Marrisa Champion is the author or compiler of the textbook. I

  • Word count: 2496
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Media Studies
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In the depths of despair

In the depths of despair "Gouri! Make us tea, the guests are waiting", dad shouted from the living room as mom was mopping the floor in the kitchen with her injured back. I glanced at the clock that hung over the arched doorway of our kitchen. It was 11:00 o' clock in the morning; the weather was rainy which made my mood gloomy. I couldn't bear to see my mom doing all the work all the time. Not only was she injured but sick as well. While she was taking out the tea pan from the cupboard, I immediately stopped her and brought her to the bedroom to rest. As usual, my dad's friends came over to do their business which was gambling. He gambled away all his life's savings including our farm and our old house. The only thing he had left was his family and very little money, just enough to survive. "Gouri! We are waiting for the damn tea, what's taking you so long?" dad bawled once again. Mom got up and rushed into the kitchen, "Where is Arjun when we need him? You can't serve tea like this showing so much skin in front of all those spiteful gamblers", mom said tensely. I grabbed my mom's hand and took her back to her room, "I've had enough, I'm going to go serve the damn tea and come back, and you get back to resting! You definitely need lots of rest ". I hurried out of the bedroom with the tray and down the front hall, pausing just long enough to check my reflection and

  • Word count: 2466
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Media Studies
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Sapphic Slashers

Sapphic Slashers In "Sapphic Slashers," Lisa Duggan masterfully examines two very distinct, yet both highly influential narratives that modernized the American values of race, class, gender, and sexuality well into the 20th century. Prior to her analysis of both the lynching and lesbian identity narratives, Duggan stresses that her intention is not to find direct connections between them. "The goal of the study is not to persuasively demonstrate an empirical link between lynching and lesbian love murder. The lesbian love murder story and the lynching narrative were not simply analogous or parallel tales of sexual pathology leading to political disfranchisement; they thematized different antagonisms and motivated different forms of social action that cannot be represented as equivalent."1 Though it is evident both narratives do not contextually share many similarities, it is clear that black men and white women did share many similarities in terms of the circumstances endured, the obstacles overcome, the unjust outcomes, and more importantly the yearning for political, economic, social, and sexual freedoms- freedoms that were out of their grasp from the force that had grappled them for an entire century, the white male patriarch cal society. Despite the successes following the Civil War and the emergence of many vocal political and civil rights leaders, the efforts of these

  • Word count: 2455
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Media Studies
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