"Has scientific thinking benefitted medicine?"
History Essay "Has scientific thinking benefitted medicine?" Obviously, I think that this statement is true. Scientific thinking has benefitted medicine greatly over the years and will continue to do so well into the 21st century. It can be argued that scientific thinking began in Ancient Egypt, when the role of the priest and the role of the doctor were separated for the first time. This was the beginning of scientific thinking, when religion was separated from medicine. It had been acknowledged that religion could not cure all diseases, although the Egyptians continued to worship gods as a kind of "back-up" cure, just in case the practical method did not work. This was known as the Dual Approach. The Egyptians can claim to be the first civilisation to have a doctor whose name was recorded. Imhotep treated patients in Ancient Egypt in about 2700 BC. The Egyptians came up with a few ideas as to how diseases were caused. They still believed that angering a god could cause diseases, but they also looked for more practical ways. One of these ideas was that the body was made up of channels, rather like the River Nile, and that if one of these channels became blocked, then it could cause disease. As well as coming up with rational and scientific, to an extent, ideas, they came up with practical ways of dealing with disease or injuries. To treat a broken nose, they would clean
"Describe the developments of Medicine Through Time"
h/w "Describe the developments of Medicine Through Time" 9th September 2002 Over the last 3000 years medicine and medical knowledge has progressed radically. Medical knowledge saves people's lives and improves their quality of life. If you're not healthy, medical treatments can usually make you more comfortable and sometimes offer a complete cure. This knowledge has evolved over many centuries - from primitive brain surgery to modern gene therapy - but most major medical discoveries have been made in the past 200 years. Medicine is now recognised as science; however this was not always the case. We start off with prehistoric peoples, who believed strongly that evil spirits were responsible for causing disease. However, because there was no writing system, symptoms of disease were not recorded and it was difficult to pass on knowledge. This shows progression because man is recognising disease and trying to find methods to treat it. Much later, the ancient Egyptians attempted to provide explanations for the causes of disease. The development of writing enabled them to record symptoms and cures for illnesses. However although the Egyptians managed to observe the human anatomy and come up with explanations as to how the body works they still had very strong religious beliefs, associating illnesses to have spiritual rather than physical causes. The ancient Egyptians were
The mechanisms which control the blood pressure within normal limits and how drugs can be used to correct abnormalities of these mechanisms.
The mechanisms which control the blood pressure within normal limits and how drugs can be used to correct abnormalities of these mechanisms. Blood pressure is a measure of how hard the blood presses against the artery walls. When blood pressure is recorded, it is recorded as two numbers. The high number provides the systolic pressure and the low number provides the diastolic pressure. The systolic pressure correspond to the pressure of the arteries when the ventricles contracts. The diastolic pressure corresponds to the pressures when the arteries are at rest (after the left ventricular contraction and while the heart chambers are being refilled with blood). The Blood pressure is measured using a sphygmomanometer. There is no such thing as average (or normal) blood pressure as blood pressure differs between individuals depending on many factors. Some of the factors are: 1) age 2) Ethnicity 3) sex 4) Family history etc. There are a number of physiological mechanisms which help regulate the blood pressure within normal limits. These include Autonomic nervous system responses (Baroreceptors and chemoreceptors), Capillary shift mechanisms, vascular stress relaxation, Hormonal responses and kidney and fluid balance mechanisms. Baroreceptors (pressure sensitive nerve endings) found in the arch of the aorta and the carotid bodies detect a drop in blood pressure. The
Cardiovascular system and health promotion
This assignment is going to be based on the structure and function of the cardiovascular system and how homeostatic mechanisms work with the system to regulate it. The many functions of the heart will be recognised, but the main focus will be on the regulation of heart beat. Various Health Promotion initiatives will then be looked at in context to how they help people maintain a healthy heart and how successful these initiatives are in doing this. At some point, a definition of homeostasis and a definition of health promotion will also be given. Throughout the assignment, my own personal thoughts and accounts will be given to demonstrate the workings of the cardiovascular system and how effective health promotion is in reality. The cardiovascular system consists of two components. Firstly there is the heart and secondly the blood vessels. The heart is a muscular organ which is about the size of a fist and is cone shaped, according to Mader (2006). It is situated in-between the lungs directly behind the sternum. There are three layers of tissue that make up the heart according to Waugh and Grant (2006); the myocardium, which makes up the largest proportion of the heart and consists largely of cardiac muscle; the endocardium which consists of connective tissue and the pericardium, which consists of two sacs and secretes a small amount of lubricating liquid to ensure
Introduction This assignment will explore ethical, legal and professional issues surrounding advanced directives. The writer will attempt to objectively critique the literature relating to the study area and it's relevance to issues of justice and diversity. The assignment will employ the four principles of health care these being, justice, autonomy, beneficence and non-maleficence. Considerations of the findings of the review, the implications for practice and the impact on care provision will be discussed and a conclusion containing a reflective summery of the process of enquiry considering how the writer's individual values, beliefs and attitudes have been challenged. What is an Advanced Directive? Advanced directives are a way for patients to exercise their right by preparing for a time when they may lose their capacity to make or communicate a decision and allows a competent adult to indicate which treatments they would or would not want to have at the end of life, if they were to become seriously ill and were then unable to state their values and wishes (Davis, Aroskar, Liaschenko and Drought 1997) see appendix. When making an advanced directive a person is asking the medical profession not to give them certain medical treatment. (Dimond 2002). Legal, Ethical and Professional Discussion In 1976 Joe Quinlan asked a US Court to allow him to make a legal decision for
Abstract: This paper takes a look at the sibling relationship and how siblings communicate with each other whether a brother-brother, sister-sister, or a brother-sister relationship. This paper looks at the many of the different aspects that entail these relationships. Introduction: The sibling relationship is considered the most important relationship in a person's life. Siblings help each other define who they are in their gender and as individuals, and they also provide emotional support. This relationship is unique and lifelong. It remains stable throughout the lifespan, and is kept healthy through relational maintenance behaviors. Birth Order Birth order plays a major role in the way that siblings communicate with one another. It influences their language development and their social order. The older siblings are usually the caretakers and providers for the younger ones. The younger siblings are usually influenced by the standards that the older siblings have set in place for them to follow (Edwards, Mauthner, Hadfield, 2005). The place in the birth order that siblings occupied had a role in their commitment to the relationship. Since older siblings generally have a caretaking position in the younger siblings' lives, the younger siblings will especially feel closer to the older siblings. This is especially true as the siblings get older and older family
Is there a link between the MMR triple vaccine and the increasing number of cases of autism?
Is there a link between the MMR triple vaccine and the increasing number of cases of autism? What is the MMR vaccine? The MMR vaccine is a three-part vaccine, given by injection, which is used to immunise against Measles, Mumps and German Measles (Rubella). In the UK it is given to children at 12 to 15 months, with a booster dose before they begin school, usually between 3 and 5 years. Measles, Mumps and Rubella all have serious symptoms and can be fatal. Measles can cause respiratory problems, ear infections and meningitis. Mumps can cause deafness, and before the vaccine, was the biggest cause of viral meningitis in children. Rubella can cause inflammation of the brain and also can affect blood clotting. In pregnant women especially, it can cause miscarriage or health problems for the newly born child such as brain damage or heart conditions. The vaccine is freeze dried during preparation and contains live particles of the three viruses, which have been altered to prevent them producing the full effects of the disease. How many people receive the MMR vaccine? In 1988 the MMR vaccine was introduced in the UK. The number of vaccines given was at its peak in 1996, when the percentage of MMR vaccine take-up in children was 92%. This figure fell to 82% in 2002. Many parents are faced with the decision to listen to the reassurances by the government and the
Gene therapy is a right of developed societies to keep their children healthy - Discuss
Gene therapy is a right of developed societies to keep their children healthy Gene therapy has already been taken to keep the next generation healthy in most developed countries such as Canada, United States, United kingdom and Australia, etc. Gene therapy can act as the medical treatment to cure and prevent the diseases rather than the drug. Gene therapy can be defined as "the use of genetic material (usually deoxyribonucleic acid - DNA) to manipulate a patient's cells for the treatment of an inherited or acquired disease" (American Society of Gene Therapy, 2003a,Internet). Therefore the story of gene therapy was started from the discovery of deoxyribonucleic (DNA) in 1817 from the sperm of trout from the Rhine River. And the first successfully experiment recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is the earlier form of gene therapy was taken in 1972 in the laboratory of Paul Berg at Stanford University. (Burck & Larrick, 1991). However the concept of gene therapy was presented in the late 1970s. (American Society of Gene Therapy, 2003a,Internet). Gene therapy is a very complicate medical treatment, which is included a wide range of technologies and processes to restore the diseases. Basically it can be divided into three parts: gene insertion, gene modification and gene substitution. Firstly, gene insertion means a normal copy of the gene will be inserted into a
Sports injuries outcome 2 Muscular systemWhen a muscle tissue is damaged it undergoes a repair process, which
Unit 17: sports injuries outcome 2 Muscular system When a muscle tissue is damaged it undergoes a repair process, which begins on the third day after injury once the swelling has started to go down and reduce. By this stage the damaged blood vessels will have been restored, enabling them to deliver oxygen and also nutrients to the specific tissue, which has been damaged. Muscle cannot produce new tissue so it therefore produces scar tissue. This is mainly collagen, which is fibrous and inelastic, it is not as strong or as flexible as muscle tissue and therefore as a result the muscles function is reduced. Ligaments and tendons Ligaments and tendons are soft tissues that are primarily made out of collagen. Ligaments connect bone to bone and tendons connect muscle to bone. Ligaments and tendons can adapt to changes within their mechanical environment due to cause such as injury, disease or exercise. A ligament or tendon is made up of fascicles. Each fascicle contains the basic fibril of the ligament or tendon, and the fibroblasts, which are the cells that make the ligament or tendon. Unlike normal ligaments, healed ligaments are partly made up of a different type of collagen, which has fibrils with a smaller diameter and is therefore a mechanically inferior structure. As a result the healed ligament is often fails to provide adequate joint stability, which can therefore
Introduction Breast implants are a growing controversy among many women in today's society. A breast implant is a foreign object inserted into the body for cosmetic purposes (Webster). Each year the number of implants received by women nearly double in numbers and top the statistic charts. In 2004 alone, an average of 262,000 women received breast implants for cosmetic purposes (Alagna). This number has increased by nearly twice the amount from the previous year, 2003 (Alagna). The growing population of women who will receive breast implants in year 2005 will increase by 12% from 2004 (Alagna). The surgery alone is not what might turn women off from receiving the implants; the outrageous costs of the implants along with the additional fees are astronomical. The average cost today for breast implants ranges anywhere from $5,000.00-$8,000.00 (Henry et al). The implant itself is not what necessarily costs the most, the fees that the doctors' charge to actually perform the surgery is the expensive part. "I will be paying off my (sic) $6,500.00 in payments for my breasts over the course of the next three years." (Capps). Some women may want to receive the implants but may not be able to afford them. Thousands of women receive breast implants each year without fully understanding the risks, possible deformities, and knowledge of the different types of implants involved in the