Human nature from the perspective of the three major psychological school of thought.

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Human nature from the perspective of the three major psychology school of thoughts

The importance of the study of the human nature (the essence of the human) was at all times recognized by psychologists of every school of thoughts (Vesa Talvitie, 2019) and an unknowable research object like the human nature inevitably opened a space of discussions allowing the integration of different psychological perspectives. Thus, this essay will discuss the Human nature from the perspective of the psychoanalysis approach, then the behaviorism approach, and lastly humanistic approach, going chronologically, as well as comparing their perspectives on the human nature, or how and why humans behave the way they do.

The Psychoanalysis view on human nature can be described as historical in nature (Zilbersheid, 2013), a good example would be a history book containing both the history of humanity as a race and the individual life story, viewing the modern human as a cave man in his essence, govern by sexual instincts and fear of death instincts, and these instincts are presented to reality as defense mechanisms, dreams, and motivations (Żechowski, 2017) (Bateman et al., 2020). However, this is only one part of Frued’s psychoanalytical theory, this cave man part of his theory is called the Id, it is the unconscious biological part of the self, Another part is the Ego, the rational and mostly conscious part of the self, lastly there is the Superego which works as a moral compass to the individual, these three components of the self are what, in accordance with the psychoanalysis theory, represents the human (Lantz et al., 2022). It can also be described as historical in regard to the individual memories, according to Frued, the unconscious mind is shaped mainly by past experiences, especially early childhood memories, and the relationship between the individual and their caretaker (Stangor et al., 2019) this theory had a strong impact on the attachment theory, a theory dealing with the dynamics and development of affectionate bonds between human beings (Cherniak et al., 2020), concluding Frued’s theory: the unconscious mind that is born from instincts and shaped by memories highly influences the human behaviors (Löffler-Stastka & Steinmair, 2021).

The Behavioristic approach lead by John Watson in 1913 (Coleman & Ganong, 2014), who believed that psychology as any other scientific disciplines should have measurable facts only, leaving its mark on the history of the psychology field and stating it a fact that psychologists should study the human behavior not the conscious (Wertheimer & Puente, 2020), and as in physics psychology too should study bodies in motion, making their view on the human nature mechanic and physical, and so basic emotions were identified by the responses they bring, such as fear being identified by the response of screaming (Lawson et al., 2018), and any concept or explanation in psychology according to the behaviorism should be based on the observation of the stimuli and the behavior(Moore, 2013), their experiments had shown the great influence the environment has in stimulating the individual behavior (Spielman et al., 2020), this impact can be seen clearly in urban designs, one good example is the building circulation system, a system of design that connects the most used spaces such as the stairs, corridors, elevators, and lobbies and it can impact the physical activities within the buildings (Pinter-Wollman et al., 2018), which meant that the Behaviorism was not only studying how people behave but also how to control their behavior (Spielman et al., 2020), mainly through punishment and reward as a good outcome will make the subject repeat the act (the behaviour) and a bad outcome (from the subject perspective) will make the subject stop the act (Kay & Kibble, 2016).

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In opposition to the the Psychoanalysis approach and the behaviorism that were dominating the psychology field (Votaw, 2020), a “third force” came in action, a movement named the humanistic approach began in the early 1960s (Lawson et al., 2018), moving against the psychoanalysis and behaviorism believe that a lot of human behavior is determined by past experiences or the environment surrounding them, the humanisms focus is on the conscious experience, on the human self, the innate good of all human beings, and the existence of free will (Votaw, 2020), the humanism had contributed in many practices today, such as ...

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