Inflammatory Bowel Disease


Inflammatory Bowel Disease, (IBD), is a general term that refers to a chronic inflammatory condition of the alimentary tract.  IDB is a disorder that can adopt two forms, either Ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease. Approximately one in six hundred people in the UK have Ulcerative Colitis, (, an inflammatory disease of the large intestine that mainly affects the colon and rectum. The inner lining, or mucosa, becomes irritated and inflamed resulting in ulcers and infections, which are typically accompanied with rectal bleeding. Crohn's disease occurs predominantly at the terminal ileum and the rectum but may become more widespread through out the digestive system. Crohn's disease affects one in a thousand people in the UK, (, and causes irritation to the mucosa and serosa resulting in inflammation of the full thickness of the intestinal wall. The inflammation may cause partial obstruction of the lumen, creating problematic blockages known as skip lesions, (Ross and Wilson. 1999). Crohn's disease may also cause the large and small intestinal walls to ulcerate and bleed. Both males and females are equally susceptible to Inflammatory Bowel Disease, with the majority of cases being diagnosed between the ages of fifteen and thirty-five. It is estimated that thirty percent of all IBD cases occur in young people between the ages of ten and nineteen years old. Jewish people of European descent are five times more likely to develop IBD than others that are part of the general population. IBD seems to be more common among city dwellers and occurs most frequently in developed countries, indicating that both genetic factors and environmental conditions, such as diet, may be involved in its development.

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Causes and symptoms of IBD

The exact cause of IBD is unknown however it is thought that genetics play a significant role as twenty-five percent of people with IBD also have family members with the disease. A recent scientific study reported that genetic abnormalities of the two disorders, Crohn's and Ulcerative Colitis, share locations and chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 7, 12 and 16. Some researchers believe that the disease can be triggered, in people who have a genetic susceptibility, by a virus or bacteria. During an immune system response the body releases T- cells, which create cytokines such ...

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Diagnosis Explain why all the tests are required, you did this for the blood sample, but you also need to explain why the others are required - medical history to see if there is any likely genetic links from family members etc. Overall The candidate has shown some knowledge, but is treating this topic more in terms of the effect rather than the cause. There are quite a lot of text which looks like it says something, but if one reads it again, a lot don't say a lot. Try to be more concise to allow space for extra details.

Causes and symptoms The body does not release T cells, the T cells are activated, and they releases chemicals such as cytokines. There are a lot said about the effects of the disease, but very little mention of the mechanism of how ICAM-1 causes IBD. Does it bind to a receptor? Is is an inhibitor? - Say it is a cell surface glycoprotein and then explain how it interacts with other molecules in the cell and on other cells and ligands.

Introduction There are two main forms of IBD, though there are many other types. In the introduction, you mentioned how common the disease is, but did not mention the effects of it - how does the disease cause discomfort to the patient? Just give a short line here and expand in subsequent paragraphs. Good references to scientific papers rather than news articles, but make sure you reference for every claim. Number your references so you can refer to them by numbers instead of inserting the whole website in parenthesis, which looks unprofessional.