h/w "Describe the developments of Medicine Through Time" 9th September 2002 Over the last 3000 years medicine and medical knowledge has progressed radically. Medical knowledge saves people's lives and improves their quality of life. If you're not healthy, medical treatments can usually make you more comfortable and sometimes offer a complete cure. This knowledge has evolved over many centuries - from primitive brain surgery to modern gene therapy - but most major medical discoveries have been made in the past 200 years. Medicine is now recognised as science; however this was not always the case. We start off with prehistoric peoples, who believed strongly that evil spirits were responsible for causing disease. However, because there was no writing system, symptoms of disease were not recorded and it was difficult to pass on knowledge. This shows progression because man is recognising disease and trying to find methods to treat it. Much later, the ancient Egyptians attempted to provide explanations for the causes of disease. The development of writing enabled them to record symptoms and cures for illnesses. However although the Egyptians managed to observe the human anatomy and come up with explanations as to how the body works they still had very strong religious beliefs, associating illnesses to have spiritual rather than physical causes. The ancient Egyptians were
Abstract: This paper takes a look at the sibling relationship and how siblings communicate with each other whether a brother-brother, sister-sister, or a brother-sister relationship. This paper looks at the many of the different aspects that entail these relationships. Introduction: The sibling relationship is considered the most important relationship in a person's life. Siblings help each other define who they are in their gender and as individuals, and they also provide emotional support. This relationship is unique and lifelong. It remains stable throughout the lifespan, and is kept healthy through relational maintenance behaviors. Birth Order Birth order plays a major role in the way that siblings communicate with one another. It influences their language development and their social order. The older siblings are usually the caretakers and providers for the younger ones. The younger siblings are usually influenced by the standards that the older siblings have set in place for them to follow (Edwards, Mauthner, Hadfield, 2005). The place in the birth order that siblings occupied had a role in their commitment to the relationship. Since older siblings generally have a caretaking position in the younger siblings' lives, the younger siblings will especially feel closer to the older siblings. This is especially true as the siblings get older and older family
"Religion was the most important factor in the development of Egyptian medicine." Do you agree with this statement?
Q: "Religion was the most important factor in the development of Egyptian medicine." Do you agree with this statement? I agree and disagree with this statement as I believe Religion was an important part of Egyptian medicine, but, other aspects are also equally important, for example: the flooding of the river Nile, farming of the fertile land and the growing of crops for medicines. Here is the justification of my answer; Egyptians discovered some of the human anatomy through their religion. They believed that once a person died their soul left the body and would begin an afterlife. It was important for them to preserve the bodies so their soul could use it when they return. For this, they used embalming (mummification) to preserve the liver, lungs, stomach, heart, spleen and intestines in 'canopic' jars. They found ways of preserving bodies eg: by covering them in oils and bandages. Once they were embalmed they were called mummies. By removing the main organs they knew where they were positioned in the body and gave them a basic understanding of their purpose. This supports the statement as it does play an important part in the development of Egyptian medicine. Without their religion they may not of found out anything about the human anatomy. The Egyptians religion, however, prevented them from finding out the structure of the human body, as they must preserve the
Medicine in Ancient Greece Hippocrates: The Most Famous Greek Doctor. Hippocrates was born in 460 BC on the island of Kos, Greece, he was known as the father of medicine. He traveled a lot before settling in Kos to practice and teach medicine, he died in 377 BC in Larissa, Greece. Not much more is actually known about Hippocrates. He contributed to a collection of medical works which later became known as the Hippocratic Collection. In the more important works of the Hippocratic Collection are Airs, Waters, and Places (5th century BC), which, instead of blaming diseases on religious causes, discusses their environmental causes. It suggests that concerns such as a town's weather, drinking water, and location along the paths of favorable winds can help a physician find out the general health of people. Three other works-Prognostic, Coan Prognosis, and Aphorisms-advanced the then new idea that, by observing enough cases, a physician can predict the cause of a disease. Hippocrates' teachings and ability to make direct, clinical observations influenced the other authors of these works and had a lot to do with freeing ancient medicine from superstition. Hippocrates had many important ideas and theories, like the theory of the four humours, which was the idea that the body is made up of four liquids known as humours. These four humours are- Phlegm Blood Yellow
How does attachment influence the social and emotional development of the child? In your answer refer to the usefulness and the critiques of the attachment theory.
How does attachment influence the social and emotional development of the child? In your answer refer to the usefulness and the critiques of the attachment theory. A child's social and emotional development has significant implications for the social functioning of a child throughout their lives, in their education, friendships and employment. A child with poor or social and emotional development are at risk of experiencing poor relationships with peers, academic problems and can lead them into involvement in unsociable activities or crime. Research suggests the key to social and emotional development lies in the child's early relationship with parents and caregivers. It is believed that children develop and thrive better when they are brought up in an environment where the caregiver satisfies a child's needs physically and emotionally. Throughout the Late 1930s and 1940s a psychologist John Bowlby investigated the nature and the purpose of the close relationships that a person forms with people throughout their lives, in particular, childhood. He researched the making and breaking of bonds to understand the psychological behaviour and social and emotional development of human being (Howe, 1995, P46). As a result of these investigations and studies Bowlby developed a theory called the 'Attachment Theory'. The basis of this theory is that "the infant and young child
Rosenhan DL (1973): Sane in Insane Places (Science 179, 250-58) Background Psychological diagnosis- an attempt to classify oddness in people. -Very difficult to do Observers often cannot agree on a diagnosis. Classification can lead to the carers ignoring the signs and symptoms that do not fall into the diagnostic pattern. Benefits? Hopefully an understanding of needs and effective treatment. History: Greeks- senility, alcoholism, mania, melancholia, paranoia. Kraepelin (1896)- 1st comprehensive system of psychological disorders. He believed that diagnosis should be based on the careful observations of symptoms (like physical illness). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (1952- DSM) The Study The definition and categorisation of abnormality is difficult and controversial. Rosenhan asks, 'if sanity and insanity exist, how shall we know them?' He questions whether madness, like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. "Do the salient characteristics that lead to diagnosis of abnormality reside in the patients themselves, or in the environment and contexts in which observers find them?" If 'normal' people attempt to be admitted to psychiatric hospitals, will they be detected as being sane, and if so how? Subjects 8 'sane' people: a graduate, 3 psychologists, a paediatrician, a painter, a housewife
Isotopes Used In Medical Treatments Isotopes are several different forms of an element that have different mass numbers. But they are having same proton numbers but different neutron numbers. The term Isotope has suggested by Fredrick Soddy, a chemist at Glasgow University in 1921. These form of elements have different advantages and disadvantages. Mostly it depends on the type of element. Nuclear medicine was developed in the 1950s they are really helpful in modern medical field. Because it can cure so many dangerous diseases like cancers and tumours. Basically radioisotopes are the useful type that is been used up for medical treatments. There are thousands of different forms of radioisotopes that can be classed as very useful medically approved elements. Radioisotopes seemed to be dangerous and cautious from the outside look. But they can be handle carefully and store in safe places for treatments. Many of them are made in nuclear reactors and in cyclotrons. Today most of the medical isotopes are imported from United States but the growing demand rate is really high. So there aren't enough supplies to whole globe. Radioisotopes used for medical treatments are really expensive but 98% of are successful and effective. Modern medical industry has able to get rid of the fast growing number of cancer patient per year from these treatments. The doctors who deal with nuclear
Alternative Medicine, also called unconventional medicine, therapeutic practices, techniques, and beliefs that are outside the realm of mainstream Western health care
Alternative Medicine, also called unconventional medicine, therapeutic practices, techniques, and beliefs that are outside the realm of mainstream Western health care. Alternative medicine emphasizes therapies that improve quality of life, prevent disease, and address conditions that conventional medicine has limited success in curing, such as chronic back pain and certain cancers. Proponents of alternative medicine believe that these approaches to healing are safer and more natural and have been shown through experience to work. In certain countries, alternative medical practices are the most widely used methods of health care. However, many practitioners of modern conventional medicine believe these practices are unorthodox and unproven.1 Acupuncture, a Chinese traditional medicine dating from 200-100 BC, involves stimulating specific points in the body for therapeutic purposes. Puncturing the skin with a needle is the usual method of application, but acupuncturists may also use heat, pressure, friction, suction, or impulses of electromagnetic energy to stimulate acupuncture points. Stimulated acupuncture points alter the chemical neurotransmitters released and the therapeutic effects result from the associated changes in the chemical balance of the body. Acupuncture is used for many ailments, including chronic pain, drug addiction, arthritis, chemotherapy-induced nausea,
The Psychodynamic Approach - or What Freud Really Thought Many of you may be wondering how it is that I claim to know the impossible: what Freud really thought. The truth is, of course I don't. It's fun to try though, isn't it? Well then, now that we've cleared that up, let us begin. I feel that a bit of history would be fitting at this point. Freud, or Sigmund as I shall call him for now (I always say familiarity is the best route to understanding) was born in the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1865. His family background was Jewish, but his father was a freethinker and Sigmund an avowed atheist. Sigmund's father and first wife had two sons, both more than twenty years older than 'little Sigmund'. Sigmund was passionately interested in science, so it was somewhat a disappointment to him that the only professions open to Jewish men at the time were medicine or law. He would have much preferred neurophysical research. However, Sigmund was engaged and needed to earn enough to support a family before he could marry, so he determined to go into private practice with a speciality in neurology. During his training, Sigmund made friends with Josef Breuer, another physician and physiologist. They often discussed medical cases together, and it is through this that Sigmund first encountered hysteria. Breuer used the 'talking cure' on his patients, which involved hypnosis under which
Case Study 3: Strategic Action Plan to Encourage the Positive Behaviour of Ruby. Outline of Concerns: Causes of Concern for Ruby: -From careful examination of the case study profile, I conclude that Ruby's behaviour is more damaging to herself than others within her classroom environment. -Ruby engages in a continual lack of interaction. On a social level, this will cause isolation from classmates and possible friends, not the best start for a young person beginning school. -Ruby's outright defiance of instructions, activities and rules will translate to a failed progression of learning. As she moves into year 1, she could possibly lack certain skills that are required for average, let alone above average, expectations of achievement. -Refusing to conform to the norms of the classroom will see her fall behind in learning the behaviours that are expected in the educational environment. Causes of Concern for the Setting: -There is the possibility that Ruby's behaviour can alter a positive mood of the setting, which is the classroom environment. Causes of Concern for Other Children/ Adults: -Ruby's distress and subsequent lashing out at adults or children persisting with an insistence to comply with rules or norms could cause physical harm for people involved. Also, actions such as these might set a bad example for other children to follow. Factors to Consider: