Why do people drink alcohol

Why do people drink alcohol? Alcohol is a recreational drug and a depressant. Depressants or sedatives depress neural activity, slow down bodily functions, enhance positive feelings and heighten alertness. They slow down mental processes and behaviours. Alcohol is the most widely used depressant of which the effects were known about 10,000 years ago. Alcohol abuse is not the same as alcoholism because it doesn't include an extremely strong craving for alcohol, loss of control over drinking, or physical dependence. Alcohol abuse is defined as a pattern of drinking that results in one or more of the following situations: a failure to fulfil major work, school, or home responsibilities; drinking in situations that are physically dangerous, such as while driving a car or operating machinery; having recurring alcohol-related legal problems, such as being arrested for driving under the influence of alcohol or for physically hurting someone while drunk; and continued drinking despite having ongoing relationship problems that are caused or worsened by the drinking. Although alcohol abuse is basically different from alcoholism, alcoholics also experience many effects of alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, also known as alcohol dependence, is a disease that includes four symptoms: * Craving, a strong need, or compulsion, to drink. * Loss of control, the inability to limit drinking on any

  • Word count: 2526
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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Stressors and coping mechanisms: a variation in gender, adolescence and ethnic identity.

Final year project Stressors and coping mechanisms: a variation in gender, adolescence and ethnic identity. Introduction Stress is something that is experienced by everyone at some stage in his or her life. It is our body's response to any stimulus and any type of stress can trigger a physiological response. Although there are many definitions of stress (see Selye, 1956; Goestsch and Fuller, 1995; Cohen, Kessler & Gordon, 1995), a widely applied definition of psychological stress is that of Lazarus and Folkman (1984). These authors define stress as: "...a relationship between the person and the environment that is appraised by the person as taxing or exceeding his or her personal resources and endangering his or her well being" (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984. P.21). Lazarus and Folkman emphasise the relationship between people and their surroundings, while simultaneously considering the characteristics and resources inherent in both the individual and their environment. As a result it can be argued that the definition is ecological in it perspective. Things that create stress are called stressors. Stressors can be external-as a result of the environment or internal-in your mind. For something to be stressful, the event must be threatening to the individual in someway (Bird & Harris, 1990). For example, losing a close family member can be threatening. A situation that is not

  • Word count: 2457
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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Can the period 1750-1850 be viewed as one of medical reform?

Can the period 1750-1850 be viewed as one of medical reform? Before looking at the events, which occurred during the period 1750-1850 and assessing, whether or not they amount to a period of medical reform it is necessary to define what constitutes reform. Reform is defined as: 'To convert into another and better form, to amend or improve by some change or form of arrangements or composition to free from previous faults or imperfections.'1 Traditionally this time is seen as one of medical reform, uninterrupted progress stimulated by advances in medical education, professional unity and social reform and confirmed by medical legislation. Although there was progress during this period there is controversy as to the extent of change that was actually achieved and to whether the motivations behind the change mean that they can be constituted as genuine reform. The reform, which is said to have taken place during the aforementioned hundred-year period, is attributed to the advances in medical education. By the second half of the eighteenth century medical education was in disarray. Although most physicians did have a medical degree (MD) they could be purchased through the post and those who did gain them legitimately could have received them from one of eighteen different medical corporations which offered varying forms of medical diplomas, licenses and degrees. This chaotic

  • Word count: 2448
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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Investigating changing the behaviour of cigarette smokers.

I.D. #: 04-005538 COURSE: HUMAN BEHAVIOUR CHANGE (PS27A) LECTURER: ELAINE GORDON PROJECT OPTION 3: CHOOSE A BEHAVIOUR AND WRITE A PAPER SUMMARISING THE LATEST RESEARCH ON CHANGING THAT BEHAVIOUR, NOTING WHICH STRATEGIES ARE SUCCESSFUL OR UNSUCCESSFUL AND WHY. As early as 2,000 years ago, natives of the Americas used tobacco as a medicine, as a hallucinogen in religious ceremonies, and as offerings to the spirits they worshiped. When Italian Spanish explorer Christopher Columbus traveled to the Americas in 1492, he observed the Arawak people of the Caribbean smoking tobacco loosely rolled in a large tobacco leaf. They also smoked tobacco through a tube they called a tobago, from which the name tobacco originated. Columbus's crew introduced tobacco growing and use to Spain. During the next fifty years, sailors, explorers, and diplomats helped spread pipe and cigar smoking throughout Europe. At first, it was used medicinally as a purported treatment for diseases and disorders such as bubonic plague, migraines, labor pains, asthma, and cancer. Within 100 years, however, smoking for pleasure became common. In 1612 the British colony at Jamestown, Virginia, began growing wild tobacco and exporting it to England. They soon switched to common tobacco, the milder kind grown in the West Indies and in demand in Europe. It quickly became the main crop grown in the colonies and was

  • Word count: 2440
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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Ancient Egyptian and Greek Medicine, a Comparison.

Ancient Egyptian and Greek medicine, a comparison. Introduction In this essay, we shall be comparing the progress of medicine in ancient Egypt and ancient Greece. We will explore the different factors contributing to the medical development of each civilisation and how they formed the basis for modern medical practice. Economy Egypt and Greece were agricultural empires. Egypt was one of the first to settle and farm the Nile. Good harvests from the rich silt meant that Egypt had enough food to trade with other Empires, like India, China, Arabia, Africa and around the Mediterranean. Trade (along with bringing back great wealth) brought back new ideas, among which were new herbs and treatments. Similarly, Greece was a trading nation, leading to communication in and between nations. Communication was vital for the progress of medicine because it allowed ideas to be shared between many different countries. The Egyptians were so successful with farming and trade that the land owners became very wealthy. Likewise, the Greeks had a wealthy upper class. This new class could afford to pay for health care by doctors, who were paid a great deal for their knowledge. They spent their lives trying to further their understanding of medicine, probably because the better they were, the more they got paid. So money plays a large part in the progress of medicine. The rich could afford to

  • Word count: 2280
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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the man who mistook his wife for a hat

The Man Who Mistook His Wife For A Hat In this story, Dr. P, a teacher a local School of Music began to notice that over the years that he was becoming progressively worse and worse about mistaking people for objects and objects for people. Eventually it came to the point where we couldn't recognize anybody until they spoke, his ears would not deceive him like his eyes did. Because of this obviously strange and debilitating condition Dr. P decided to go see Dr. Sacks, to diagnose and help him with his problem. However, there is no name for the condition that De. P has, in fact there is no good explanation for why this happens to him at all. Dr. Sacks in one of his meetings with Dr. P gave Dr. P a glove and asked him to identify what the object was. Dr. P was able to describe the glove and feel it and look at it, yet he was not able to name the object as a glove. Much like the British man with a 15 second memory span, Dr. P loved music and sang no matter what he was doing, about what he was doing. What was so odd about this unnamed disorder is that the Dr. P had normal vision, he was not blind, so what was wrong was not his eyes but was how his brain perceived what his eyes saw. Somewhere along the line between his eyes and the part of his brain that recognizes what he is seeing something goes haywire and he is helpless. He sees a human yet cannot identify one, it is

  • Word count: 2269
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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Intervention for ADHD should not involve medication behavioural intervention is sufficient.

Attention-Deficit Hyperactive Disorder Running Head: Attention-Deficit Hyperactive Disorder Intervention for ADHD should not involve medication – behavioural intervention is sufficient. University of Western Australia Sandhya Subarmaniam The Attention-Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) affects 3-5 percent of school age children and of them 50 percent that are referred to clinic tend to have symptoms that pursuit till adolescence (Brown, 2000; Sales, 2000). Children diagnosed with AHDH are at greater possiblities of having learning, behavioral and emotional difficulites throughout childhood and adolescence. Resulting in lower occupational staus and higher chance in being diagnosed with psychiatric problems such as anti-social personalty disorder or substance abuse. Children diagnosed with ADHD have difficulty with social interactions and family members (Kollins et al., 2001; Miranda and Presentacion, 2000). Thus, effective treatment is required due to the adverse outcomes. This study focuses on examining an efficacy intervention focusing on three approaches such as drug therapy, behavioural/psychosocial therapy and the combination of both the therapy. Various scientific studies that have been conducted over the years have tried to determine the most efficient intervention. Purdie et al. (2002) conducted a meta-analysis of 74 studies over years and concluded that

  • Word count: 2219
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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the effect of a coloured letter in a word or non word on the reaction time of recognition processes.

Abstract This study examined the effect of a coloured letter in a word or non word on the reaction time of recognition processes. . Six hundred and twenty six participants (292 M, 334 F, M = 27.97 years, SD = 12.07 years) were asked to read a set of lists and name the ink colours which the words were printed in. In this case, two level of stimuli were used; namely the word or non-word. They were then timed on their reaction time when processing the colour of the letter positioned in a word and in a non word. The hypothesis stated that the position of the coloured letter interferes with the reaction time in the word recognition process. Not only this, the position of the colored word will also affect the reaction time. Finally, it was concluded that the position of the coloured letter does affect the colour naming task. Introduction Humans have many behaviours that are automatic like sensory reactions. Learned behaviours like reading are also said to be automatic where a stimuli elicits the behaviour in the absence of intention. The analyses of single words of semantic and lexical are uncontrollable. The "Stroop effect" occurred when the identification of the colour of an incongruent word is much slower than the identification of a congruent word (Besner, Stolz, & Jones, 1997). J.R Stroop was the man who introduced the "Stroop task" in 1935. He published an article on

  • Word count: 2217
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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Medieval Medicine

Medieval Medicine Essay Medicine in the fourteenth century was primitive in comparison to modern standards of medical practice. Most medical practice and knowledge of the time was based on the works of Galen and Hippocrates, who had lived over a thousand years earlier. Their writings of observational medicine were very accurate at the time but by the medieval period, most of their observational practices had been lost and so rendered their medical writings pretty much irrelevant. However this was not realised at the time and so their writings were treated as a medical rule.1 Quite simply it was believed generally by physicians and teachers at the time that Galen's theory of the 4 humours could not be improved upon.2 At the time their was no understanding of the existence of bacteria and the need for sterilisation of medical equipment. This unfortunately lead to many people being in a worse physical state after their treatment than before due to high levels of infection. Often Barber Surgeons would come to town and perform basic surgery such as tooth pulling and amputations, using the same tools throughout the course of the day, with nothing more than a quick wipe in between procedures.3 As previously mentioned the basis of most medical knowledge at the time came from Galen's Theory of the "Four Humours". The theory was that the body comprised of 4 major elements. These were

  • Word count: 2102
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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Human nature from the perspective of the three major psychological school of thought.

Human nature from the perspective of the three major psychology school of thoughts The importance of the study of the human nature (the essence of the human) was at all times recognized by psychologists of every school of thoughts (Vesa Talvitie, 2019) and an unknowable research object like the human nature inevitably opened a space of discussions allowing the integration of different psychological perspectives. Thus, this essay will discuss the Human nature from the perspective of the psychoanalysis approach, then the behaviorism approach, and lastly humanistic approach, going chronologically, as well as comparing their perspectives on the human nature, or how and why humans behave the way they do. The Psychoanalysis view on human nature can be described as historical in nature (Zilbersheid, 2013), a good example would be a history book containing both the history of humanity as a race and the individual life story, viewing the modern human as a cave man in his essence, govern by sexual instincts and fear of death instincts, and these instincts are presented to reality as defense mechanisms, dreams, and motivations (Żechowski, 2017) (Bateman et al., 2020). However, this is only one part of Frued’s psychoanalytical theory, this cave man part of his theory is called the Id, it is the unconscious biological part of the self, Another part is the Ego, the rational and

  • Word count: 2062
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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