Otitis Media in Aboriginal Communities

Indigenous Health Assignment Diabetes is a very serious health concern among Indigenous communities throughout Australia. It is a disease which affects multiple aspects of Aboriginal life, creating a need for a complete lifestyle change; one which some Indigenous people do not have the money or knowledge to be able to achieve. In this assignment, I will be discussing the epidemiology and trends of diabetes and why type II diabetes, in particular, is a worrying and statistically high form of the disease. I will also be exploring the fundamental causes of diabetes in Aboriginal communities, which includes a discussion about historical circumstances and socio-economic conditions. I will conclude with information about organisations and services which are helping to improve the health of Aboriginal people through community based diabetes assistance. The prevalence and trend of diabetes in Indigenous communities is significantly higher than that of the non-Indigenous community. In 2006, the Australian Bureau of Statistics reported that diabetes was 3.4 times more common for Aboriginal people than for other Australian people.1,2 From the data collected by the Bureau of Statistics, it has been estimated that around 6% of Indigenous Australians have some form of diabetes.1,2 However, this only reflects the number of Aborigine's who reported and are aware that they currently have

  • Word count: 1567
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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The Birth of Midwifery.

The Birth of Midwifery As women gave birth, they sought and received care from supportive others. At an unknown point in the cultural evolution, some experienced women became designated as the wise women to be in attendance at birth. Thus, the profession of midwifery began. Indeed, as historians have noted, midwifery has been characterized as a social role throughout recorded history, regardless of culture or time. Biblical recognition of the functions of midwives included several verses recounting the experiences of two Hebrew midwives who refused to kill male infants in defiance of the King of Egypt (Exodus 1:15-22). Other verses in the Bible also make passing references to midwifery attendance at birth, implying that it was ubiquitous (Genesis 35:17; 38:28). Historians have found the practice of midwifery referred to in other papyri as well as in ancient Hindu records. In Greek and Roman times, midwives functioned as respected, autonomous care providers to women during their reproductive cycles. Some qualifications for the practice of midwifery began to evolve during this period. For example, in Greece the midwife was a woman who had born children herself. This requirement has remained a commonality in the practice of midwifery throughout several cultures and exists even today. "Midwife" is a word which in English was translated to mean "with woman", implying the

  • Word count: 1522
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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Qualifications to Enter Veterinary Medicine.

Qualifications to Enter Veterinary Medicine By: Candice Williams The first step to take to become a veterinarian is to choose an undergraduate college. When selecting a school, it is smart to consider factors such as location, cost, type of school, size of the school, and availability of pre-veterinary advisors. Apart from some exceptions, students usually complete a four-year bachelor's degree program before entering veterinary school. The Ontario Veterinary College is the oldest veterinary college in the Americas in terms of continuous operation. It began in Toronto in 1862, was moved to Guelph, Ontario in 1922 and became a founding college of the University of Guelph in 1964. The Ontario Veterinary College has the following advanced degree programs: Master of Science (MSc), Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), and Doctor of Veterinary Science (DVSc). For entry to the Masters of Science program a Bachelor of Science (Honors) or a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) degree is needed. To be accepted to the Doctor of Philosophy program you must complete a Master of Science program by thesis, even though top students may, if approval, go directly to the Doctor of Philosophy program before completing their Master of Science degree. A Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (or equal) degree is needed for entry to the Doctor of Veterinary Science program. Applicants must have shown achievement

  • Word count: 1519
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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Alternative Medicine, also called unconventional medicine, therapeutic practices, techniques, and beliefs that are outside the realm of mainstream Western health care

Alternative Medicine, also called unconventional medicine, therapeutic practices, techniques, and beliefs that are outside the realm of mainstream Western health care. Alternative medicine emphasizes therapies that improve quality of life, prevent disease, and address conditions that conventional medicine has limited success in curing, such as chronic back pain and certain cancers. Proponents of alternative medicine believe that these approaches to healing are safer and more natural and have been shown through experience to work. In certain countries, alternative medical practices are the most widely used methods of health care. However, many practitioners of modern conventional medicine believe these practices are unorthodox and unproven.1 Acupuncture, a Chinese traditional medicine dating from 200-100 BC, involves stimulating specific points in the body for therapeutic purposes. Puncturing the skin with a needle is the usual method of application, but acupuncturists may also use heat, pressure, friction, suction, or impulses of electromagnetic energy to stimulate acupuncture points. Stimulated acupuncture points alter the chemical neurotransmitters released and the therapeutic effects result from the associated changes in the chemical balance of the body. Acupuncture is used for many ailments, including chronic pain, drug addiction, arthritis, chemotherapy-induced nausea,

  • Word count: 1509
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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Do the Big Five Theories of Personality Do Full Justice To The Complexities of Human Behaviour

Do the Big Five Theories of Personality Do Full Justice To The Complexities of Human Behaviour Personality has been described as the "pattern of characteristic thoughts, feelings and behaviours that distinguishes one person from another and that persists over time and situations" (Phares 1997). This essay will look at what complex human behaviours are and whether it is possible to predict them with a Model of Personality. The benefits and downfalls of the Five Factor Model of Personality will be considered and whether Human Behaviour is fully encompassed by the model will be discussed. Models of Personality have been made to try and predict how and why people behave in certain ways. In the past twenty years two models have dominated in the area of personality research. One model is Eysenck's three-factor model, also known as the Giant Three model (Eysenck, 1994). Normans model assumes that personality is best described in terms of five factors, or the Big Five, and is usually referred to as the Big Five model (John, 1990). Eysenck used factor analysis to study personality and believed that peoples personality could be described using two main traits, introversion and its opposite extroversion and emotionality with its opposite stability and a sliding scale of characteristics in between them. Later Eysenck added Psychoticism to this list of traits. Eysenck argued that

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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Freud and Jung

Freud and Jung The psychological genre as it relates to sociological and medicinal matters has gained an increasing amount of scientific approval. Impartiality and the scientific method are both integral components to a psychologist's mode of practice. However, even the most esteemed of psychologists can only speculate at what makes human beings act the way they do. Absolutes play no function in psychology. Everything is relative and open to conjecture. Theologians give us their visions or thoughts about life. In the field of psychology, there have been many different regions of interest and speculation. Psychoanalysis has been the pinnacle of arenas to examine within the vast field of psychology. Psychoanalysis has been an area that Carl Jung has explored, critiqued and perfected in his lifetime. Jung was not alone in his exploration of the psyche; there were many other psychoanalytic perspectives as well. Carl Jung was said to have been a magnetic individual who drew many others into his circle. Sigmund Freud was Carl Jung's greatest influence. Although he came to part company with Freud in later years, Freud had a distinct and profound influence on Carl Jung's psychoanalytic perspectives, as well as many others. Within the scope of analytic psychology, there exist two essential tenets. The first is the system in which sensations and feelings are analyzed and listed by

  • Word count: 1420
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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Freud and JungThe psychological genre as it relates to sociological and medicinal matters has gained an increasing amount of scientific

Freud and Jung The psychological genre as it relates to sociological and medicinal matters has gained an increasing amount of scientific approval. Impartiality and the scientific method are both integral components to a psychologist's mode of practice. However, even the most esteemed of psychologists can only speculate at what makes human beings act the way they do. Absolutes play no function in psychology. Everything is relative and open to conjecture. Theologians give us their visions or thoughts about life. In the field of psychology, there have been many different regions of interest and speculation. Psychoanalysis has been the pinnacle of arenas to examine within the vast field of psychology. Psychoanalysis has been an area that Carl Jung has explored, critiqued and perfected in his lifetime. Jung was not alone in his exploration of the psyche; there were many other psychoanalytic perspectives as well. Carl Jung was said to have been a magnetic individual who drew many others into his circle. Sigmund Freud was Carl Jung's greatest influence. Although he came to part company with Freud in later years, Freud had a distinct and profound influence on Carl Jung's psychoanalytic perspectives, as well as many others. Within the scope of analytic psychology, there exist two essential tenets. The first is the system in which sensations and feelings are analyzed and listed by

  • Word count: 1420
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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schizophrenia

Massey 1 Schizophrenia (Paranoid Type) Today Schizophrenia is known as one of the most horrendous psychiatric mental disorders one could possibly be diagnosed with. Eugene Bleuler coined the term in 1908. The name Schizophrenia comes from the Greek works 'skhizein' meaning 'to split' and 'phren' meaning 'mind', in other words, "split mind" not to be confused with multiple personality disorder. It instead refers to the fact that the mind can no longer see the difference between what is real and the delusions that it creates because of the disorder. There are five differing types of schizophrenia. The kind of schizophrenia called paranoid schizophrenia is arguably the most horrific of the five. There are two kinds of schizophrenic symptoms, positive and negative symptoms. Positive symptoms are usually seen in psychotic episodes and usually entail diverse abnormal behaviors such as delusions, hallucinations, and disordered and disorganized thoughts. The negative symptoms are seen between psychotic episodes and generally involve the loss of normal behavior. Negative symptoms include social reclusiveness, catatonic behavior, reduced speech and not showing emotions. Although, the main criteria of this disease are a preoccupation with out of the ordinary delusions that the patient creates in his or her mind, accompanied by frequent auditory and sometimes visual

  • Word count: 1396
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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Hormones and Heredity

Checkpoint: Heredity and Hormones The influence on heredity and hormones play a major role on a person's behavior. Traits are passed from generation to generation, and though upbringing and environment allow for some modifications in how those genes may or may not be expressed, the traits have already predetermined some things. Hormones have been identified as having noticeable control of physical and mental processes as well. Hormones are of significant importance. Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work slowly, over time, and affect many different processes, including: growth and development, metabolism, sexual function, reproduction and mood (Medline Plus, 2010). Hormones are powerful and it only takes a tiny amount to cause big changes in cells or even your whole body. Endocrine glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the thyroid, pineal, pituitary, adrenal glands and pancreas. In addition, men produce hormones in their testes and women produce them in their ovaries (Medline Plus, 2010). The thyroid gland produces thyroxin which is the hormone responsible for regulating metabolism which plays a part in how much energy one has at a particular time. When the thyroid overproduces thyroxin, a person will experience several symptoms, some being

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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ARE HOMEOPATHIC REMEDIES ACCEPTABLE ALTERNATIVES TO PHARMACEUTICAL DRUGS?

ARE HOMEOPATHIC REMEDIES ACCEPTABLE ALTERNATIVES TO PHARMACUTICAL DRUGS? Today millions of people are bypassing the offices of their family physicians, internists, gynecologists, and pediatricians in favor of alternative or complementary medicine (Jonas xi). Why are millions of people choosing alternative or complementary medicine (CAM) over modern medicine? Perhaps they are tired with the ineffectiveness of pharmaceutical drugs compared to initial hype, or the appearance of adverse side effects over time. Homeopathic remedies are an acceptable alternative to pharmaceutical drugs because they are safe, effective, and treat the person at the body's own natural pace. The first and foremost aim of the homeopath, a practitioner of homeopathic medicine, is to aid the body in beginning to heal itself or to continue the process of healing itself (Ullman 18). Homeopaths think of symptoms as a sign of good health. They view the appearance of certain symptoms to be a sign that the body is responding to and fighting a disease or infection. Samuel Hahnemann, a German physician and chemist, named his approach to the healing process "Similia similibus curantur" or "Likes are cured by likes" (Foxman 44). This is also referred to as "the law of similars" and is the use of a medicinal substance that has the same "symptom picture" that is most similar to the symptom of the person who is

  • Word count: 1282
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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