Complementary Therapies.

Complementary Therapies. Task 1. Acupuncture- oriental therapy Acupuncture is the stimulation of the special points on the body, usually by inserting needles. Originating in the Far East about 2000 years ago, it has made various appearances in the western medicine. Acupuncture recent popularity in the west dates from the 1970s when president Nixon visited china. In its original form acupuncture was based on the principles of traditional Chinese medicine. According to these the workings of the human body are controlled by a force or energy called qi (pronounced chee"), which circulates the whole body between organs on channels called meridians. There are 12 main meridians in the body each of which correspond with a major function or organ in the body. Qi energy must flow in the correct strength and quality through each meridian for health to be maintained. The acupuncture points provide a means of altering the flow are positioned along the meridians the skill of acupuncture is knowing where and how to stimulate the skin and subcutaneous structures in order to achieve the desired result. The point may be stimulated with needles or alternatively an electrical current or by laser heat and massage. Treatment is usually painless although the patient may feel some dull heavy pain this is associated with a positive response relief mat be immediate or improvement may take

  • Word count: 2040
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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Clinicians have ethical codes, should scientists have them too?

Clinicians have ethical codes, should scientists have them too? Sir Joseph Rotblat, who first championed the call for a moral code of conduct directed at scientists, premised his ideas upon the foundations of the Hippocratic Oath1. Pertaining to the ethical practice of medicine and taken by graduates of medical school, the oath was designed, in part, to recognise the duty that the doctor has to the patient; to safeguard the autonomy, freedom from discrimination and standard of healthcare that the patient receives. In an age of rapidly progressing scientific development, limited largely only by vision and time, it must be considered that, as the doctor has a duty to his patient perhaps so too does the scientist have an obligation to the scientific community and society as a whole. Moreover, as public mistrust of the scientific world continues to grow, stimulated by incidents such as Wakefield et al study into the MMR vaccine, it seems increasingly necessary to formalize a code of conduct aimed at encouraging integrity and good practice whilst at the same time fostering an understanding of ethical and moral awareness2,3. To this end, a form of ethical code could provide a framework, inside of the law, from which scientists would operate within and would also provide guidance and consideration on matters upon which the scientist has an obligation to and an impact upon, direct or

  • Word count: 1970
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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How far did the sick rely on written communications in looking for remedies in England, 1375-1640?

How far did the sick rely on written communications in looking for remedies in England, 1375-1640? When someone became sick in England between 1375 and 1640 the number of options they had for seeking remedies depended largely on their illness and their resources. Some of these options centred or relied on written communications, however, others made use of different types. "Lay people moved easily between the medicine provided by a poor old woman, by empirics and by learned medicine" (Wear 2000). For nearly everyone though during this period care began at home and was largely the responsibility of the woman of a household. The means for women in this position to collect relevant information varied from oral tradition and example, to recipe books and even vernacular texts aimed at their readership. Familial and friendly resources exhausted, a sick person might turn to one of the many unlicensed medical practitioners who frequented towns and the country side. Remedies could be sought from wise old women to mountebanks, and again, the source of their knowledge, and their means of selling their remedies could sometimes rely on written communications. 'Qualified' medical practitioners might include apothecaries from whom medicines could be bought, though often physicians tried to limit this trade. Usually a last resort, and only available to a small proportion of the

  • Word count: 1940
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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What is known about how people perceive, take and communicate risks?

What is known about how people perceive, take and communicate risks? Logic dictates that the physical consequences of hazards are fixed objective. However perceptions of risks associated with those hazards are highly subjective and as a result risk has been defined in a number of ways. Risk can be viewed as the probability of undesired consequences, the seriousness of the maximum possible undesired consequences or the product of these two outcomes. Another definition of risk is the variances of all the consequences about their mean. In addition to research which aims to identify the factors which affect our perception of risk, studies have investigated the motives which affect our propensity to take risks as well as the best techniques for communicating those risks. Both lay person and expert assessment of risk involves human judgement. Expert judgement is likely to be more accurate but both groups are subject to common distortions of risk which tend to favour certain criteria which reflect our subjective perception of risk rather than the reality of it (Sprent, 1988). Sprent identified ten common distortions of risk. Two such distortions of risk are the notions that concentrated risks are worse than diffuse risks and involuntary risks are worse than voluntary risks. Slovic et al (1978) studied the common distortion of risk whereby concentrated risks are regarded as worse

  • Word count: 1921
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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Narrative Medicine connotes a medicine practiced with narrative competence and marked with an understanding of the highly complex narrative situations among doctors, patients, colleagues, and the public

Murad Idris Assignment: Advice Narrative Medicine Student number: 2092557 Email: [email protected] Date: 22-04-2012 Lecturer: Ad Kaptein Advice Narrative Medicine ‘’Narrative medicine a way forward’’ Narrative Medicine connotes a medicine practiced with narrative competence and marked with an understanding of the highly complex narrative situations among doctors, patients, colleagues, and the public For years now, the fields of narrative medicine and literature and medicine have reminded doctors that illness unfolds in stories that clinical practice transpires in the intimacy between teller and listener and that physicians are as much witnesses to patients' suffering as they are fixers of their broken parts. More and more clinicians and trainees are being encouraged to write about their clinical practices so as to develop the capacity for reflection. New clinical routines that provide patients with copies of what their doctors write about them or that encourage patients to contribute directly to their medical records are challenging traditional notions of authorship of the clinical record and, indeed, of the illness. ‘’Stories stories’’

  • Word count: 1752
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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What is known about how people perceive, take and communicate risks?

What is known about how people perceive, take and communicate risks? Human judgment dictates that physical consequences of hazards are objective, however perceptions of risks associated with those hazards are highly subjective and as a result risk has been defined in a number of ways. Risk can be viewed as the probability and/or seriousness of undesired consequences or the variance of all consequences about their mean. Research into this topic has been tackled descriptively by psychologists and has looked at why people take risks, the factors that affect their perception or appraisal, their propensity to take risks and the best techniques for risk communication. Slovic (1987) identified three risk appraisal factors, basic dimensions connected with the perception of risk. The first is "Dread Risk" characterised by a perceived lack of control, catastrophic potential, fatal consequences and the unbalanced distribution of risks and benefits. This dimension is closely related to the general public's perception of risks for example associated with nuclear power stations. The second risk appraisal factor is "Unknown risks". These are hazards for which the risks are as yet unknown and delayed in their expression of harm. For example, the risks associated with mobile phones. The final risk appraisal factor relates to how widespread the effects are of a risk where the greater the

  • Word count: 1745
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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Recovering The Soul and Reinventing Medicine and Healing beyond the Body - Dr. Dossey.

In the same manner as in Recovering The Soul and Reinventing Medicine Dr. Dossey - as expected by his friends and foes - takes on the traditional - or what the author would like to refer to as "modern" - medicine and science in his latest publication Healing Beyond the Body and this is despite his academic background as a doctor and a scientist. Dr. Dossey has been trying to go back to his new found roots in spirituality and discovering the effects of soul and mind in healing physical illnesses for well more than two decades. One would see this as a crusade in its own terms. Dossey strongly believes in effectiveness and necessity of alternative and "integrative" medicine, but unlike many of his colleagues in the "alternative medicine camp" he has an impressive medial background both in terms of academics and practice. He tries to apply this very credible medical background and practices as a means of defending the whole idea of alternative medicine and goes to the extent of trying to make a fusion of the two, the "modern" medicine and the so called "alternative" medicine. He attempts to create an image of a world where alternative medicine and modern medicine co-exist in peace, and in all counts above he fails miserably. One of the great flaws in Dr. Dossey's arguments for the alternative medicine is that he fails to understand or acknowledge the fact that the "alternative"

  • Word count: 1650
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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Biomedical models

Introduction The biomedical and biopsychosocial models have been two significant approaches as ways of attempting to decipher the pathways of health, disease, and well-being. The traditional biomedical model considers disease to be primarily a failure within the body, resulting from infections, accidents and inheritance and does not regard any social and psychological aspects of illness within the model. The biopsychosocial model is the predominant model of understanding illness today by incorporating the social and psychological factors into the prevailing biomedical model. It is a better way of understanding how health and illness are affected by many levels of systems, from molecular to the societal, and how these can affect the overall well-being of the patient. There are many differences between the two models and so these two models will be compared and contrasted with each other to show how each understands illness and how it maintains health and well-being for individuals and society. History and the Biomedical Model Back in the nineteenth and up to the early twentieth century, most of the diseases present at that time were infectious diseases that spread and killed many rapidly, for example, measles, lupus and small pox. Therefore at that time, physicians assumed that diagnosis was a relatively objective process and that reducing the pain that the

  • Word count: 1643
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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The failures of Freud and Psychoanalysis.

Freud Paper Joshua A Goldman 08/06/03 The Failures of Freud and Psychoanalysis In October 1900, Philip Bauer took his 18-year-old daughter to see the little known psychoanalyst Dr. Sigmund Freud. Bauer took his daughter to be treated by Freud for her recent display of strange behaviors such as saying strange things, and threatening suicide. From Freud's initial point of view the case did not seem to be particularly promising in terms of supplying new features for his theories in development. Freud diagnosed the young woman as possessing the typical signs of hysteria, a psychosis that he had previously encountered copiously. However, the resulting case proved to engage Freud more than he initially thought and slowly blossomed into Freud's most famous case history. A few days after taking the case, Freud wrote his friend Wilhelm Fleiss that a "case has smoothly opened to the existing collection of picklocks."1 Freud's newfound interest in the case unexpectedly was siphoned because the young patient abruptly terminated her psycho-analyitical treatment at the end of December of 1904, only eleven weeks after she first came to Freud. Freud wrote up his case-notes in January of 1901, but it wasn't until 1905 that his 'Fragment of an Analysis of a Case of Hysteria ', or known as Dora, was published in a specialist journal.2 This was the inauspicious start of a case history

  • Word count: 1643
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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"Describe the developments of Medicine Through Time"

h/w "Describe the developments of Medicine Through Time" 9th September 2002 Over the last 3000 years medicine and medical knowledge has progressed radically. Medical knowledge saves people's lives and improves their quality of life. If you're not healthy, medical treatments can usually make you more comfortable and sometimes offer a complete cure. This knowledge has evolved over many centuries - from primitive brain surgery to modern gene therapy - but most major medical discoveries have been made in the past 200 years. Medicine is now recognised as science; however this was not always the case. We start off with prehistoric peoples, who believed strongly that evil spirits were responsible for causing disease. However, because there was no writing system, symptoms of disease were not recorded and it was difficult to pass on knowledge. This shows progression because man is recognising disease and trying to find methods to treat it. Much later, the ancient Egyptians attempted to provide explanations for the causes of disease. The development of writing enabled them to record symptoms and cures for illnesses. However although the Egyptians managed to observe the human anatomy and come up with explanations as to how the body works they still had very strong religious beliefs, associating illnesses to have spiritual rather than physical causes. The ancient Egyptians were

  • Word count: 1637
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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