The Psychodynamic Approach - or What Freud Really Thought

The Psychodynamic Approach - or What Freud Really Thought Many of you may be wondering how it is that I claim to know the impossible: what Freud really thought. The truth is, of course I don't. It's fun to try though, isn't it? Well then, now that we've cleared that up, let us begin. I feel that a bit of history would be fitting at this point. Freud, or Sigmund as I shall call him for now (I always say familiarity is the best route to understanding) was born in the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1865. His family background was Jewish, but his father was a freethinker and Sigmund an avowed atheist. Sigmund's father and first wife had two sons, both more than twenty years older than 'little Sigmund'. Sigmund was passionately interested in science, so it was somewhat a disappointment to him that the only professions open to Jewish men at the time were medicine or law. He would have much preferred neurophysical research. However, Sigmund was engaged and needed to earn enough to support a family before he could marry, so he determined to go into private practice with a speciality in neurology. During his training, Sigmund made friends with Josef Breuer, another physician and physiologist. They often discussed medical cases together, and it is through this that Sigmund first encountered hysteria. Breuer used the 'talking cure' on his patients, which involved hypnosis under which

  • Word count: 1164
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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Sex and Health in the Middle AgesSeveral centuries ago, in the population's mind, as well as for Jewish, and the Christians and/or Muslims, everything was about religion and God

Sex and health in the Middle Ages By Kaven Morasse Presented to Daniel Perreault For Intro: Western History 330-910-RE November 8th 2004 Sex and Health in the Middle Ages Several centuries ago, in the population's mind, as well as for Jewish, and the Christians and/or Muslims, everything was about religion and God. Because of this, these religious groups were fully confident about the evidence that was given to them by the "intellectuals". Supported by religion, these "scholars", even though they were inaccurate most of the time, had answers for almost everything. Since their objectivity was often affected by diverse beliefs, these savants' way of thinking became the pillars of these societies. In the Middle Ages, though medicine and reproduction were often thought to be of a religious matter directed by God, human involvement was usually acceptable (Wiesner, p.132). These subjects are good examples of what kind of fundaments were anchored in people's thoughts. Three sources, written by philosophers of the middle ages, have been studied to demonstrate what kind of misconceptions they had; the Canon Avicenna, Constantine the African's treatises and Trotula of Salerno's writings. The diverse traditions and religions truly affected the way people of the Middle Ages perceived reproduction. This is proven by the fact that in some civilizations reproduction was seen

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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Were Arab doctors better than European doctors in the middle ages?

Were Arab doctors better than European doctors in the middle ages? I N the middle ages, there were many changes that would affect knowledge of medicine a lot. In the middle ages, lot of events occurred, the fall of the Roman Empire, the Black Death and Great Fire of London but during this time, knowledge of medicine was improving a lot in some parts of the world. This was mainly thanks to some doctors like Galen and Hippocrates but now there were new legends, doctors like Rhazes (al Rhasi) and Avicenna (Ibn Sina). Although knowledge of medicine was improving, it was on a brink of being lost forever. The Roman Empire collapsed and Saxons and Vikings destroyed everything Romans made including the universities and the libraries where the medical knowledge was kept. That's when the Arabs come in. The Arabs saved and kept few of the books written by Galen and Hippocrates and translated them. The medical knowledge was rescued from total loss. Arab countries at this point had now more and better medical knowledge then European countries but as the middle ages went by, the Europeans will soon catch up. It was religion that mainly hindered medical knowledge in Europe but in the Middle East, Islamic Religious influence was actually helping the course of medicine as Islam encouraged Hygiene and Cleanliness. This was done by bathing once a week, brushing teeth, trimming nails, keep

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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Does alternative medicine present a challenge to biomedicine?

Does alternative medicine present a challenge to biomedicine? Alternative medicine such as herbal remedies, Reiki, hypnosis, aromatherapy, and acupuncture are all ancient methods of medicine that have been used to heal patients for centuries. These holistic approaches to medicine are becoming increasingly popular as ways to improve the health and well being of individuals in contemporary societies, now commonly described as complementary medicine. This essay will discuss why people seek alternative or complementary medicine in favour of the conventional biomedical methods. I will then consider whether these holistic treatments challenge scientific medicine, or whether the two approaches can work along side each other. To begin with, I will describe what complementary and alternative medicine is. Complementary medicine is a group of therapeutic and diagnostic disciplines that focus on the individual as whole which contrasts with the biomedical model that views the body and mind as separate from each other. It exists outside the realms of biomedicine and the institutions that teach and provide healthcare based on the scientific approach. Complementary and alternative medicine has been set into groups but it is hard to define where each should go. A report by the House of Lords Select Committee for Science and Technology (2000), divides each therapy into groups ranging from

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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Latin Speech

Latin Speech For our speech we have chosen to stand against the accused in the scenario with the sick father and his son. Ladies and gentlemen of the jury, I present our case against the accused. First, we shall outline the case. A banished son studies medicine. When his father falls ill, the son is summoned because he says he has a medicine which will cure him, despite the fact that all other doctors before have failed. The father drinks part of the medicine and says he has been poisoned. The son drinks the rest, but the father dies. The son is accused of parricide. Lets take the case step by step. Firstly, the son was banished from home. Why? We can't be sure. However, it was suspected that, due to mental insecurity, he killed his mother. Although the case was never proven, his father always believed it to be true. The likely case of the father's illness was depression resulting from the death of his wife and the loss of his only son. And how did the son react? Well all his dreams of getting into the best medical school were shattered. Instead he had to settle for a poor quality school for second rate doctors, and was left to explore the medical world on his own, learning from no basis more reliable than his own meandering experiences. And so, his life fell from high to low. For each failure he made he blamed his father. This son was afraid of the

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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Today I would like to talk to you about alternative medicine, and why we should not ignore it entirely.

ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE - DO NOT NEGLECT ITS POWER Today I would like to talk to you about alternative medicine, and why we should not ignore it entirely. Chemotherapy, organ transplants, heart surgeries are some of the modern day miracles, which make possible for people to live longer, healthier lives. And so are treatments like Reiki, acupuncture, hypnosis, aromatherapy and herbal remedies - all ancient methods of medicine that have been used to heal patients for centuries. STATISTICS Two major surveys have indicated that use of alternative treatments is increasing in the United States. One survey in 1990 found that 33.8% of Americans were using some form of alternative medicine and a later survey by the same individual, Dr. David Eisenberg, found that use had increased to 42.1% in 1997. That means at least one in two or three people seek alternative treatment for their illnesses. REASONS So what makes them all seek this alternative assistance with increasing confidence? The Michigan Center in the USA wanted to find out why people turn to alternative methods, especially if they have some of the best of modern medicine available to them. One of the doctors involved in the research said that: "What we've found from our one-on-one interviews and surveys is that people, for example who had a heart attack, begin to re-evaluate their life when their health changes. And

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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This essay is about the development of medicine in Ancient civilisations

Essay on Ancient Civilisations This essay is about the development of medicine in Ancient civilisations and whether or not individuals were the only significant factor to the development of medicine. Before the start of the Ancient Civilisations, there were prehistoric people who lived in small villages, grew their own crops and used Gods and Spirits for the reason behind the cause and cure of illness. Although they weren't very advanced in their knowledge aboout medicine, they knew enough to get by in life. The Egyptians didn't have an individual to tell them about the causes of illness and how to ure it, but they were more developed in their knowledge of medicine than people in Prehistory. To start with the Egyptians lived in a very wealthy country with powerful rulers. The Egyptians wealth was based on the river Nile. The Egyptains used the Nile for farming which was so successful that they became rich. With their new found wealth the Egyptians could spend their time training specialist doctors and metal workers. They also developed a form of writing and paper made from papyrus so that doctors could record symptoms of different illnesses for patients so that they ould use them again for future reference on ther patients. The Egyptians used the Nile to trade herbs and plants with far away countries to help them with their remedies. Egyptian doctors also believed that the

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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What caused the discoveries of the Medical Renaissance?

What caused the discoveries of the Medical Renaissance? There were many important discoveries in the Renaissance in the medical field. There were several key men who pushed the boundaries of the theories and treatments of medicine. There were many factors that helped with the discoveries of the Renaissance. These included wealth; people were much richer after the Black Death so they could invest in education. Also many people had a renewed interest in the writings of the Romans and Greeks and their thoughts. I think that the main reason there was so much progress in this period was due to people finally dissecting human bodies to see whether the ideas of Galen and the physicians of his time were true. The ideas of Galen had been preserved in the medical profession for hundreds of years so it was very dangerous to challenge the ideas of Galen especially as Galen's ideas had the backing of the Christian Church. The second most important factor of the medical Renaissance was the improved methods of printing. This meant that people's ideas could spread really quickly and be seen by many. There were many men who helped change the face of medicine but there were three men who stand out from the rest. These men are Andreas Vesalius, William Harvey and Ambroise Pare. We will look at each of these men in turn so we will start off with Andreas Vesalius. In 1500 the most

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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How much progress did the Egyptians make in Medicine?

How much progress did the Egyptians make in Medicine? Helen Stanford Some people feel that the Egyptians made considerable progress in medicine because of the way they could examine parts of the body during the mummification process. This allowed them to find out information about how the body worked. By removing the organs, they knew where they were located inside the body and what they were attached to. The Egyptians discovered that the body could be preserved in many things, including salts, oils, and bitumen. Before electricity was discovered and fridges were made, people used salt to preserve food that needed to be kept cold, so we still use the Egyptian's technique thousands of years later. Other people think the Egyptians didn't make such great advances because of their theory about the river Nile and how it worked in conjunction to the human body. The Egyptians believed that the body was full of channels, just like the Nile was. If an irrigation channel was blocked on the Nile, the water would not flow into the fields - a disaster for Egyptians because they inhabited the area surrounding the Nile because of the fertile land it offered. The Egyptians believed the same thing happened with the human body - that the blockage of the vessels lead to the person becoming ill. Vomiting was encouraged in some patients, as it was thought to clear blockages from the

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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Category - Simple Schizophrenia - appears during late adolescence.

Psychology Assignment ) Mental Illness - SCHIZOPHRENIA Category - Simple Schizophrenia - appears during late adolescence. Symptoms include increasing apathy, decline in academic or work performance and gradual social withdrawal. The sufferer may be regarded by others as idle, or a drifter. Diagnosis depends on establishing the gradual progression and worsening of these symptoms. Hallucinations and delusions are not usually manifest. I choose this mental illness because I want to become a children's nurse and I thought it would be a good idea to know about the mental aspect of children's illness. 2) Schizophrenia itself comes under DSM-IV but the sub-category simple schizophrenia comes under ICD-10; because it does not prescribe what exactly should be in the diagnosis; people with simple schizophrenia may manifest a variety of symptoms. These may vary from one individual to another. (There are no set symptoms for diagnosis). 3) Cognitive Theory - is about how we perceive and process information and how it affects our behavior. People with Simple Schizophrenia will have negative thoughts patterns, which will affect their behavior. They may probably have "set rules" for living which they have developed while growing up. These are based on what we learn from other people and our own experiences. They may be realistic or unrealistic, helpful or unhelpful. For example

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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