Within Crazy Like Us, Ethan Watters explains many ways in which Western biomedicine has incorrectly pushed an essentialist way of treating certain mental illnesses onto other cultures

Dwyer, September 11, 2011 Within Crazy Like Us, Ethan Watters explains many ways in which Western biomedicine has incorrectly pushed an essentialist way of treating certain mental illnesses onto other cultures. This essentially means that Western medicine presumes that all people, no matter what culture they are from, react to trauma in the same way. The situation Watters goes most in depth on is the tsunami that struck Sri Lanka. He describes a huge rush of Western psychiatrists to the area where they counseled victims in an “assembly-line” manner (81). In contrast to the psychiatrists who were very unknowledgeable about the culture they immersed themselves into, Watters describes how Western biomedicine manipulated the Japanese people by getting to know their culture all too well. These are two contrasting ways in which knowledge, or lack there of, of a culture can cause harm or be helpful. Getting to know and understand a certain culture before rushing in and helping them is going to helpful in some situations, while it may cause damage in other situations. It is our obligation as people of our own culture to understand each situation and assess whether or not it is our duty to go to these other countries and give them aid. Watters’ assertion that “the mistake in applying Western notions of trauma without consideration for local beliefs goes beyond just

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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Twentieth Century Medicine: is it good for you?

Twentieth Century Medicine: is it good for you? Medicine of the 20th century is a great deal more powerful and effective than that of previous centuries. But with this power has come a price, several in fact, all adding up to a bill of human suffering that seems horrendous. Thalidomide, salmonella, super bugs, the list goes on. But with these consequences, great learning has happened and the majority of medical treatments are of benefit to humanity. A sizeable portion saving lives. An example of this is smallpox, which, thanks to Jenner's discovery of vaccinations, has been wiped off the planet, except in controlled laboratory conditions. The four main points of criticism when it comes to 20th century medicine are drugs, vaccines, hospitals and high technology medicine. High technology medicine is criticised because it is basically seen as being too powerful, e.g. it can make a body that is technically brain dead, chemically alive or where the medicine is so powerful that a small slip up can have disastrous results. Put it simply it seems to put the power of God into the hands of a doctor, who is only human, and humans are not infallible, so mistakes are made occasionally and people die. That said high technology is also powerful enough to tackle the some of the most serious injuries and diseases known to man, like cancer, without powerful drugs and radio therapy

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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Sane in Insane Places.

Rosenhan DL (1973): Sane in Insane Places (Science 179, 250-58) Background Psychological diagnosis- an attempt to classify oddness in people. -Very difficult to do Observers often cannot agree on a diagnosis. Classification can lead to the carers ignoring the signs and symptoms that do not fall into the diagnostic pattern. Benefits? Hopefully an understanding of needs and effective treatment. History: Greeks- senility, alcoholism, mania, melancholia, paranoia. Kraepelin (1896)- 1st comprehensive system of psychological disorders. He believed that diagnosis should be based on the careful observations of symptoms (like physical illness). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (1952- DSM) The Study The definition and categorisation of abnormality is difficult and controversial. Rosenhan asks, 'if sanity and insanity exist, how shall we know them?' He questions whether madness, like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. "Do the salient characteristics that lead to diagnosis of abnormality reside in the patients themselves, or in the environment and contexts in which observers find them?" If 'normal' people attempt to be admitted to psychiatric hospitals, will they be detected as being sane, and if so how? Subjects 8 'sane' people: a graduate, 3 psychologists, a paediatrician, a painter, a housewife

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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Religion was a hindrance to the development of medicine in the Middle Ages. - Discuss

Examen: Religion was a hindrance to the development of medicine in the Middle Ages. Religion in the Middle Ages was not entirely a hindrance to the development of medicine. In some ways it improved it but also held back the development. I shall discuss Christianity and Islam (as they were the leading religions) to support this. When the Roman Empire collapsed very few organisations were left. One of these was the Christian church. Christianity hindered the development of medicine because priests said that God caused sickness and faith, saints and prayer seemed effective cures. They also relied on charms and herbal remedies. They believed that "to buy drugs and consult with physicians doesn't fit with religion". Because of this there was hardly any study of medicine or training of doctors in Christian Europe until 1200. The development of medicine was hindered because the Christian religion did not allow them to buy drugs and believed that religious ways were more effective cures. In 1200 Universities were built and controlled by the Church. This meant teachings were according to the Bible and other medical books such as Galens (Galen's religious beliefs also restricted him as he could not dissect a human body. To find out more he dissected animals and believed in these findings. However some were incorrect, as most animals are different to humans). Scholars there did not

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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"Religion was the most important factor in the development of Egyptian medicine." Do you agree with this statement?

Q: "Religion was the most important factor in the development of Egyptian medicine." Do you agree with this statement? I agree and disagree with this statement as I believe Religion was an important part of Egyptian medicine, but, other aspects are also equally important, for example: the flooding of the river Nile, farming of the fertile land and the growing of crops for medicines. Here is the justification of my answer; Egyptians discovered some of the human anatomy through their religion. They believed that once a person died their soul left the body and would begin an afterlife. It was important for them to preserve the bodies so their soul could use it when they return. For this, they used embalming (mummification) to preserve the liver, lungs, stomach, heart, spleen and intestines in 'canopic' jars. They found ways of preserving bodies eg: by covering them in oils and bandages. Once they were embalmed they were called mummies. By removing the main organs they knew where they were positioned in the body and gave them a basic understanding of their purpose. This supports the statement as it does play an important part in the development of Egyptian medicine. Without their religion they may not of found out anything about the human anatomy. The Egyptians religion, however, prevented them from finding out the structure of the human body, as they must preserve the

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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Who was more important to medicine,

Max Dawe 10T Who was more important to medicine, Hippocrates or Galen? In this piece of writing I am going to look at whether Hippocrates or Galen was more important to the history of medicine. Hippocrates was a Greek doctor/philosopher who was around during the Ancient Greece period. He started a theory which caused trouble at first but then doctors at the time and doctors later along all agreed with it. The theory was that it wasn't gods who caused disease and illness. Although he couldn't pinpoint as to what the correct cause of disease was he did say that it wasn't the gods. His second theory, which led on from the first, was the four humours. He thought the body was made up of black bile, yellow bile, blood and phlegm. The four humours was a natural extension of their belief in the four seasons and the four elements. He thought if you were ill you had too much of something your body was trying to balance it. For example if you had a nose bleed you had to much blood and he suggested treatments such as sucking blood from you using leeches. He encouraged people to seek natural treatments instead of praying and going to the temples. Another thing which made him much more able to diagnose people was the fact that he wrote things down. He wrote down symptoms, how he treated them and whether the treatment worked or not. He started the way we practise doctoring now. He

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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Religion was a Hindrance to the Development of Medicine in the Middle Ages

Religion was a Hindrance to the Development of Medicine in the Middle Ages I partially agree with this statement because religion both hindered and help the development of medicine in the Middle Ages. Christianity and Islam belief both played a part during this time. There were many factors in which Religion helped the development of medicine. Christians and Islam's both believe that there is only one God and unlike the Greeks and the Romans who worshiped many gods and icons, they only worship one God. This was also the belief of Galen so both religions picked up his ideas and helped the development of medicine. Within both religions, medical books of Hippocrates and Galen were translated. Christians translated the work into Latin and the clergy read in Latin so they were able to understand the writings and keep alive the ideas of Galen in particular. The Muslims translated the texts into Arabic and with the Arabic spread through west and south Asia and parts of Europe it was easy to spread the information. In this, more people were able to learn about medicine and this helped the development. Both religions taught that each person should take care of the sick and build hospitals. This encouraged people to help others and saw the general people learning more about medicine to try to heal people so helped medicine. The Islam's adopted Hippocrates way of observation and

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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Is Cosmetic Surgery really worth the risk?

Is Cosmetic Surgery really worth the risk? Some might believe cosmetic surgery is necessary to get through everyday life. It is freely advertised in television commercials, books and magazines. You can't even open a local newspaper without seeing page upon page of adverts for the surgery. This Cosmetic surgery is aimed at both men and women from any age group. It is the simple way of achieving "the perfect body". When I think about cosmetic surgery I tend to think, "Why can't people accept themselves as they are?" Of course you're going to get the ugly duckling of the family. However you know what they say, "Beauty is only skin deep". My personal opinion is that everyone is unique in a certain way and that people shouldn't change that so others approve of them. What makes people take the risk of having cosmetic surgery where there is a possibility of disfigurement? All surgery does not come with a guarantee. In some cases death has occurred and this is what no one hears about. People (the general public) get the cosmetic surgery done to enhance their looks (larger breasts or straighter noses). To have the perfect face or perfect body is impossible because everyone has a different view of what "perfect" is. It's mainly down to the person who is getting it done to end up with what is perceived as "perfect". However, some people get it done for medical reasons such as

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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Folklore in Medicine.

Folklore in Medicine. Folklore refers to the traditional beliefs, legends, sayings etc of a people i.e. of England. It is often said that folklore medicine is now going 'out' but in my opinion this is wrong as I work in a chemist and the amount of so called "folk," "natural," "alternative," "traditional," "home" "organic" "holistic" and "other" medicines and therapies sold is astounding. Admittedly the whole 'magical' element behind it all is gone for most people as it was believed that diseases and ailments were caused by evil spirits or angry gods but most of these opinions are still held by the supposed 'uneducated' tribes people. But yet again some people who still hold 'pagan' beliefs do believe that it is the planets that cause some diseases. Although we no longer believe in 'medicine men', 'shamans' and 'witch doctors' in the west we still have many deep seated superstitions, rituals and some medical practices that have been taken from our murky past. Such things as saying bless you when we sneeze originate from a time when it was believed that a sneeze was your soul attempting to escape your body and by saying 'bless you' you some how stopped it! Even things such as funerals are believed to be based around a ritual that prehistoric man used to carry out. And if it hadn't been for the inquisitive Greeks searching for the seat of the soul in the human body we may still

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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Medicine in Ancient Greece.

Medicine in Ancient Greece Hippocrates: The Most Famous Greek Doctor. Hippocrates was born in 460 BC on the island of Kos, Greece, he was known as the father of medicine. He traveled a lot before settling in Kos to practice and teach medicine, he died in 377 BC in Larissa, Greece. Not much more is actually known about Hippocrates. He contributed to a collection of medical works which later became known as the Hippocratic Collection. In the more important works of the Hippocratic Collection are Airs, Waters, and Places (5th century BC), which, instead of blaming diseases on religious causes, discusses their environmental causes. It suggests that concerns such as a town's weather, drinking water, and location along the paths of favorable winds can help a physician find out the general health of people. Three other works-Prognostic, Coan Prognosis, and Aphorisms-advanced the then new idea that, by observing enough cases, a physician can predict the cause of a disease. Hippocrates' teachings and ability to make direct, clinical observations influenced the other authors of these works and had a lot to do with freeing ancient medicine from superstition. Hippocrates had many important ideas and theories, like the theory of the four humours, which was the idea that the body is made up of four liquids known as humours. These four humours are- Phlegm Blood Yellow

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Medicine and Dentistry
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