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University Degree: Problem Based Learning cases
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Anatomy Assignment 1:Factors affecting joint stability. The stability of a joint is a measure of how difficult it is to cause disruption from its desired position
The function of the joints is obviously to provide the bones with a means of moving or being moved. But because such provisions bring with them a threat of instability, the joints have a secondary function for providing stability without interfering with the desired motions. All the joints of the body do not have the same degree of strength or stability.
- Word count: 288
The way this argument is presented is in a style that reads more like an opinion. There is a distinct lack of evidence. Jackson talks about two 'blunders' but only quotes newspaper headlines about one of the cases. He also only uses headlines from two newspapers. Similarly, Jackson makes points but doesn't back them up with any evidence. For example he says, "Mistakes of the kind that led to such deaths are not as rare as the public believes" but has no figures to prove that his statement is true. Jackson compares the reporting styles of newspaper journalists and a radio reporter.
- Word count: 916
About one in 2,000 people have an autistic disorder. Boys are four times more likely to be affected than girls, although some research suggests that when girls have the condition they may be more severely affected.2 So what is causing autism? A paper was published by a Dr. Andrew Wakefield in the medical journal The Lancet in 1998,3 where he wrote a report on the connection between the combined MMR vaccine and autism. MMR is a live vaccine which contains measles, mumps and rubella viruses that have been modified.
- Word count: 926
Sunday Express, 6th October 2002, an exclusive article by Lucy Johnston, Health Editor. The child appeared to be developing normally until 15 months of age, then he was given the MMR jab. Only days after receiving the vaccine a rash broke out, his development stopped, he began to have violent seizures, which became more frequent - sometimes every few minutes. At nine years old, he was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit at Southampton General Hospital. Doctors, twice tried to break the cycle of convulsions with an anesthetic, each time he was brought round,the fits started again.
- Word count: 963
But are they? The number of cases of several different fatal diseases has declined and many diseases have been eradicated in the past years, but is it the vaccine that should be awarded for this or is it that living standards have improved? Microbiologists would probably attribute the decline of reported cases of disease to the increase in mass vaccination. They would claim that it is safer to vaccinate and suffer the lesser risks associated, than to not vaccinate at all.
- Word count: 846
It has however been proven that from past studies that measles, mumps, small pox and polio outbreaks have all occurred in vaccinated populations and in fact the DTP vaccine can cause autism and brain damage when administered into newborn babies. On the other hand children with "na�ve" systems appear to have no problems in dealing with some of these diseases. Maternal immunoglobulins are said to protect the neonatal however the effects are said to be limited in capacity and short-lived and therefore vaccinating children is the only answer but other evidence clearly shows that childhood infectious diseases are benign and
- Word count: 829