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University Degree: Problem Based Learning cases

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  1. Praxis Note on Alzheimer's Disease

    I also remember there are three different stages of AD, early stage, intermediate stage, and late stage. The later the stages the more advance the condition is. Depending on the development of AD, individual may have memory difficulties of where item should be place and repetition of takes and doing the same or similar task respectively. In terms of nursing care, I know that redirection is the key to nursing care. Nurses also have to cope with each individual's difficulties and needs. For the past two weeks for observing in home, I got a glimpsed of different stages of AD and what AD is.

    • Word count: 1348
  2. Praxis Note on Evaluating the outcome

    It is not uncommon for different staffs to have their own opinion towards a similar task or situation. The problem is when this situation arises in a health care setting, there is no one person can who is right or wrong and decide what the best approach is that is the most beneficial for the resident. In my past couple of weeks in the home, I have seen several occurrences regarding of staffs having different value and attitude for a resident who has a high risk of fall and some of the staffs' approaches troubles me in many ways.

    • Word count: 1569
  3. Praxis Note on Dignity

    My colleagues and I have just presented the hand-hygiene presentation last week. I was very excited by it because I am no longer sitting in front of nursing stations or in the lounge to collect data and see if people have washes their hands before and exiting the unit entrance. I am actually doing something where it will influence other people's practices. I believe that I am a very easily satisfied person because my personal goal and objective for this project is very low.

    • Word count: 1091
  4. Anaphylactoid reactions from Iopromide in patient with angina undergoing angiography - Pharmacovigilance Brief Report Essay

    Iopromide-induced anaphylactoid reactions has the highest occurrence among the same drug class. Cardiologists and Radiologists should be aware in the use of Iopromide in severely ill cardiovascular patients, as the adverse reactions are likely to occur. It is crucial to recognise and treat anaphylactoid reactions immediately and appropriately. Key Words - Iopromide, Contrast Media, Anaphylactic, Anaphylactoid Reactions, Adverse Reactions INTRODUCTION Iopromide is a non-ionic iodinated contrast media, with osmolality of 0.6-0.7/kg water, considered as low osmolar contrast media. Intravascular iodinated contrast media are commonly used in imaging modalities. Iopromide is indicated mostly for angiography, arteriography, aortography, venography, urography, and tomography. 1 Contrast media is known to commonly cause incidence of anaphylactoid reactions.

    • Word count: 1773
  5. Should my child have the MMR vaccination?

    Step 4 If you meet the real disease MO, the antibodies you need are made very quickly. Step 5 The MOs are destroyed before they can make you ill. Vaccines Vaccines make use of the bodies own defence system. They kick- start your white blood cells into making antibodies. So you become immune to the disease without having to catch the disease first. Are vaccines safe? In the UK any medical treatment used on people should do two things: . Improve your health . Be safe to use Doctors decide that a treatment is safe to use when: .

    • Word count: 1851
  6. Discuss Meningitis B vaccine

    And the meningococcemia is the infection of the blood stream. An individual infected may suffer one or both of these diseases (http://dermnetnz.org, 2002). Meningococcal invasive disease usually has a sudden onset with fever, malaise, prostration and a variety of other possible symptoms including nausea, vomiting and headache. Invasive meningococcal disease can also give rise to arthritis, myocarditis, pericarditis, endophthalmitis and pneumonia. 2. HOW TO GET MENINGOCOCCAL DISEASE Neisseria meningitidis bacteria are spread from person to person by inhaling when infected person sneezes cough or close contact. Carrier rates depend on age and the highest rate is found in young adults 15-24 years at 20% - 40%.

    • Word count: 1269
  7. Is there a link between the MMR triple vaccine and the increasing number of cases of autism?

    This figure fell to 82% in 2002. Many parents are faced with the decision to listen to the reassurances by the government and the scientific community, that the vaccine is safe, or such allegations made by e.g. Wakefield that the vaccine is linked to autism. What is autism? This is a term that refers to a collection of neurologically-based developmental disorders in which individuals have impairments in social interaction and communication skills, along with a tendency to have repetitive behaviours or interests. A variety of factors could be associated with forms of autism including infectious, metabolic, genetic, neurological, and environmental factors.

    • Word count: 1422
  8. Is there a link between the MMR vaccine and the increasing number of cases of autism?

    Mumps can cause deafness and before the MMR vaccine it was the biggest cause of viral meningitis in children. Rubella can cause inflammation of the brain and can affect blood clotting. In pregnant women it can cause disastrous consequences such as a miscarriage or health problems for the child such as heart problems or brain damage. In 1998 claims were made by Wakefield and his colleagues that there was a link between the increase in cases of autism and the widespread use of the MMR vaccine. They reviewed reports of children with bowel disease and regressive development disorders mainly autism.

    • Word count: 1011
  9. What is immunisation and how does it work?

    This is what is known as active immunity. The first vaccination using active immunity was against smallpox and was developed by Edward Jenner. Once a child has been vaccinated in general, the normal immune response takes several weeks to work. This means protection from an infection will not occur immediately after immunisation. Most immunisations need to be given several times to build long lasting protection. Generally vaccinations protect us all our lives; however, the protective effect of some immunisations is not always life-long and then a booster jab will be given which will top-up the original vaccine.

    • Word count: 1705
  10. What Is Immunisation?

    For the purposes of this book, we have always used the term 'immunisation' because this is the expression most commonly used in the community. How does immunisation work? All forms of immunisation work in the same way. When someone is injected with, or swallows, a vaccine, their body produces an immune response in the same way it would following exposure to a disease but without the person getting the disease. If the person comes in contact with the disease in the future, the body is able to make an immune response fast enough to prevent the person getting sick.

    • Word count: 1154
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