There are many types and causes of anemia, which is a condition where red blood cells are not providing enough oxygen to the tissues in the body. Iron-deficiency anemia is a decrease in the number of red blood cells in the blood obviously caused by too little iron. ( In sight of the fact that a severe deficiency in iron leads to iron-deficiency anemia, it is vital that we look at how our body processes and absorbs the different forms of iron. It is also important to look at the symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and complications of iron-deficiency anemia.

Iron plays an integral role in our bodies. It is essential for a number of metabolic processes such as oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and electron transport. ( Iron is absorbed through our small intestine, and during the process of absorption oxygen combines with iron and is transported to the plasma portion of the blood by binding to transferrin. From there, iron and transferrin are used in the production of hemoglobin. ( have around three to four grams of iron in our bodies, and we lose about one to two milligrams of it a day through our skin, gastrointestinal tract, and urinary tract, which is a relatively small amount in comparison to the amount of iron in our body. Our bodies achieve iron balance by a negative feedback mechanism. The mucosal cells of the upper gastrointestinal tract adjust the rate of absorption so that the body can accumulate a little more iron than the body needs. The extra iron that is absorbed is placed in iron stores that are in the body. However, the rate of absorption is quickly decreased as the size of the iron store increases, preventing the body from accumulating too much iron. In contrast, if the requirement for iron is increased, the iron in the iron stores is utilized before the body increases the rate of absorption. So, as the size of the iron store decreases the rate of absorption increases. ( This negative feedback mechanism is crucial to our body because our body has no mechanism for increasing the excretion of iron, and too much iron in our body can be toxic to us and too little iron in our body causes iron-deficiency anemia and can lead to many other disorders.

This negative feedback mechanism ensures that our body will have iron balance only if our dietary iron supply is sufficient and in an easily assimilable form, but this is not always the case. (micronutriens) The chemical form of the iron has a great affect on the absorption of it.  First of all, if the type of iron is not soluble in gastric juice it cannot be absorbed. Heme and nonheme iron are the two different forms of soluble iron that are found in food. Heme iron is derived from the hemoglobin and myoglobin in meat and it is always very well absorbed and it is a very dependable source of iron. It enters an enterocyte as an intact metalloporphyrin. Then it is degraded in the enterocyte by heme oxygenase with the release of iron so that it passes through the basolateral cell membrane

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Unlike heme iron, it is difficult for the body to absorb nonheme iron from food because there are some chemical compounds that are found in food that inhibit the absorption of nonheme iron. It is widely known that phytates and polyphenols inhibit nonheme iron absorption. An example of a phytate that greatly inhibits nonheme iron absorption is sodium phytate, and after extensive investigation it was determined that it is the in vitro solubility characteristics of phytates that cause its inhibitory effects on nonheme iron absorption. Polyphenols, which are often found in tea, have an inhibitory effect on the absorption of ...

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