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University Degree: Environmental & Physical Geography

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 1
  1. How did Captain Cook influence the way we see and understand the modern world

    of New Zealand and achieving first European contact with places such as Australia and the Hawaiian Islands. These areas were to be later incorporated into the British Empire. Such good were his navigating skills that it was recorded his maps were still used in the twentieth century: "he produced charts and maps that were of such accuracy that some were still in use as recently as the twentieth century"(http://www.mostlymaps.com/reference/The-Voyages-of-Captain-Cook/1st-voyage.php) His charting of the Arctic and Antarctic coastlines created geographical imaginations that helped shape people's understanding of these places.

    • Word count: 966
  2. Support Drilling for Oil in ANWR

    (McGowan, 2004) Most of the supporters of drilling for oil stated that environmental damage will be limited because of the practices and experience of Arctic operations for over twenty years. By using new efficient techniques, impact on the tundra and the wildlife will be minimal. From these high-tech modern drilling techniques, fewer drilling platforms will be built. Building the oil fields on gravel pads the permafrost underneath will be protected. Pipelines will be lifted off the ground and these pipes will have fitted loops that will limit oil spills or leaks.

    • Word count: 786
  3. Article reviewed: "The role of the physical and traffic environment in child pedestrian injuries." Pediatrics, Vol. 98, No. 6. December, 1996.

    While previous studies have focused on vehicle speed and traffic volume which associated with greater injury incidence, a group of scientists (including Phyllis F. Agran, Diane G. Winn, Craig L. Anderson, Cecile Tran and Celeste P. Del Valle) designed a case-control study for Latino children in southern California aged between 1 to 14 years old. The purpose of this study is to identify environmental risk factors on residential neighbourhood streets for paediatric injuries. Factors which were taken into account embrace the number parked vehicle on road, pedestrian presents, car speed and traffic volume.

    • Word count: 884
  4. The state of the union, given by President George W. Bush on Tuesday January 28, 2003, was overall an effective and clear message to the American population.

    Many critics say his tax cuts and new spending are driving deficits to record levels. I personally do not believe in debt, but that we should concentrate on the sensible budget to reduce our national debt. Bush argues with these critics saying that his economic growth policies will bring in more tax revenue, while demanding "spending discipline" from lawmakers.

    • Word count: 476
  5. Human impacts at the coast intended to stabilise a coast line can alos lead inadvertently to increased coastal erosion. Discuss

    They are the most costly coastal protection schemes to construct and can lead to further erosion. The sea walls reflects wave energy back towards the sea, this speeds up erosion and deprives the actual beach of sand as the force of the wave undercuts the wall. This sand would have acted as a natural defence to the coastline; its removal leads to further erosion. Wave reflection from sea walls can also lead to a lowering of the foreshore and undermining of the seawall itself leading to actual failure and collapse of the wall over time. Sea walls that have been placed too close to the waterline can disrupt the sediment balance and cause more erosion in down drift stretches of coastline, especially either side of the wall where a reduction in beach width may become evident.

    • Word count: 964
  6. Conclusion to my questionnaireMany people are put of by being environmentally friendly with cars. This is mainly because they perceive it to be expensive or un-reliable. Toyota now has a problem

    The ages are quite varied but unfortunately almost half of the people who answered the questionnaire fitted into the later age bracket. If this was the other way round I am positive the results would be different. By asking older people it represents the UK because 'the majority of car sales in the UK are to professional people over 35' - www.carpages.co.uk The majority of people I asked did own a car but the opinions of those who don't own cars are still very important as they may be looking to buy within the next year or so.

    • Word count: 624
  7. Plan an experiment to compare the water potentials (Ø) of beetroot, potato and turnip.

    May, 2007 The Editor Waltham Forest Guardian 34 Highams Park E4 5QW Dear Sir or Madam: I am writiting this letter to discuss the rersu Sincerely, ?

    • Word count: 40
  8. Southeast Asia, a political treatment.

    The agenda of the organization is usually to get government concessions to fund projects that bare a mask of environmental conservation. However, what this means for the individual member and the community at large I believe is very significant. Leaving the agenda of the NGO as a price that comes with a gift that a lot of these marginal communities deserve, consider the good that comes from this new dynamic. In exposing environmental worries that threaten livelihood [excessive logging, fishing, environmental degradation, poor resource management, etc.] these organizations are capable of educating people who are seen on the edge of political approach.

    • Word count: 651
  9. The aim of my study is to investigate the following hypothesis: "New Towns have a higher environmental quality than Older Towns".

    To do this I carried out 3 types of survey: * Environmental Street Surveys * Housing Quality Surveys * Questionnaires 'what do the town think?' Additionally I will investigate the Environmental quality of the towns Environmental Quality of Old and New Towns To obtain an understanding of the environment in Romford and Basildon I will be looking at factors such as crime rate, population, litter, education, services, vandalism, and resources.

    • Word count: 393
  10. Resource exploitation is normally a balance between environmental costs and economic benefits. Evaluate the relative geographical costs and economic benefits of exploiting one named resource, which in this essay is oil.

    The people who own the land that is being used have not received the benefits; this exploitation of oil has only bought pollution of soil and water, health defects, political suppression and violent reaction by the government. Most of the area surrounding and in the middle of all the oil extraction system lack clean piped water, education electricity, road system and medical facilities. Ekakpamre is an area in Nigeria where there was an oil spill on the 17 September 1998 the spill was very close to a stream that was fast flowing in to the delta so the water was contaminated and a lot of crops were killed which caused many different problems with farmers including starvation and bankruptcy.

    • Word count: 925
  11. Climate modelling of Precipitation in Brazil

    Meanwhile, the south, Northwest and Atlantic coast shows the similar precipitation per year without a distinct dry season. Precipitation is closely linked to the air temperature. This temperature fluctuation due to the precipitation may affect the ecology, environment and industry of Brazil. Model Analysis: Two different models are used to get data for the analysis of precipitation. The data was taken from NCAR CCSM model and MPI-ESM-LR model. Change in precipitation from historical time period (1850 ? 2005) to projected (2006 ? 2010) Figure 1 Change in precipitation from historical time period (1850 ? 2005) to projected (2006 ? 2010)

    • Word count: 913

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Human impacts at the coast intended to stabilise a coast line can alos lead inadvertently to increased coastal erosion. Discuss

    "Conclusion There are many types of coastal defence schemes each of which have positive and negative affects on protecting land and property from the sea. Whatever man made features are made there is a good chance that they will interfere with the natural movements of beach sediments. This may lead to increased erosion in certain areas eventhough the structure was originally desighned to prevent this problem."

  • "The ISO 14000 environmental management series is a major step forward in corporate environmental management" Discuss with particular reference to the ISO 14001 EMS.

    "CONCLUSION The importance of the ISO 14000 series cannot be denied: 'This is a significant milestone in the whole area of business and the environment'58 ISO 14001 differs from many traditional environmental regulatory systems since it allows organisations to focus on environmental efforts against internationally accepted criteria.59Thus allowing progress to be made towards achieving sustainable development. It could be argued that the major attraction of the ISO 14000 series is its flexibility and its ability to capture the attention and backing of top management.60 However, the standard is not without faults. There appears to be a lack of trust when it comes to believing the claims of businesses regarding the environment and the existence of an audit privilege does not help alleviate such worries. Furthermore, it cannot be forgotten that ISO 14001 only provides the minimum requirements for establishing an EMS. That said, at least the standard has managed to get companies to pay attention and get involved in the environment."

  • Choose a public policy in Hong Kong and then discuss the most appropriate model for explaining the way in which the policy was made. Give reasons for your choice.

    "Among the decision making models, such as the rational comprehensive model, incrementalism, mixed scanning and contingency model, each of them have its own merits and drawbacks. There is no concrete conclusion to tell which one is the best in public policy making. Instead, it is mainly depending on the nature of the policy as well as the degree of urgency."

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