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University Degree: Environmental & Physical Geography

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  1. In this essay I am going to evaluate a range of sources that cover the topic of the impact of humans on ocean acidification and summarise the pros and cons of each source type.

    is reviewed by several named professionals as well as an anonymous reviewer. As a result of this scrutiny, journals such as this have a balanced argument and are transparent in their methods, data and working. Hoegh-Guldberg et al. (2008) is written by various authors, all of which have scientific backgrounds related to ocean acidification. Furthermore, the fact that Hoegh-Guldberg et al (2008) is published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS)

    • Word count: 1784
  2. The 123 Agreement Between U.S. and Russia on Nuclear Waste Disposal. Recently the Russian-American relationship has been strengthened by a legally binding document the 123 Agreement, which came into force in January 2011 and contained information abou

    Despite the promising capacity of nuclear production, nuclear waste concept and its high radioactivity were always the two key issues that preoccupied the world since the 1940s. This type of waste is the most hazardous creation of anthropogenic nature that will stay on the planet even if all of the production would be phased out within the nearest future. Some materials have a half-life (rate of partial decay of elements) of more than several hundred years, which almost certainly poses a threat to the future generations of not only humans but also all other living organisms in case of an accident.

    • Word count: 1649
  3. Uncanny Valley

    The Uncanny Valley has been criticized and here are a few of its critics. David Hanson has stated that objects being portrayed with human characteristics will have a disparaging response. He adds that by having individuals critique photographs that have been altered from humanoid robots to humanoid robots to android robots to human beings, may perhaps be changed by adding cartoonish features to the object which had fallen into the valley at first. Hanson also critiques that the uncanny seems to look at any point of human likeness, and that individuals cultural backgrounds may have an impact on how models are observed with respect to the uncanny valley.

    • Word count: 1638
  4. Select an issue in the field of development- for example, trade, aid, gender, children- and discuss how the key development agencies have engaged with the topic over the past 10 years.

    that could make a significant difference. These groups have become the leading figures, which presently assist in the combat of social injustice, poverty and supply both long-term and short-term aid to those countries that are less developed. This essay, will therefore discuss how the development agencies of CAFOD, Christian Aid, Trocaire and Oxfam, non-governmental organisations which have all had a considerable influence on the domestic development of impoverished communities, have engaged in supplying aid to these communities over the past ten years.

    • Word count: 1709
  5. GIS exercise. This exercise surrounds Black Ven, the largest coastal landslide in the UK and the whole of Europe. It is situated between Charmouth and Lyme Regis, and is of great importance as both of the towns rely heavily on their landscape and tourism

    The legend then goes through pink to orange as relief increases. The areas of highest relief are just north of Black Ven at Timber Hill. Buildings and infrastructure are mainly found where relief is low: less than 80m above sea-level (T Hengl, 2003.) Areas at risk from landslides are found where there is a major change between high and low relief in a short distance, e.g. at the bottom of Timber Hill where infrastructure and buildings are found to the South-West and to the East.

    • Word count: 1002
  6. Debate whether contemporary patterns of globalisation and inequality are linked to insufficient market freedom or unbridled capitalism

    (Amin, A, Thrift, N, 1994.). Although globalisation has helped many people, the number of people living in poverty has increased by almost 100 million as total world income has increased by an average of 2.5% annually. (Stiglitz, J. 2002). Globalisation has caused many inequalities for the world both between and within countries. Western countries have pushed poor countries to eliminate their barriers and their tariffs on goods however they have kept their own barriers therefore there has been continued polarisation between the poor countries and the richer countries.

    • Word count: 1902
  7. "Subglacial Drainage is now recognised as one of the most important branches of Glaciology". Evaluate This Statement.

    Subglacial drainage will also be looked at from its two fundamental distinctions; 'discrete' and 'distributed'. In the former, water is confined to a few channels or conduits, whereas distributed systems transport water over the whole of, or a large proportion of the bed. Subglacial water was first considered to form a film or sheet at the sole of the glacier (Weertman, 1972). Water was thought to cover around 80% of the bed, originating from basal melt rather than surface percolation. Weertman described a thin film which formed on bedrock irregularities through the process of regelation.

    • Word count: 1297
  8. Environmental Degradation.

    Taking globalization as defined above, this paper will argue that four major environmental problems named above are global. The most controversial environmental problem in recent years is the greenhouse warming of the earth. Many scientists and scientific organizations have been investigating the issue of climate change and have been warning the public. Singh (1995) states that structure of the atmosphere allows any gases spreading easily. One of the reasons for the greenhouse warming is said to be the increasing amount of greenhouse gases.

    • Word count: 1916
  9. Coastal Management CBA Study

    However, as with most coastal engineering, problems have arisen. The sandy beaches are one of the most prized assets of both Bournemouth and Poole, and they were derived in the first instance from the erosion of the sandy material in the cliffs. Once the cliffs had been stabilised and seawalls and promenades built, an essential link in the coastal process system was broken, since the principal source of the sand was no longer available. Thus in recent years, beach replenishment has become an essential element in the coastal strategy programme of Bournemouth Borough Council.

    • Word count: 1048
  10. Site Surveying Assignment.

    x 90? Where n = number of traverse stations. Hence sum = (2 x 4 + 4) x 90? = 1080? An error of 30Vn seconds is generally acceptable in surveying for construction/engineering works. If there is a bigger error then the measurements should be taken again. 30Vn = 30V4 = 60" Therefore our acceptable error = 60" Our error is 11" Correction into traversed survey = 11"/ 4 = 2.75" Therefore 2.75" needs to be deducted from our survey to allow for the error during the survey. Because we need to avoid decimal of seconds, what is preferable is that I minus 3" from the three bigger external angle readings and the minus 2" from the lowest external angle reading.

    • Word count: 1430
  11. Environmental Management.

    Again dependent on the attitude of particular countries effects how these laws are enforced. The environmental policies of the EU are based on: * Prevention is better than cure * The polluter pays * Other policies should take environmental issues into account. To set about achieving its targets as effectively as possible, the Fifth Community Action Programme on the Environment "Towards Sustainability" established the principles of a European strategy of voluntary action for the period 1992-2000, which would take account of all the causes of pollution (industry, energy, tourism, transport, agriculture, etc.).

    • Word count: 1789
  12. What is Beach Erosion?

    Erosion has become one of the most alarming threats to regional, national, and international beaches. As humans have built permanent structures on coastlines, coastal protection has become necessary to protect buildings and industry, while preserving features such as beaches and inlets. (Griffin, 1992) What Causes Beach Erosion? Beach erosion is caused by a number of factors. The ubiquitous desire to live near the sea, tropical storms, the gradual sinking of coastal land (also known as sea-level), unsuccessful efforts to reduce erosion that had adverse effects, and global warming. Many people cannot resist the want to live in a beach house.

    • Word count: 1000
  13. The Austrian Grand Prix attracted over a quarter if a million visitors in 2001. Discuss the access problems that result from staging a similar event in a region or country of your choice.

    The showcasing of events like these which are above and beyond the normal boundaries of a venue does put a huge strain on the organisational team running the event as well as the infrastructure on which the venue sits. The term infrastructure refers to "the basic facilities, services, and installations needed for the functioning of a community or society, such as transportation and communications systems, water and power lines, and public institutions including schools, post offices, and prisons." (Oxford English Dictionary)

    • Word count: 1840
  14. This essay will evaluate the environmental problems at the region of the Caspian Sea

    Thousands of seals have died since 2000 that lived in the sea due to pollution that weakened their immune system. However in addition to the existing problems the main aspect of pollution is the oil and gas production. The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 showed the world the regime's poor environmental record in the Caspian Sea. Rusty derricks have poisoned water and soil. Pools of oil scum and well fires resulted from the Soviets' oil exploitation in the region of the Caspian Sea.

    • Word count: 1410
  15. Why is the 'triple bottom line' so important?

    Billabong uses dramatic natural imagery to link its brand to the environment. In the common parlance of yesterday, the term 'sustainability' was linked with the financial viability of an enterprise, but today's world is much more demanding. Increasingly, consumers and shareholders alike want to know that the companies they buy their goods from and put their money into as shareholders are acting responsibly in the environmental and social arenas, as well as making a profit. Just as it is no longer acceptable for a mining company, for example, to come into an area, strip minerals out of the ground and create an unmitigated environmental catastrophe for the local people before moving on

    • Word count: 1064
  16. Mount Kenya Forest

    Mount Kenya Forest covers an area of over 200,000 ha, lying on the slopes of Mount Kenya (5,199 m) in the central highlands of Kenya. The forest was gazetted as a reserve by the government in 1932. It consists of over 50,000 ha of indigenous forest cover and open grasslands, moorlands and scrub. As well as forming one of the largest contiguous blocks of indigenous forest in the country, Mount Kenya Forest has exceptional value in biodiversity terms. It contains diverse vegetation including several endemic afro-alpine plant species, and provides habitat to a wide range of fauna including four endemic bird species and four rare mammal species.

    • Word count: 1099
  17. Investigation into two North Norfolk Towns.

    Figure 2 shows how we recorded our results. In each of the items to be recorded the lower the score the worse the environmental quality of the area. Figure 2: Data recording sheet Collection of Data To collect the data we used a systematic system shown by figure 3 where points were about 100m apart. For my investigation I chose random transects from the centre of each settlement using complete data sets for each area. Figure 3: A section of Cromer which has been divided into a grid.

    • Word count: 1584
  18. Explain what accountants mean by environmental accounting and illustrate the importance of the role of environmental performance indicators.

    Similarly the Australian governments environmental website states 'Environmental Accounting aims to provide organizations with the information required to understand the full spectrum of their environmental costs and to integrate these costs into decision making' <http://www.environment.gov.au/epg/environet/eecp/> (12/05/03). By doing this, the company is able to see a more accurate figure as to the costs of production of their goods or services. There are two main types of environmental accounting, financial and management, they are concerned with external users of information and internal users of information respectively.

    • Word count: 1602
  19. Zambia's rejection OF GENETICALLY engineered food: the Advantages and disadvantages

    In this essay, I will discuss the advantages and disadvantages concerning genetically modified food by looking at the opinions of pundits, politicians, economists and starving Zambians as well scientific evidence. In my conclusion, I will summarize the argument and offer my own opinion. Advantages: Introduction: Many world-renowned activists like; Green peace and environmental hero Shiva have applauded Zambia for placing a ban on genetically modified food. By placing the ban on genetically modified food, Mwanawasa and his government have protected their country from the possible dangers of genetically modified food in the future.

    • Word count: 1794
  20. Deforestation, Reforestation and Afforestation

    Deforestation and degradation may contribute to regional and global climate imbalances. Forests play a major role in carbon storage; with their removal, excessive carbon dioxide in the atmosphere may lead to global warming, with many problematic side effects. Deforestation processes are, in general, more destructive in the tropics. Most forest soils in the tropics are far less fertile than temperate soils and erode with ease. This is because high rainfall leaches out nutrients from the soil, preventing them from building up.

    • Word count: 1137
  21. The origin of hurricanes and predictability of hurricane tracks

    Towards the edge of the warm front, conditions are more stable and pressure stops decreasing as much. No longer is there so much condensation and therefore there is less rain. Polar maritime air is fast, dense, and strong. Eventually the air pushes in and forces the warm air off the ground, creating instability. The pressure increases, as the air ascends rapidly, cumulonimbus clouds form bringing in heavy rain and storms[1]. The cold front consists of heavier and denser air and displaces the warmer and lighter air, because of this, it moves faster than the warm front and it will ultimately catch up with it.

    • Word count: 1276
  22. Internal Stucture of the Earth

    P waves have the ability to move through all materials, being solids, liquids and gases. They are longitudinal compression waves that are propagated by particles moving longitudinally in the same direction as the wave (Shipman, J., Wilson, J.D., Higgins, C. 2009). S wave particles travel at right angles to the direction of the wave and can only travel through solids. This is because liquids and gases cannot support the shear stress and hence, in the direction of a shear force, their particles will not oscillate. Figure 2: Merali. Z and Skinner. B.J. (2009). Seismic Waves in Earth?s Interior.

    • Word count: 1438

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