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University Degree: Environmental & Physical Geography

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 1
  1. Marked by a teacher

    "Environmental degradation is neither the inevitable price of, nor a desirable path for, economic development

    5 star(s)

    Today, this bell shaped curve has been used to explain the relationship between environmental degradation and economic development. An example of its use is in the analysis of the relationship between indices of air and water pollution and per capita income (as an indicator of economic growth). Studies by Shafik (1994) and Stern et al. (1996) show clearly how levels may at first increase, and then decrease as per capita income grows. This evidence supports the view that environmental degradation may not necessarily be the inevitable price of economic development in the long term. Munasinghe (1999) describes the EKC hypothesis as an approach that seeks to relate the state of the environment to the stage of development.

    • Word count: 4267
  2. Coastal and marine pollution in India. In India most contamination from land base sources industrial and domestic wastes and agriculture run-off. Other activities are also becoming more significant like shipping and related actions ship breaking,

    * Around 14% of global ocean production * Up to 50% of global oceanic denitrification. * 80% of the global organic matter interment. * 90% of the global sedimentary mineralisation. * 75-90% of the global sink of suspended river load and its connected rudiments/pollutants. * In excess of 50% of present day global carbonate deposition. (Elrich de Sa, 2003) In India most contamination from land base sources - industrial and domestic wastes and agriculture run-off. Other activities are also becoming more significant like shipping and related actions - ship breaking, ship building and port activities.

    • Word count: 3816
  3. Free essay

    Examine the influence of habitat diversity and substratum on the composition of macroinvertebrate communities from riverine systems

    Species distribution has been found to vary considerably with specific species displaying preferences to certain habitats and the conditions they provide. For example a difference is seen in the dominant abundance of chironomids in pools and Simuliids in riffles were discovered, along with more riffle and run taxa such as Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Plecoptera, and Oligochaeta. (Scullion) Most Baetids, Simuliidae and all Plecoptera were found to be more abundant in riffles whereas Chironomidae, Dytiscidae and Leptophlebiidae apparently always more common in pools (Armitage et al., 1974).

    • Word count: 3108
  4. Identify the underpinning philosophy of Coastal Zone Management and will discuss how the UK is adopting this policy at a governmental level.

    Many human activities have and still occur within the coastal zone. The author will now discuss some of the activities that occur in the coastal zone. Transport is a particular activity that has encouraged economic growth, leading to the further development of ports. Imports and exports are transported using the sea, encountering ports where they are loaded and unloaded and transported inland by other methods. The coast is also the centre for tourist activity, many hotels, holiday camps have been established along the hinterland. In addition, tourists use the maritime environment as a commodity, such as whale watching and cruising.

    • Word count: 3085
  5. The islands of Texel and Schiermonnikoog have different and similar intrinsic values. Discuss these intrinsic values and how they may influence the Dutch attitudes towards the implementation of coastal protection and management in these islands

    However, what factors are taken into consideration when the 'integrated management' of this region occurs? Texel and Schiermonnikoog are islands that lie within this region and suffer from this multi-stakeholder audience, often with conflicting socio-economic and ecological interests. They are of particular interest as both islands present differences and similarities in their use value. It is important to assess how these use values expressed by the activities of the interest groups, albeit economic or ecological, may alter the implementation and or intensity of a particular coastal management program.

    • Word count: 3546
  6. Environmental Law Public Participation

    individual planning or pollution control applications or the availability of judicial review remedies for people with a 'sufficient interest'.2 In short, benefits of public participation include the following: improving the quality of decisions, environmental problem solving, promoting environmental citizenship, improving procedural legitimacy and eliciting values. Access to environmental information has fundamental importance for the mobilisation of public's enforcement mechanisms.3 Similarly, environmental data enables the public to assess the environmental performance of operators and the regulatory performance of the authorities. It is therefore the key to the enforcement of environmental law, accountability and public confidence in environmental matters.

    • Word count: 3127
  7. Environmental Taxes

    Even though, the rational of tax shifting idea are important but it must included the tax equity, improve the quality of environmental and eco-efficiency (Mainewatch Institute, no date) [Online]. Initially, objective of easy to avoid is encourage people convenience to change their behavior to protect the global environmental and successful of educate and public realize how the serious issues of the individual acts damages our share environment (Gemini Press, 2005) [Online]. For example, the government imposes the taxes on fuels to influence the demand of transport and encourage the people to drives less or share the public transport to reduce the level of pollution (Hanno Beck et.el, 1998)

    • Word count: 4395
  8. The current system of environmental governance is a diffuse process, spread through many different treaty bodies and other U.N. institutions. At present UNEP, is the primary environmental organ in the system.

    Individual states are ill-equipped to deal with many of the environmental problems of today. What is the role of the United Nations in continuing momentum toward greater cooperation regarding global environmental issues? Many environmental issues, including climate change, the protection of biodiversity, the pollution of air and water, have major transboundary aspects and require interstate cooperation. Since the 1972 Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment, the United Nations through UNEP (U.N. Environment Program) has established a strong track record in facilitating that cooperation by collecting and disseminating data on environmental problems, assisting governments in creating or improving policy, legislative and institutional frameworks for environmental protection and helping governments reach agreements on important environmental conventions.

    • Word count: 9880
  9. Ocean services - the companys current activities, legislative requirements and any possible impacts on the environment.

    The master is also the company's Director and operates all administrative functions of the company onboard the vessel. * Maritime Instructors. Star normally embarks four training officers, who are also employees of the company. Their primary role is facilitation of training and providing administrative support for embarked students. * Trainees. Star normally embarks up to 15 students per cruise. The students come from a variety of backgrounds ranging from private individuals to employees of large national and international shipping companies. Since commencing operations in 1999 the company has steadily grown in size and stature and is now regarded as a leading maritime training provider.

    • Word count: 3461
  10. Boreal Forest case study.

    Future potential A growing market is charcoal. Britain uses an estimated 60 000 tonnes a year, mostly for barbeques. Much of it imported from endangered tropical mangrove swamps. In recent months, stores ranging from Harrods to B&Q, the home improvement chain, have agreed to supply charcoal from British wood. Coppiced wood is also still used for a variety of jobs, from fencing and thatching to making barrel hoops, tent pegs and walking sticks. Every tonne of dry coppiced wood could generate as much electricity as 650 kilograms of coal, and save the release of up to 500 kilograms of carbon

    • Word count: 4372
  11. Do you consider intelligence to have a stronger genetic or environmental basis?

    By examining the relevant research therefore, it should be possible to determine the extent to which environmental or genetic influences provide the most adequate explanation for a basis of intelligence. In order to understand the empirical findings of research pointing to a genetic or environmental basis of intelligence it is first necessary to briefly identify the basic aims and methods used in the study of behavioural genetics. Following an overview of traditional twin and adoption studies we shall then aim to examine the implications of the relevant data in line with the current debate.

    • Word count: 3399
  12. A Study of a Hill In the new forest

    Descending the hill, down the slope, was a well trodden track which had suffered some erosion. The ground became spongier in the valley and the surrounding vegetation changed. There was a boggy stream which had a stony bed & was very slow moving. Surrounding this wetland habitat there were more grasses, some rushes & sedges. There was also sphagnum moss present in the stream. As shown in diagram 1 "A Heathland Ecosystem", on page 5, heathlands are in second sere succession. They are made up of dwarf evergreen shrubs with woody branching stems & very small leaves, adapted to reduce water loss (7).

    • Word count: 4496
  13. How useful is the concept of desertification to understanding the sustainability of dryland production systems in Africa?

    The term was coined by Aubreville in 1949, yet over 100 definitions have since been published (Glanz & Orlovsky, 1985). In 1995, the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD) defined desertification as 'land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors including climatic variations and human activities'. The evolution of the concept of desertification, however, embodies much more than any definition of its process. By identifying and delimiting an environmental problem, the term has been used to legitimate the study and identification of its causes, the attribution of blame and the need for policy intervention to remedy its effects.

    • Word count: 3235
  14. Dioxin contamination, Times beach, Missouri, USA.

    found in meat and dairy products (beef, dairy products, milk, chicken, pork, fish and eggs). In fish alone, these toxins bioaccumulate up the food chain so that dioxin levels in fish are 100,000 times that of the surrounding environment. Below is a diagram displaying food sources of dioxin (Figure 1): Figure 1: Background TEQ exposures for North America by pathway Chart from EPA Dioxin Reassessment Summary 4/94 - Vol. 1, p. 37 (A TEQ is a dioxin Toxic EQuivalent, calculated by looking at all toxic dioxins and furans and measuring them in terms of the most toxic form of dioxin, 2,3,7,8-TCDD).

    • Word count: 5461
  15. Greenback Bank: Environmental Policy Analysis. Greenback Bank: Environmental Policy Analysis

    GREEN ARCHITECTURE As we, Greenback Bank, plan to branch out and increase our network facilities we must understand the fundamental aspects of an environmentally friendly building and how we can implement energy efficient technologies to reach this goal. Asking a general contractor to build us five (5) more banks in the DFW area may seem like an easy request, but careful thought in the design stages and proper selection of efficient materials will bring about the true results we are seeking.

    • Word count: 7519
  16. An essay evaluating the following statement ;"Environment taxes are no more than devious attempts to increase tax revenues whilst making governments feel good about themselves"

    These carbon taxes are domestic taxes and are not tariffs. The rate of tax can vary according to the amount of carbon residuals that are contained. "Landfill tax" (paid every time rubbish is throne/dumped on the land). This was first introduced on October 1998, in UK. This was to encourage consumers and companies to produce less or no waste and recover value from waste product, For example recycling and reuse (Whittall,n.d.). Landfill tax was initially based on estimates of the environmental damage costs; however the tax itself has been raised to seek compliance with the European Union Landfill Directives.

    • Word count: 3072
  17. Ocean dumping.

    indirectly, of substances or energy into the marine environment, including estuaries, which results or is likely to result in such deleterious effects as harm to living resources and marine life, hazards to human health, hindrance to marine activities, including fishing and other legitimate uses of the sea, impairment of quality for use of sea water and reduction of amenities. (Kiss, 1991, p.16). The first convention addressing the problem of marine pollution was the Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil, adopted in 1954.

    • Word count: 3066
  18. Critically evaluate the role and effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment in ensuring environmentally sound and sustainable development in the UK

    It has now become a decision- aiding tool and has evolved greatly over the years (Sadler and McCabe, 2002). In recent times, environmental Impact Assessment has become internationally recognized as a very important tool to help achieve sustainable development (Lawrence, 2003; Weaver, 2003; Andre et al., 2004). EIA practice is however hindered by certain limitations and structural weaknesses(Dalal-Clayton and Sadler,1999) .Also, according to Craik (2008: 78), ?despite the early and continuing identification of the importance of EIA for promoting sustainable development, the precise nature of this linkage has suffered from the conceptual ambiguity of the concept of sustainable development itself.? Therefore, though the purposive nature of EIA is quite clear as a tool for sustainable development, the exact role and effectiveness of EIA in achieving sustainable development is a subject of un-ending debate.

    • Word count: 3369
  19. Disposal of Toxic and Radioactive Materials with Special Focus on the Philippines

    electric bills). The quantity of radioactive waste products is extremely little in accordance with waste products created by fossil energy that is generated for electricity. Used nuclear energy could very well be handled in the form of resource or merely as a waste material. Secure techniques for the final disposal of dangerous radioactive waste materials are scientifically tested; the worldwide consensus is that this has to be deep geological disposal, but first, a brief history on radioactivity. In 1896, Henri Becquerel broadened the subject of chemistry to incorporate nuclear modifications when he found that uranium released radiation.

    • Word count: 4132
  20. This Community Research Project is aimed at examining Barangay Nazareths waste management system in the city of Cagayan de Oro.

    Waste can take many forms. It may be solid, liquid, gas, or in some cases radioactive. Some is non-hazardous while some can be quite hazardous, especially if not handled properly. It is a matter of major concern for many people and companies. Improper handling of solid waste and indiscriminate disposal in open spaces, road margins, tank beds, and etcetera, give rise to numerous potential risks to the environment and to human health. Direct health risks mainly concern those working in the field without using proper gloves, uniforms, and etcetera; a high percentage of waste workers and individuals who live near or on disposal sites are infected with gastrointestinal parasites, worms, and related organisms.

    • Word count: 4264
  21. Systematically review and critically evaluate the current protection measures available for nature conservation in the UK

    Geodiversity can also provide the opportunity to study evidence of past environmental change and evolution, which will be useful in predicting and planning for future environmental change. The UK adheres to international conventions pertaining to nature conservation. In addition to the international conventions, the UK also falls under the umbrella of the EC Directive on the Conservation of Wild Birds (79/409/EEC) and the EC Directive on the Conservation of Natural Habitats and of Wild Fauna and Flora (92/43/EEC), known as the ?Bird?s Directive? and ?Habitat?s Directive? respectively.

    • Word count: 3300

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Human impacts at the coast intended to stabilise a coast line can alos lead inadvertently to increased coastal erosion. Discuss

    "Conclusion There are many types of coastal defence schemes each of which have positive and negative affects on protecting land and property from the sea. Whatever man made features are made there is a good chance that they will interfere with the natural movements of beach sediments. This may lead to increased erosion in certain areas eventhough the structure was originally desighned to prevent this problem."

  • "The ISO 14000 environmental management series is a major step forward in corporate environmental management" Discuss with particular reference to the ISO 14001 EMS.

    "CONCLUSION The importance of the ISO 14000 series cannot be denied: 'This is a significant milestone in the whole area of business and the environment'58 ISO 14001 differs from many traditional environmental regulatory systems since it allows organisations to focus on environmental efforts against internationally accepted criteria.59Thus allowing progress to be made towards achieving sustainable development. It could be argued that the major attraction of the ISO 14000 series is its flexibility and its ability to capture the attention and backing of top management.60 However, the standard is not without faults. There appears to be a lack of trust when it comes to believing the claims of businesses regarding the environment and the existence of an audit privilege does not help alleviate such worries. Furthermore, it cannot be forgotten that ISO 14001 only provides the minimum requirements for establishing an EMS. That said, at least the standard has managed to get companies to pay attention and get involved in the environment."

  • Choose a public policy in Hong Kong and then discuss the most appropriate model for explaining the way in which the policy was made. Give reasons for your choice.

    "Among the decision making models, such as the rational comprehensive model, incrementalism, mixed scanning and contingency model, each of them have its own merits and drawbacks. There is no concrete conclusion to tell which one is the best in public policy making. Instead, it is mainly depending on the nature of the policy as well as the degree of urgency."

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