Today, this bell shaped curve has been used to explain the relationship between environmental degradation and economic development. An example of its use is in the analysis of the relationship between indices of air and water pollution and per capita income (as an indicator of economic growth). Studies by Shafik (1994) and Stern et al. (1996) show clearly how levels may at first increase, and then decrease as per capita income grows. This evidence supports the view that environmental degradation may not necessarily be the inevitable price of economic development in the long term. Munasinghe (1999) describes the EKC hypothesis as an approach that seeks to relate the state of the environment to the stage of development.
Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.
Do they use key words from the title or question?
Do they answer the question directly?
Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
There are many types of coastal defence schemes each of which have positive and negative affects on protecting land and property from the sea. Whatever man made features are made there is a good chance that they will interfere with the natural movements of beach sediments. This may lead to increased erosion in certain areas eventhough the structure was originally desighned to prevent this problem."
The importance of the ISO 14000 series cannot be denied:
'This is a significant milestone in the whole area of business and the environment'58
ISO 14001 differs from many traditional environmental regulatory systems since it allows organisations to focus on environmental efforts against internationally accepted criteria.59Thus allowing progress to be made towards achieving sustainable development.
It could be argued that the major attraction of the ISO 14000 series is its flexibility and its ability to capture the attention and backing of top management.60
However, the standard is not without faults. There appears to be a lack of trust when it comes to believing the claims of businesses regarding the environment and the existence of an audit privilege does not help alleviate such worries. Furthermore, it cannot be forgotten that ISO 14001 only provides the minimum requirements for establishing an EMS. That said, at least the standard has managed to get companies to pay attention and get involved in the environment."
"Among the decision making models, such as the rational comprehensive model, incrementalism, mixed scanning and contingency model, each of them have its own merits and drawbacks. There is no concrete conclusion to tell which one is the best in public policy making. Instead, it is mainly depending on the nature of the policy as well as the degree of urgency."
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