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University Degree: Environmental & Physical Geography

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  1. Environmental Degradation.

    Taking globalization as defined above, this paper will argue that four major environmental problems named above are global. The most controversial environmental problem in recent years is the greenhouse warming of the earth. Many scientists and scientific organizations have been investigating the issue of climate change and have been warning the public. Singh (1995) states that structure of the atmosphere allows any gases spreading easily. One of the reasons for the greenhouse warming is said to be the increasing amount of greenhouse gases.

    • Word count: 1916
  2. Human impacts at the coast intended to stabilise a coast line can alos lead inadvertently to increased coastal erosion. Discuss

    They are the most costly coastal protection schemes to construct and can lead to further erosion. The sea walls reflects wave energy back towards the sea, this speeds up erosion and deprives the actual beach of sand as the force of the wave undercuts the wall. This sand would have acted as a natural defence to the coastline; its removal leads to further erosion. Wave reflection from sea walls can also lead to a lowering of the foreshore and undermining of the seawall itself leading to actual failure and collapse of the wall over time. Sea walls that have been placed too close to the waterline can disrupt the sediment balance and cause more erosion in down drift stretches of coastline, especially either side of the wall where a reduction in beach width may become evident.

    • Word count: 964
  3. Drawing on a range of sources, discuss what might be the 'core' of modern geography and comment upon the forces that are contributing to, or working against, intellectual fragmentation.

    In attempting to answer the question, 'What is the core of geography in the modern world?' it is useful to look at the ways that some academics choose to elucidate the definition of geography. This is proven by Johnston's assertion that geography, '... combines (physical and human) to provide a much-needed capability to study and understand interactions between people, and between people and the physical environments in which they live and upon which they ultimately depend, both locally and globally. This is the core of geography'. (Johnston, 1991, 2) Here the core is seen as human-environment focused with emphasis on the merging of the human and physical worlds.

    • Word count: 2164
  4. Do you consider intelligence to have a stronger genetic or environmental basis?

    By examining the relevant research therefore, it should be possible to determine the extent to which environmental or genetic influences provide the most adequate explanation for a basis of intelligence. In order to understand the empirical findings of research pointing to a genetic or environmental basis of intelligence it is first necessary to briefly identify the basic aims and methods used in the study of behavioural genetics. Following an overview of traditional twin and adoption studies we shall then aim to examine the implications of the relevant data in line with the current debate.

    • Word count: 3399
  5. Coastal Management CBA Study

    However, as with most coastal engineering, problems have arisen. The sandy beaches are one of the most prized assets of both Bournemouth and Poole, and they were derived in the first instance from the erosion of the sandy material in the cliffs. Once the cliffs had been stabilised and seawalls and promenades built, an essential link in the coastal process system was broken, since the principal source of the sand was no longer available. Thus in recent years, beach replenishment has become an essential element in the coastal strategy programme of Bournemouth Borough Council.

    • Word count: 1048
  6. A Study of a Hill In the new forest

    Descending the hill, down the slope, was a well trodden track which had suffered some erosion. The ground became spongier in the valley and the surrounding vegetation changed. There was a boggy stream which had a stony bed & was very slow moving. Surrounding this wetland habitat there were more grasses, some rushes & sedges. There was also sphagnum moss present in the stream. As shown in diagram 1 "A Heathland Ecosystem", on page 5, heathlands are in second sere succession. They are made up of dwarf evergreen shrubs with woody branching stems & very small leaves, adapted to reduce water loss (7).

    • Word count: 4496
  7. Site Surveying Assignment.

    x 90? Where n = number of traverse stations. Hence sum = (2 x 4 + 4) x 90? = 1080? An error of 30Vn seconds is generally acceptable in surveying for construction/engineering works. If there is a bigger error then the measurements should be taken again. 30Vn = 30V4 = 60" Therefore our acceptable error = 60" Our error is 11" Correction into traversed survey = 11"/ 4 = 2.75" Therefore 2.75" needs to be deducted from our survey to allow for the error during the survey. Because we need to avoid decimal of seconds, what is preferable is that I minus 3" from the three bigger external angle readings and the minus 2" from the lowest external angle reading.

    • Word count: 1430
  8. "The ISO 14000 environmental management series is a major step forward in corporate environmental management" Discuss with particular reference to the ISO 14001 EMS.

    Case studies are used in order to identify the positive and negative aspects of ISO 14001. ISO 14000 SERIES The International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) was established in 1947 and is a non-governmental organisation. The series provides a framework for organising the tasks essential for effective environmental management.5 ISO 14001 is a specification standard published in 1996, which states the requirements for establishing an EMS. Its aim is to support environmental protection and prevent pollution in harmony with socio-economic needs.6The standard is similar to BS 7750, however, the wording is not as prescriptive as BS 7750 which allows for wider interpretation.7 The standard is intended to be applicable to all types and sizes of organisation, from anywhere in the world.

    • Word count: 2997
  9. Environmental Management.

    Again dependent on the attitude of particular countries effects how these laws are enforced. The environmental policies of the EU are based on: * Prevention is better than cure * The polluter pays * Other policies should take environmental issues into account. To set about achieving its targets as effectively as possible, the Fifth Community Action Programme on the Environment "Towards Sustainability" established the principles of a European strategy of voluntary action for the period 1992-2000, which would take account of all the causes of pollution (industry, energy, tourism, transport, agriculture, etc.).

    • Word count: 1789
  10. What is Beach Erosion?

    Erosion has become one of the most alarming threats to regional, national, and international beaches. As humans have built permanent structures on coastlines, coastal protection has become necessary to protect buildings and industry, while preserving features such as beaches and inlets. (Griffin, 1992) What Causes Beach Erosion? Beach erosion is caused by a number of factors. The ubiquitous desire to live near the sea, tropical storms, the gradual sinking of coastal land (also known as sea-level), unsuccessful efforts to reduce erosion that had adverse effects, and global warming. Many people cannot resist the want to live in a beach house.

    • Word count: 1000
  11. How useful is the concept of desertification to understanding the sustainability of dryland production systems in Africa?

    The term was coined by Aubreville in 1949, yet over 100 definitions have since been published (Glanz & Orlovsky, 1985). In 1995, the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD) defined desertification as 'land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors including climatic variations and human activities'. The evolution of the concept of desertification, however, embodies much more than any definition of its process. By identifying and delimiting an environmental problem, the term has been used to legitimate the study and identification of its causes, the attribution of blame and the need for policy intervention to remedy its effects.

    • Word count: 3235
  12. Choose a public policy in Hong Kong and then discuss the most appropriate model for explaining the way in which the policy was made. Give reasons for your choice.

    The main argument of this paper is that the incremental model is the most appropriate one in explaining the Hong Kong government in making environmental policies. Incrementalism Levine (1990, p. 82) suggests, "incrementalism is the prevailing mode of describing and explaining decision-making in some government. Their public decision making seems as muddling through rather than as a comprehensive search for the best policy possible". So incrementalism basically refers to the decision makers take what they are currently doing as given, and make small, incremental, marginal adjustments in their current behaviors.

    • Word count: 2371
  13. Dioxin contamination, Times beach, Missouri, USA.

    found in meat and dairy products (beef, dairy products, milk, chicken, pork, fish and eggs). In fish alone, these toxins bioaccumulate up the food chain so that dioxin levels in fish are 100,000 times that of the surrounding environment. Below is a diagram displaying food sources of dioxin (Figure 1): Figure 1: Background TEQ exposures for North America by pathway Chart from EPA Dioxin Reassessment Summary 4/94 - Vol. 1, p. 37 (A TEQ is a dioxin Toxic EQuivalent, calculated by looking at all toxic dioxins and furans and measuring them in terms of the most toxic form of dioxin, 2,3,7,8-TCDD).

    • Word count: 5461
  14. The Austrian Grand Prix attracted over a quarter if a million visitors in 2001. Discuss the access problems that result from staging a similar event in a region or country of your choice.

    The showcasing of events like these which are above and beyond the normal boundaries of a venue does put a huge strain on the organisational team running the event as well as the infrastructure on which the venue sits. The term infrastructure refers to "the basic facilities, services, and installations needed for the functioning of a community or society, such as transportation and communications systems, water and power lines, and public institutions including schools, post offices, and prisons." (Oxford English Dictionary)

    • Word count: 1840
  15. Conclusion to my questionnaireMany people are put of by being environmentally friendly with cars. This is mainly because they perceive it to be expensive or un-reliable. Toyota now has a problem

    The ages are quite varied but unfortunately almost half of the people who answered the questionnaire fitted into the later age bracket. If this was the other way round I am positive the results would be different. By asking older people it represents the UK because 'the majority of car sales in the UK are to professional people over 35' - www.carpages.co.uk The majority of people I asked did own a car but the opinions of those who don't own cars are still very important as they may be looking to buy within the next year or so.

    • Word count: 624
  16. This essay will evaluate the environmental problems at the region of the Caspian Sea

    Thousands of seals have died since 2000 that lived in the sea due to pollution that weakened their immune system. However in addition to the existing problems the main aspect of pollution is the oil and gas production. The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 showed the world the regime's poor environmental record in the Caspian Sea. Rusty derricks have poisoned water and soil. Pools of oil scum and well fires resulted from the Soviets' oil exploitation in the region of the Caspian Sea.

    • Word count: 1410
  17. Greenback Bank: Environmental Policy Analysis. Greenback Bank: Environmental Policy Analysis

    GREEN ARCHITECTURE As we, Greenback Bank, plan to branch out and increase our network facilities we must understand the fundamental aspects of an environmentally friendly building and how we can implement energy efficient technologies to reach this goal. Asking a general contractor to build us five (5) more banks in the DFW area may seem like an easy request, but careful thought in the design stages and proper selection of efficient materials will bring about the true results we are seeking.

    • Word count: 7519
  18. Why is the 'triple bottom line' so important?

    Billabong uses dramatic natural imagery to link its brand to the environment. In the common parlance of yesterday, the term 'sustainability' was linked with the financial viability of an enterprise, but today's world is much more demanding. Increasingly, consumers and shareholders alike want to know that the companies they buy their goods from and put their money into as shareholders are acting responsibly in the environmental and social arenas, as well as making a profit. Just as it is no longer acceptable for a mining company, for example, to come into an area, strip minerals out of the ground and create an unmitigated environmental catastrophe for the local people before moving on

    • Word count: 1064
  19. Research On Environmental Degradation

    This project can be divided into three parts. Firstly, to what extent, three of the main costs caused by deteriorated environment, including air pollution, water pollution and land pollution, will be considered. Secondly, the harms brought by environmental problems can affect human beings to cause illness and death. So, the governments of some nations take actions to solve the problems that achieve some improvements. Finally, the relationship between environment and developing countries is brought out and analyzed that the utilization of pesticides, rapid increase of population and less widespread of public environmental awareness can been seen as the major important reasons for environmental deterioration.

    • Word count: 2634
  20. An essay evaluating the following statement ;"Environment taxes are no more than devious attempts to increase tax revenues whilst making governments feel good about themselves"

    These carbon taxes are domestic taxes and are not tariffs. The rate of tax can vary according to the amount of carbon residuals that are contained. "Landfill tax" (paid every time rubbish is throne/dumped on the land). This was first introduced on October 1998, in UK. This was to encourage consumers and companies to produce less or no waste and recover value from waste product, For example recycling and reuse (Whittall,n.d.). Landfill tax was initially based on estimates of the environmental damage costs; however the tax itself has been raised to seek compliance with the European Union Landfill Directives.

    • Word count: 3072
  21. Mount Kenya Forest

    Mount Kenya Forest covers an area of over 200,000 ha, lying on the slopes of Mount Kenya (5,199 m) in the central highlands of Kenya. The forest was gazetted as a reserve by the government in 1932. It consists of over 50,000 ha of indigenous forest cover and open grasslands, moorlands and scrub. As well as forming one of the largest contiguous blocks of indigenous forest in the country, Mount Kenya Forest has exceptional value in biodiversity terms. It contains diverse vegetation including several endemic afro-alpine plant species, and provides habitat to a wide range of fauna including four endemic bird species and four rare mammal species.

    • Word count: 1099
  22. Plan an experiment to compare the water potentials (Ø) of beetroot, potato and turnip.

    May, 2007 The Editor Waltham Forest Guardian 34 Highams Park E4 5QW Dear Sir or Madam: I am writiting this letter to discuss the rersu Sincerely, ?

    • Word count: 40
  23. Southeast Asia, a political treatment.

    The agenda of the organization is usually to get government concessions to fund projects that bare a mask of environmental conservation. However, what this means for the individual member and the community at large I believe is very significant. Leaving the agenda of the NGO as a price that comes with a gift that a lot of these marginal communities deserve, consider the good that comes from this new dynamic. In exposing environmental worries that threaten livelihood [excessive logging, fishing, environmental degradation, poor resource management, etc.] these organizations are capable of educating people who are seen on the edge of political approach.

    • Word count: 651
  24. Critically examine the role of environmental legislation in the attempt to prevent problem shifting between environmental media.

    The recognition that a common environmental policy was required occurred in line with the public attitude. This resulted in the first Environmental Action Program to be implemented in 1973 following the United Nations conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm, 1972 (Holck, J´┐Żrgensen et al. 2002). The European Union since has operated an environmental policy that its member states must uphold; although as the initial formation of the Union was based upon an economic agreement, these early policies were merely aimed at building the single market with environmental protection rather than solely for the sake of the environment (Leveque 1996).

    • Word count: 2326
  25. Investigation into two North Norfolk Towns.

    Figure 2 shows how we recorded our results. In each of the items to be recorded the lower the score the worse the environmental quality of the area. Figure 2: Data recording sheet Collection of Data To collect the data we used a systematic system shown by figure 3 where points were about 100m apart. For my investigation I chose random transects from the centre of each settlement using complete data sets for each area. Figure 3: A section of Cromer which has been divided into a grid.

    • Word count: 1584

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