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University Degree: Environmental & Physical Geography

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  1. Explain what accountants mean by environmental accounting and illustrate the importance of the role of environmental performance indicators.

    Similarly the Australian governments environmental website states 'Environmental Accounting aims to provide organizations with the information required to understand the full spectrum of their environmental costs and to integrate these costs into decision making' <http://www.environment.gov.au/epg/environet/eecp/> (12/05/03). By doing this, the company is able to see a more accurate figure as to the costs of production of their goods or services. There are two main types of environmental accounting, financial and management, they are concerned with external users of information and internal users of information respectively.

    • Word count: 1602
  2. Ocean dumping.

    indirectly, of substances or energy into the marine environment, including estuaries, which results or is likely to result in such deleterious effects as harm to living resources and marine life, hazards to human health, hindrance to marine activities, including fishing and other legitimate uses of the sea, impairment of quality for use of sea water and reduction of amenities. (Kiss, 1991, p.16). The first convention addressing the problem of marine pollution was the Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil, adopted in 1954.

    • Word count: 3066
  3. We assume in economic theory that the preferences of consumers will determine their welfare.

    The Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) is a method of placing a monetary value on non-market ones; otherwise known as passive use values. The CVM is used to estimate economic values for environmental services. The method is essentially a direct approach - to ask people their valuation of an environmental good. This is done by asking what value they would be willing to pay for an environmental benefit, or willing to accept to receive as compensation to tolerate a cost. Evidently, people value environmental resources, and a valuation is needed if the resource is somehow violated, but because they are essentially public goods without a monetary market, we need to know what value we can place on it.

    • Word count: 2966
  4. The aim of my study is to investigate the following hypothesis: "New Towns have a higher environmental quality than Older Towns".

    To do this I carried out 3 types of survey: * Environmental Street Surveys * Housing Quality Surveys * Questionnaires 'what do the town think?' Additionally I will investigate the Environmental quality of the towns Environmental Quality of Old and New Towns To obtain an understanding of the environment in Romford and Basildon I will be looking at factors such as crime rate, population, litter, education, services, vandalism, and resources.

    • Word count: 393
  5. Resource exploitation is normally a balance between environmental costs and economic benefits. Evaluate the relative geographical costs and economic benefits of exploiting one named resource, which in this essay is oil.

    The people who own the land that is being used have not received the benefits; this exploitation of oil has only bought pollution of soil and water, health defects, political suppression and violent reaction by the government. Most of the area surrounding and in the middle of all the oil extraction system lack clean piped water, education electricity, road system and medical facilities. Ekakpamre is an area in Nigeria where there was an oil spill on the 17 September 1998 the spill was very close to a stream that was fast flowing in to the delta so the water was contaminated and a lot of crops were killed which caused many different problems with farmers including starvation and bankruptcy.

    • Word count: 925
  6. Zambia's rejection OF GENETICALLY engineered food: the Advantages and disadvantages

    In this essay, I will discuss the advantages and disadvantages concerning genetically modified food by looking at the opinions of pundits, politicians, economists and starving Zambians as well scientific evidence. In my conclusion, I will summarize the argument and offer my own opinion. Advantages: Introduction: Many world-renowned activists like; Green peace and environmental hero Shiva have applauded Zambia for placing a ban on genetically modified food. By placing the ban on genetically modified food, Mwanawasa and his government have protected their country from the possible dangers of genetically modified food in the future.

    • Word count: 1794
  7. Deforestation, Reforestation and Afforestation

    Deforestation and degradation may contribute to regional and global climate imbalances. Forests play a major role in carbon storage; with their removal, excessive carbon dioxide in the atmosphere may lead to global warming, with many problematic side effects. Deforestation processes are, in general, more destructive in the tropics. Most forest soils in the tropics are far less fertile than temperate soils and erode with ease. This is because high rainfall leaches out nutrients from the soil, preventing them from building up.

    • Word count: 1137
  8. The origin of hurricanes and predictability of hurricane tracks

    Towards the edge of the warm front, conditions are more stable and pressure stops decreasing as much. No longer is there so much condensation and therefore there is less rain. Polar maritime air is fast, dense, and strong. Eventually the air pushes in and forces the warm air off the ground, creating instability. The pressure increases, as the air ascends rapidly, cumulonimbus clouds form bringing in heavy rain and storms[1]. The cold front consists of heavier and denser air and displaces the warmer and lighter air, because of this, it moves faster than the warm front and it will ultimately catch up with it.

    • Word count: 1276
  9. Critically evaluate the role and effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment in ensuring environmentally sound and sustainable development in the UK

    It has now become a decision- aiding tool and has evolved greatly over the years (Sadler and McCabe, 2002). In recent times, environmental Impact Assessment has become internationally recognized as a very important tool to help achieve sustainable development (Lawrence, 2003; Weaver, 2003; Andre et al., 2004). EIA practice is however hindered by certain limitations and structural weaknesses(Dalal-Clayton and Sadler,1999) .Also, according to Craik (2008: 78), ?despite the early and continuing identification of the importance of EIA for promoting sustainable development, the precise nature of this linkage has suffered from the conceptual ambiguity of the concept of sustainable development itself.? Therefore, though the purposive nature of EIA is quite clear as a tool for sustainable development, the exact role and effectiveness of EIA in achieving sustainable development is a subject of un-ending debate.

    • Word count: 3369
  10. Disposal of Toxic and Radioactive Materials with Special Focus on the Philippines

    electric bills). The quantity of radioactive waste products is extremely little in accordance with waste products created by fossil energy that is generated for electricity. Used nuclear energy could very well be handled in the form of resource or merely as a waste material. Secure techniques for the final disposal of dangerous radioactive waste materials are scientifically tested; the worldwide consensus is that this has to be deep geological disposal, but first, a brief history on radioactivity. In 1896, Henri Becquerel broadened the subject of chemistry to incorporate nuclear modifications when he found that uranium released radiation.

    • Word count: 4132
  11. "The tropical rainforest is the most complex ecosystem on Earth, yet human use of this precious resource does not reflect its ecological importance and immense biodiversity." Discuss.

    1.1 Abiotic components Abiotic components include non-living elements, such as solar energy, air, soil, water and nutrients. Tropical rainforests receive abundant solar energy as they are located in low latitudes. The annual mean temperature is about 27ºC. At the same time, the annual and diurnal range of temperature is rather small, about 2 to 4ºC only. For its moisture features, there is abundant heavy rainfall, usually over 2000mm. Figure 2 shows the climate graph of Manaus, a place in Brazil of and it shows the typical climate of tropical rainforest area.So the relative humidity is constantly high and seasonality is lack.

    • Word count: 2744
  12. Should humans should be responsible for preserving endangered species and natural resources?

    Even though President Roosevelt brought these environmental issues to the forefront during the early nineteenth century it is still very much an issue today. Due to our invasive behavior on the environment, it is society's responsibility to protect endangered species and conserve our environmental resources. An invasive species by definition is a species that is non-native to the ecosystem under consideration and whose introduction causes or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health (National Invasive).

    • Word count: 2140
  13. This Community Research Project is aimed at examining Barangay Nazareths waste management system in the city of Cagayan de Oro.

    Waste can take many forms. It may be solid, liquid, gas, or in some cases radioactive. Some is non-hazardous while some can be quite hazardous, especially if not handled properly. It is a matter of major concern for many people and companies. Improper handling of solid waste and indiscriminate disposal in open spaces, road margins, tank beds, and etcetera, give rise to numerous potential risks to the environment and to human health. Direct health risks mainly concern those working in the field without using proper gloves, uniforms, and etcetera; a high percentage of waste workers and individuals who live near or on disposal sites are infected with gastrointestinal parasites, worms, and related organisms.

    • Word count: 4264
  14. Systematically review and critically evaluate the current protection measures available for nature conservation in the UK

    Geodiversity can also provide the opportunity to study evidence of past environmental change and evolution, which will be useful in predicting and planning for future environmental change. The UK adheres to international conventions pertaining to nature conservation. In addition to the international conventions, the UK also falls under the umbrella of the EC Directive on the Conservation of Wild Birds (79/409/EEC) and the EC Directive on the Conservation of Natural Habitats and of Wild Fauna and Flora (92/43/EEC), known as the ?Bird?s Directive? and ?Habitat?s Directive? respectively.

    • Word count: 3300
  15. Analysis of the documentary "The Great Global Warming Swindle".

    A geneticist featured in The Rise and Fall of GM later said, ?I feel completely betrayed and misled. They did not tell me it was going to be an attack on my position.? (Monbiot) The style of the documentary can be compelling, but is also worthy of criticism. The use of clips with a variety of scientists and opinionated intellectuals aids to build the argument by relying on varied sources. The use of corny childish animations when explaining scientific processes can be called helpful or annoying.

    • Word count: 2888
  16. Climate modelling of Precipitation in Brazil

    Meanwhile, the south, Northwest and Atlantic coast shows the similar precipitation per year without a distinct dry season. Precipitation is closely linked to the air temperature. This temperature fluctuation due to the precipitation may affect the ecology, environment and industry of Brazil. Model Analysis: Two different models are used to get data for the analysis of precipitation. The data was taken from NCAR CCSM model and MPI-ESM-LR model. Change in precipitation from historical time period (1850 ? 2005) to projected (2006 ? 2010) Figure 1 Change in precipitation from historical time period (1850 ? 2005) to projected (2006 ? 2010)

    • Word count: 913
  17. Internal Stucture of the Earth

    P waves have the ability to move through all materials, being solids, liquids and gases. They are longitudinal compression waves that are propagated by particles moving longitudinally in the same direction as the wave (Shipman, J., Wilson, J.D., Higgins, C. 2009). S wave particles travel at right angles to the direction of the wave and can only travel through solids. This is because liquids and gases cannot support the shear stress and hence, in the direction of a shear force, their particles will not oscillate. Figure 2: Merali. Z and Skinner. B.J. (2009). Seismic Waves in Earth?s Interior.

    • Word count: 1438

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