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University Degree: Environmental Sciences

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  1. Free essay

    Ecomorphology: Field assessment of morphological and behavioral features of animals in relation to their ecology

    Hovering around humans Looking for blood to suck Robin Flitting from branch to branch Looking for food on the ground Spider (orange) Sitting on the edge of a web at base of oak tree Web for catching prey Long legs Legs to catch prey Brightly colored A warning to predators? Spider (yellow) Sitting on the edge of a web spread between two branches high off the ground In leaves, higher probability of catching other/more prey than from the ground Spin around insect Web production for wrapping prey Squirrel Climbing from the ground into an oak tree Flee from danger, look

    • Word count: 650
  2. Environmental Education Grants Program in Australia.

    Australia's natural wonder is Great Barrier Reef. The Great Barrier Reef is as big as the total combined area of the UK and Ireland. But tourist's thoughtless to destruct of Coral Reef for souvenir. One clear message form the case is that dryland salinity and water scarcity have arisen in Australia. As water scarcity is worsened by climate variability, Australia places a very high priority on cooperative action on climate change and related issues in the Pacific region.

    • Word count: 559
  3. Describe the processes responsible for ice movements. (20)Explain what factors influence the rate of glacier ice movement. (25)

    thus increasing the rate of ice deformation around the obstacle, allowing the ice mass to smoothly pass over or around the object. (which can form a roche moutonee) Another process that controls the flow of a glacier is a process called sub glacial bed deformation. This is where lose sediment at the bed of the glacier moves enabling the glacier to move more freely over the bed. In order to do this the subglacial bed has to be a warm based glacier, i.e.

    • Word count: 983
  4. Global Warming

    Our atmosphere is like a blanket, as pollution is released by power plants, automobiles, and others the blanket thickens trapping heat more easily. Over the past 50 years the average global temperature has been increaseing at an overly fast pace, Scientist agree unless we compensahate for our polution the U.S. will be faced with a 3-9 degree higher temperature by the end of the century. Effects of Global Warming: There is a range of harmful effects that come from Global warming such as rising sea levels, flooding coastal areas, higher percentage of heat waves and more intense, droughts and wildfires occure more often, disease, and possible extinction of species that cannot accommodate to these changes.

    • Word count: 970
  5. Wendy's Case Study

    Wendy's vision is to be the quality leader in everything they do. REMOTE ENVIRONMENT Wendy's did show a lot of new ideas as far as the remote environment was concerned, for instance it established stored abroad, in the national expansion the franchisee agreement was for the area, a region and not for a store. Here she made agreements for time, area, technical associations and royalty. There are different problems that she has faced like inflation, energy problems, increasing labor cost and increasing beef price.

    • Word count: 840
  6. 'What are: ozone depletion potentials (ODP) and how have they helped in understanding the current global situation on atmospheric ozone?'

    has been formulated to help us gauge the effect of synthetic chemicals on depleting stratospheric ozone (Parker,1996). This work will discuss what ODPs are and what they have done to halt ozone depletion. ODP is a number gauged by a mathematical calculation (Appendix 1A) (Person,1997), given to a substance that refers to the amount of ozone destruction it can cause, over its entire lifetime relative to that of a 'referenced substance' which is CFC-11. So for example CFC-115 has an ODP of 0.6 (Appendix 2A) (EPA,2004), which destroys 3/5 as much ozone as CFC-11. ODP is often used in conjunction with Chlorine Loading Potential (CLP)

    • Word count: 729
  7. ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS - Kyoto

    O Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) => the governments and private sector companies of the industrialize countries can transfer clean technologies to developing countries. O Joint Cooperation => one industrialize country invests in other industrialize country to carry out a project to reduce the greenhouse gases emissions. ? Threats of the increase of the invisible gases, such as CO2. - Greenhouse gases: they catch a part of the solar energy. - Global warming: there is a 30% of CO2 in the atmosphere than when we started to burn en masse coal at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.

    • Word count: 669
  8. Natural Hazards - This report will look at the floods that occurred along the Yangtze River, and Dongting lake, China, August 2002. Floods are very common within China's provinces.

    Although there were no floods along the major rivers, there were flash floods, landslides and mudflows, which resulted in high casualties. This report will be a factual account of what hapend in these provinces. River and coastal flooding are the most frequently occurring natural disaster and are increasing in occurrence more rapidly than any other disaster. Urbanization and deforestation reduce the capability of the earth to hold excess water. As asphalt expands and open spaces disappear, it takes less rain to flood communities as water running over the pavement collects quickly and easily disrupts storm drain systems.

    • Word count: 573
  9. Floodplains - Any watershed begins with small trickles of water.

    A floodplain is a mostly flat area of land bordering a river that is subjected to periodic flooding. It is made up of silts and sands, which have been deposited over many years by the river. Whilst some deposition takes place within the river channel, the bulk of the sediment is deposited when the river floods. The reason for this is that as the river spreads over its floodplain, there is a sudden increase in both the wetted perimeter and the hydraulic radius.

    • Word count: 533
  10. My visit to Jiuzhaigou valley.

    The two tickets are only valid in one day that means if you want to visit it again the next day, you have to pay the tickets again. After we entered the main gate, a working personnel came and showed us to the bus station. This kind of bus is said to better solve the problem of pollution of tail gas to the environment of the scenic spot. Soon the bus started and a lovely Tibetan girl, served as a guide, began to introduce Jiuzhaigou to the passengers.

    • Word count: 575
  11. With reference to one or more examples, describe how and why strategies of river basin management are different between LEDCs and MEDCs?

    The River Colorado, which is 1470 miles long, is the most managed river of its size in the world. Eighteen dams lie along the river, which have the significant effect of reducing the water flow downstream and reducing peak discharge, thus reducing the flood risk. On the other hand, the intensity of river basin management in Bangladesh for the Ganges-Brahamaputra is significantly less. The only permanent form of flood management is the 3500 km long embankment that was completed as part of the 1987 Flood Action Plan drawn up and financially supported by the World Bank. Furthermore, even greater differences lie in the usage of these schemes.

    • Word count: 856
  12. "Atmospheric hazards are natural phenomena." A Natural Hazard is an unexpected or uncontrollable natural event of unusual magnitude

    Even though humans cannot be the sole cause of an atmospheric event, their influence can have an effect on the frequency, magnitude and also the location of atmospheric hazards. Atmospheric events can be labelled as a hazard when people or infrastructures are at risk. However, sometimes an atmospheric event would not become a hazard in the first place, if it wasn't for human developments interfering with natural processes. In ancient times, people didn't have the technology we have today, and learned how to live with atmospheric events. The flooding of the river nile, was actually beneficial to the ancient Egyptions.

    • Word count: 886
  13. Kyoto Protocol.

    News has been said that the global climate has been warming for the past number of years. The gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect are called "greenhouse gases and include water vapour, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and ozone. Of these, the most prevalent human-produced gas is carbon dioxide, whose source is primarily the burning of fossil fuels" (Richard C. Rhodes) such as from vehicles and factories. Air-condition and refrigerator is widely used nowadays as this produce CFCs that will harm the world's ozone.

    • Word count: 690
  14. Communication Climate.

    others * the overall working environment * the way we react to the work environment * how satisfying it is to communicate with others in the organisation. * perceptions of what is important in the organisation (services, creativity or safety) While it mostly affects internal issues, many external audiences are influenced. This is simply a natural flow on. A good communication climate has been shown to enhance a business or organisation on many fronts Where does it come from? Just as the rain pours from above, so does the communication climate.

    • Word count: 793
  15. What is an actuarially fair insurance premium? How might adverse selection and moral hazard lead to inefficiency in insurance markets? What actions may insurance companies take to reduce these problems?

    For example if probability of a suit is 1/5 then you can buy $1 worth of insurance for $.20. Below is the Budget constraint with actuarially fair insurance, were the slope of the budget constraint is = p/(1-p) In the diagram above where A is the endowment point and B the preferred consumption, insurance is actuarially fair. Equilibrium occurs where Cs= Cn. By making this expenditure on insurance, risk is eliminated. In the event of a lawsuit or no lawsuit her consumption is the same- she is fully insured.

    • Word count: 789
  16. This report is for the United Nations Officals, it will give an overview of the causes of flooding in Bangladesh and the impacts these floods have on the environment and people.

    Strategically located Bangladesh is virtually a bridge between south and southeast Asia. It has a landmass of 1,48,393 sq. km criss-crossed by a network of several major rivers, their numerous tributaries and canals forming a lace of interconnecting channels. In fact, Bangladesh is the largest riverine delta in the world. The Climate The average annual rainfall varies from a maximum of 5,690 mm in the northeast of the country to a minimum of 1,110 mm in the west. The groundwater, however, provides adequate storage to compensate for annual variations in rainfall and streamflow.

    • Word count: 807
  17. "What may cause sea levels to rise? How might rising sea levels pose significant problems for human populations? How might these negative effects be addressed?

    Ideas as to a possible sea-level rise are estimated at "up to 100 centimetres over the next 100 years". The Pew Centre on Global Climate Change ('PCGCC') have stated that sea levels have risen 25 centimetres in the last 100 years and they say they will rise another 50 centimetres in the next 100 years. The effects on coasts if sea levels were to rise are mass erosion of beaches; major flooding in low areas and loss of wetlands. More than 50% of the United States population live on or near the coast and are considered vulnerable to rising sea levels; the 'PCGCC' have believe the effect could be worsened if it were to be accompanied by storm activity.

    • Word count: 999
  18. Make a comparative study of the PPT between the tropical monsoon and cool temperate western maritime types of climate.

    The activity of this climate can be split into three seasons. March to May, June to September and October to February. In the march to may season it is very hot and dry. In the June to September season the rain hits and 80% of the annual PPT falls in this time. It is patterns of pulses of very heavy rainfall. Temperatures drop by a few degrees. Finally in the October to February season the wet season ends and there are generally clear skies with mild temperatures.

    • Word count: 610
  19. U.K Affects

    The north and west may get even wetter and there could be more storms and floods. * Many animals and plants may not be able to cope with the rising temperature and may move north as it will be cooler there than in the south. There might not be room for all of them so some might not survive. Global warming would damage wildlife ecosystems as they are being forced to migrate away from their homes. * Due to the rising sea level the Thames barrier could collapse due to a direct implication of the sea level continuing to rise.

    • Word count: 818
  20. Why Does Climate Change?

    The climate for a region depends mainly on the yearly cycle of its temperature and moisture; this can dramatically change a region's climate. There are many other factors that play roles in climate depending on where the location is. Such as wind direction, seasonal humidity, location with respect to oceans and mountains, and cyclone activity. Even though there are so many factors to consider with climate, climate very slowly changes over time.

    • Word count: 492
  21. Floods in the UK - October/Autumn 2000

    Dr Andy Baker of Newcastle University said, 'our research suggests that British rainfall is naturally highly variable... We have shown that nature is able to repeat current events without the help of global warming. Effects There was degradation in the road and rail infrastructure. Hospitals were evacuated because of the risk of disease and illness. Bridges across rivers were opened and closed erratically as the water level fluctuated. Homeowners hit by floods saw premiums rise by up to 60%, as brokers tried to claw back the costs of claims topping �200m. The Insurance companies were contemplating refusing insurance to those homes repeatedly hit by flood plains.

    • Word count: 622
  22. Flooding in Bangladesh.

    > Silt, deposited at the mouth of the Ganges and Brahmaputra, has formed a large delta. This eventually created many flat islands. They attracted large numbers of farmers for rice growing. Further deposition of silt blocks the main channels and increases the flood risk by raising the beds of the rivers. Flooding is most likely to occur in late summer following the seasonal monsoon rains. > Water is pushed northwards by tropical cyclones up the Bay of Bengal. Silt deposits cause the Bay of Bengal to become narrower and the sea shallower.

    • Word count: 528
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"Physical science stands as one of the great achievements of the human spirit."

-Arthur David Ritchie

From the sighting of the Higgs boson to the development of clean energy, physical science research consistently alters the way we see the universe, and brings us life-changing technologies. If you're a science person who wants to learn about the universe and its properties-skimming over details like the organisms that live on earth-then a university degree in one of the physical sciences could be a great choice for you.

Strong written communication skills are important for any student of science, so be prepared to roll up the sleeves of your lab coat, and write some reports and essays. If you need a push in the right direction, browse Marked by Teachers' collection of physical science essays. The teacher annotations will show you what should be included in a good piece of science writing, and before long, you'll be writing and editing your own work with confidence.

Students of the physical sciences often take a higher degree in their field, or in a related subject like one of the biological sciences.Careers paths include business, education and research within academia and industry.

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Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Evaluate the arguments for and against the use of GM crops in developing countries. Which do you support and why?

    "In conclusion, it would be impossible to say that there are clear-cut answers to this question as there are both advantages and disadvantages of genetically modifying crops in developing countries. For example, although GM crops could be easier to grow in the infertile soils of Africa and Asia, thus providing more food, there is no guarantee that these crops won't cause serious damage to people's health and to the environment. Scientists cannot yet say whether or not GM crops are safe, simply because they don't know. It therefore seems clear that if people's health is at risk, that should be the most important factor, showing that GM crops are more of a disadvantage than an advantage. However, if it can be proven that Genetically modifying crops is safe to people and to the environment, this opinion would probably be reversed. 1 www.maf.govt.nz 2 www.maf.govt.nz 3 www.agresearch.co.nz"

  • Discuss the similarities and differences between human and physical geography

    "In conclusion human geography focuses on all that is human and physical geography concentrates on the physical processes of the environment. Both elements are interrelated and the focus of their study has changed over time, both areas of geography have made an effort to move away from out dated simplistic theories and both areas have an interest in current affairs. It can be said that although both areas come under the heading of "geography" recently the two disciplines have moved away from each other and have established their knowledge in separate fields of expertise, this can be seen by the fact that human geography articles are published in journals of social science and physical geography articles are published in natural science journals. Space is the key to both sides of geography as both areas are concerned with how communities or environments and their distribution change dependant on their location. Despite the fact that there are many linkages between the two sides of geography, the fact that they are diverging suggests that there are rarely similarities within the two disciplines. That is not to say that this was always the case as geography began as one subject which was concerned with the mapping and cataloguing of regions in order to describe parts of the earth."

  • Discuss a range of geomorphological techniques we can use to determine the rate and magnitude of slope movement.

    "In conclusion, slope movement and magnitude of this movement can be measured and determined in many different ways. Techniques involving technology are the most astute in comparing and contrasting slope movement and the magnitude of this movement. However, the physical measuring of the slope movement highlights and determines ultimately the statue of the slope movement."

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